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If you are cold, close the window. If I had a million dollars, I would buy a house. If I had known or "had I known" computers were so useful, I would have taken a computer course. Pronominal verbs are verbs that include pronouns. These pronouns are me , te , se , nous , and vous and are used as either direct objects or indirect objects, depending on the verb that they modify.

Either the conjugated verb or the infinitive can be negated each with slightly different meanings. In perfect tenses, the past participles agree with the direct object pronoun, but not the indirect object pronoun, in gender and plurality. Therefore it would only agree when the reflexive pronoun is the direct object. Also remember that the past participle does not agree with the direct object if it goes after the verb. When a reflexive verb is put as an infinitive behind any other verb e. Like reflexive verbs, the past participle of reciprocal verbs agrees in number and gender with the direct object if it goes before the verb.

It therefore agrees with all reciprocal pronouns that function as direct objects. In perfect tenses, these verbs agree with the direct object if it goes before the verb. Otherwise, the past participle agrees with the subject. Now, the 'ne' sometimes disappears when one speaks. However, it is always used in written French and for formal conversations. To say not , never , or other negative verbs, you have to 'sandwich' the negative words around a verb. Wikipedia has related information at French verbs.

Pronoms possessifs

French conjugation is the creation of derived forms of a French verb from its principal parts by inflection. French verbs are conventionally divided into three conjugations conjugaisons with the following grouping:. The first two groups follow a regular conjugation, whereas the third group follows an irregular one.

It is noteworthy that the verb aller is the only verb ending in -er belonging to the third group. There are two auxiliary verbs in French: Compound tenses are conjugated with an auxiliary followed by the past participle, ex: The participle is inflected with the use of the verb avoir according to the direct object, but only if the direct object precedes the participle, ex:. This verb has different stems for different tenses. Although the stem changes, the inflections of these tenses are as a regular -oir verb.

However, in the simple present, not only are there stem changes, but the inflections are irregular as well:. Besides using avoir affirmatively. You can also use it interrogatively. A small complication arises, in that without some help, the result does not sound very good. The use of an euphonic pleasing to the ear is used with vowels before the pronoun.

What is a Possessive Pronoun?

Thus, the letter -t- is placed between the verb and the pronoun:. These are all pronounced differently: French verbs ending in -er, which comprise the largest class, inflect somewhat differently than other verbs. In addition, the orthographic -t found in the -ir and -re verbs in the singular of the simple present and past is not found in this conjugation, so that the final consonants are -, -s, - rather than -s, -s, -t. Hais is as usual used for the imperative. The verbs dormir, mentir, partir, sentir, servir and their derivatives do not take the -iss- infix.

The effect of this is that they conjugate as -re verbs rather than -ir verbs, apart from the past participle which is still -i. Sortir and its derivatives are similar in their usual meanings of "to go out" etc. Partir serves as an example:. The verbs couvrir, offrir, ouvrir, souffrir and their derivatives are similar, but orthographically they differ slightly: In addition, their past participles end in -ert. Ouvrir will serve as an example:.

The common verbs venir "to come" and tenir "to hold", as well as their derivatives, [2] change their stem vowel to a diphthong or nasal in much of their conjugations. Venir will serve as an example; for tenir, simply change the v to a t. Verbs ending in -oir tend to have stem changes, which makes them more irregular than the other conjugations.

Many have stems ending in -v, which drops before a consonant or the vowel u. Others have stems ending in -l, which undergoes changes similar to the plural of French nouns ending in -l. The usage of puis in other cases is mannered. Orthographically, the -re verbs have the inflectional endings of the -ir verbs singular -s, -s, -t in the simple present and past.

However, unlike the -ir verbs, there is no suffix -iss- between the root and the inflection, except in the past subjunctive, which is identical to the -ir verbs. The verb aller "to go" has the unique quality of having a first group ending with an irregular conjugation. It belongs to none of the three sections of the third group, and is often categorized on its own. The verb has different stems for different tenses. The inflections of these tenses are completely regular, and pronounced as in any other -er verb.

To form the present tense, there are seven categories of verbs that you need to know about, sorted by their endings, and if they are regular follow the rules or irregular have their own rules. Translate the following sentences into English: The simple past is mostly a literary tense, used in fairy tales, and perhaps newspapers.

It is one that native French students are expected to recognize but not use. To conjugate in this tense, one finds the stem and appends the following, as according to the table:. One uses the future tense when referring to an action, certain to occur, in the future. In a time ahead of now. One may also use aller in the present tense in conjunction with aller or another verb in infinitive form, to refer to the future.

However it is not the future tense. However, the former is not in the future tense. Also, the usage of "aller" generally signifies an action to occur in the very near future, where as future tense refers to any time in the future. To conjugate a verb in the futur simple, one takes the infinitive and appends the following, as according to the table:. The subjunctive in French is used to express doubt, desire, surprise, judgment, necessity, possibility, opinions, and emotions.

It usually follows the word "que. Take the ils form of the verb, at the present time tense drop the -ent and add the following:. The subjunctive imperfect is very rarely employed in French; generally it only appears in literature and is viewed as archaic. It can in all instances be replaced by the subjunctive present. The subjunctive imperfect is employed in any instance in which the subjunctive is required, provided the trigger verb is in a past tense.

With most verbs, that auxililary verb is avoir. While the past participle looks like a verb, it is not - it functions more like an adjective. This works exactly the same way in English - the only verb is the auxiliary verb, which is also the only thing negated in English "I have not eaten". The compound past is a compound tense- it consists of two verbs, the auxiliary verb "helper verb" and the past participle of the verb one seeks to use in this tense. We then take the past participle of the verb, and stick that on the end. Every verb has one past participle that does not change there are some exceptions, as one will learn later.

To find the past participle, the stem of the infinitive must be determined or the irregularity must be known. If we want to make the statement negative, for example if we didn't do something in the past, we must always put the negative structure such as ne For example, "Je ne peux pas",. The past participle must agree with the direct object of a clause in gender and plurality if the direct object goes before the verb.

In most circumstances, the auxiliary verb is avoir. This occurs under two different circumstances:. Exceptions Note that there are four verbs above that are followed by a star sortir, descendre, monter, passer. When a direct object is used with these verbs, the auxiliary verb becomes avoir. In French the pluperfect is called le plus-que-parfait. In English, it is also called the more than perfect.

Possessive Pronouns

The French pluperfect subjunctive is the least common literary tense - it's the literary equivalent of the past subjunctive. Like all literary tenses, the pluperfect subjunctive is used only in literature, historical writings, and other very formal writing, so it is important to be able to recognize it but chances are that you will never in your life need to conjugate it. This is used in a sentence when there is something in a future tense, but this action is also in the future, but before the other future. This is called the "futur anterieur" in French.

Past conditional is used to refer to an event that could have taken place in the past. Replace the -ons ending of a verb conjugated in the first person plural in the present indicative with -ant. There are three verbs with the present participle forming irregularly: This is the same in all composed tenses. The past participle may have an -e or -s added in order to agree with other parts of the sentence. All standard agreement rules that composed tenses follow apply to the composed present participle as well. The composed present participle is used to express that one action occurred before the action of the main verb.

The composed present participle is not used after a preposition. To express a similar idea using a preposition, the past infinitive is used.

Le mien, le tien, le sien, etc = Mine, yours, his/hers/its (possessive pronouns)

The table below shows additions to the normal past participle that must be made based on the gender and number of the subject. However, in French you say that you come from doing something rather than having just done it, so that sentence would be: This tense uses a combination of the verb to go aller in its present indicative form appropriate to the subject followed by the infinitive of the verb that will be done.

The imperative is used in tu , nous and vous forms; the nous and vous forms are the same as the indicative in both regular and irregular verbs except the 3 irregulars shown below. The tu form is also the same unless it comes from an infinitive that ends in -er, in which case the tu form would drop the 's' e. The infinitive can also be used as the imperative, but only for impersonal commands, e.

The past imperative is only ever used for giving commands one would like to have done - this is a rare literary mood as the present imperative is used more frequently. Chances are that you'll never need to know this mood in your life, let alone use direct, indirect pronouns and negations with this! The indicative indicates certainty about an action. The subjunctive indicates a doubt or subjectivity. The conditional indicates that an action will occur or occurred based on the fulfillment of certain conditions.

From Wikibooks, open books for an open world. L'art de conjuger", , pp. Retrieved from " https: Pages with broken file links. Views Read Edit View history. Policies and guidelines Contact us. This page was last edited on 4 September , at By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. When an adjective has one of these endings, the ending of the feminine form is doubled. There is no change of pronunciation when changing from -el to -elle. This section is a stub. You can help Wikibooks by expanding it. He squeezed the orange to extract juice from it.

I prefer to go to bed before midnight. Le cheval se gratte contre la muraille. The horse is scratching against the wall. The books are in the library. Mettre l'argent dans la poche. Put money into one's pocket. He takes the butter out of the fridge. Also a partitive article. I have played the piano for three years. Garder les yeux sur la route devant vous. Keep your eyes on the road ahead of you. Ils habitent en ville. They live in the town. Nous allons aller en voiture. We will go by car. The hall is available until the end of the week. I will go through the forest. You can contact us by telephone.

Just to go a tad further, please note it is possible to elude le or la when talking about someone, especially a girl, you are romantically involved with, in literary speech: Elle est mienne She's mine or Je l'ai fait mienne meaning: I married her work fine. And, now that I think about it, it can also apply in a humoristic way to objects you finally obtained.

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La robe que je voulais Elle est enfin mienne! Thank you all Chockeyproh, lazouave, and Johnny for an interesting and illuminating discussion. I can't believe that LE livre est LE mein did not seem odd to me earlier this morning. I guess when you're learning a new language you're willing to accept anything at first: This is pure conjecture, but it seems to me that eluding le or la implies a strong connection to the object of the verb, hence the possibility of doing so in romantic contexts, more often than not when it concerns a woman.

Saying le chat est mien thus sounds a bit strange from that point of view.

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But I don't have any formal evidence of this, only my own experience with this grammatical structure. It still doesn't explain why Le chat est mien is wrong, but we know now that ce chat est le mien is correct. It does seem a lot to learn, but after a while you will recognize the patterns. After that, it's pretty easy. It's been interesting reading the replies to this question and it's helped me, too.


I always struggle with things like this because "L'enfant est le mien" literally translates to "The child is the mine" which makes no sense in English, so it's tricky for me. I have the same problem. One thing that is confusing about French, is that when you read a sentence, it sounds weird at first. In "foreign languages", there is "foreign", which means "different".

Different logic, different grammar, different pronunciation, different spelling, different syntax This is why it takes some time to let go of your own logic and adopt the target language's mindset. You said that you could use a lot of help on this , so what is it you need exactly on this? I could use hep in knowing how to switch words around like the sentence like in the example I used in my other comment. You posted this message under the wrong branch. You meant to post it under Sitesurf's comment, didn't you?

The simplest way to think about switching words is to pretend all french verbs are "can, have, could, would" of English. So when you ask a question, you start with "Can I? So in french, it would be "lit-elle? Is everything you wrote above correct? If it is, then I still have a lot to learn. So confused about "mine" Lrtward 25 25 9 8. Here is what Duolingo says. There are several points of interest here: So, back to your examples: Merci, Sitesurf, mille fois merci! Parsamana 15 15 3 3. Sitesurf Thanks for this explanation which is very helpful.

Based on using your explanation are the following correct: Clarification 1 ce sandwich est le sien - this sandwich is his in the situation where there is more than one sandwich to choose from. Clarification 2 How do I translate the sentence: Which ones are yours? Clarification 3 You are in a bedroom and on the bed are five items of clothing, namely: If the black cap is yours then you can answer in a number of ways such as: PeaceJoyPancakes 25 13 13 11 9. And if so, how would you explain the reason? I ask partly because on Linguee I found the following two sentences: Nous te donnons l'information, et l'aventure est la tienne.

I'm wondering if these are wrong or if there are any considerations I may be missing. Starting from the two examples you found on Linguee, this is my analysis: Both are half way from literary to contemporary French. The usual rule applies in contemporary French: