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The Highland Clearances and the end of the township system followed changes in land ownership and tenancy and the replacement of cattle by sheep. Many Highlanders emigrated in a complex form of chain migration. Clan leaders would designate which young people should emigrate, where to, and in which order. The first arrivals would prepare the way for their kinsmen who continued to arrive in the chain migration. The unequal concentration of land ownership remained an emotional and controversial subject, of enormous importance to the Highland economy, and eventually became a cornerstone of liberal radicalism.

The poor crofters were politically powerless, and many of them turned to religion. They embraced the popularly oriented, fervently evangelical Presbyterian revival after This evangelical movement was led by lay preachers who themselves came from the lower strata, and whose preaching was implicitly critical of the established order. The religious change energised the crofters and separated them from the landlords; it helped prepare them for their successful and violent challenge to the landlords in the s through the Highland Land League. It was quietened when the government stepped in, passing the Crofters' Holdings Scotland Act, to reduce rents, guarantee fixity of tenure, and break up large estates to provide crofts for the homeless.

In three Independent Crofter candidates were elected to Parliament, which listened to their pleas. The results included explicit security for the Scottish smallholders; the legal right to bequeath tenancies to descendants; and the creation of a Crofting Commission. The Crofters as a political movement faded away by , and the Liberal Party gained their votes. The Scottish Reformation achieved partial success in the Highlands.

Volume I, song 001, page 1 - 'The Highland Queen' and 'The Highland King'

Roman Catholicism remained strong in some areas, owing to remote locations and the efforts of Franciscan missionaries from Ireland, who regularly came to celebrate Mass. Although the presence of Roman Catholicism has faded, there remain significant Catholic strongholds within the Highlands and Islands such as Moidart and Morar on the mainland and South Uist and Barra in the southern Outer Hebrides.

The remoteness of the region and the lack of a Gaelic-speaking clergy undermined the missionary efforts of the established church.

Mix - Celtic battle music - The King of The Highlands

The later 18th century saw somewhat greater success, owing to the efforts of the SSPCK missionaries and to the disruption of traditional society after the Battle of Culloden in In the 19th century, the evangelical Free Churches, which were more accepting of Gaelic language and culture, grew rapidly, appealing much more strongly than did the established church. For the most part, however, the Highlands are considered predominantly Protestant, loyal to the Church of Scotland.

The Outer Hebrides have been described as the last bastion of Calvinism in Britain [23] and the Sabbath remains widely observed. Inverness and the surrounding area has a majority Protestant population, with most locals belonging to either The Kirk or the Free Church of Scotland. The church maintains a noticeable presence within the area, with church attendance notably higher than in other Scottish cities.

Religion continues to play an important role in Highland culture, with Sabbath observance still widely practised, particularly in the Hebrides. In traditional Scottish geography , the Highlands refers to that part of Scotland north-west of the Highland Boundary Fault , which crosses mainland Scotland in a near-straight line from Helensburgh to Stonehaven. However the flat coastal lands that occupy parts of the counties of Nairnshire , Morayshire , Banffshire and Aberdeenshire are often excluded as they do not share the distinctive geographical and cultural features of the rest of the Highlands.

The north-east of Caithness , as well as Orkney and Shetland , are also often excluded from the Highlands, although the Hebrides are usually included. The Highland area, as so defined, differed from the Lowlands in language and tradition, having preserved Gaelic speech and customs centuries after the anglicisation of the latter; this led to a growing perception of a divide, with the cultural distinction between Highlander and Lowlander first noted towards the end of the 14th century.

In Aberdeenshire , the boundary between the Highlands and the Lowlands is not well defined. There is a stone beside the A93 road near the village of Dinnet on Royal Deeside which states 'You are now in the Highlands', although there are areas of Highland character to the east of this point. A much wider definition of the Highlands is that used by the Scotch Whisky industry. Highland Single Malts are produced at distilleries north of an imaginary line between Dundee and Greenock , [25] thus including all of Aberdeenshire and Angus. Inverness is traditionally regarded as the capital of the Highlands, [26] although less so in the Highland parts of Aberdeenshire , Angus , Perthshire and Stirlingshire which look more to Aberdeen , Perth , Dundee and Stirling as their commercial centres.

Under some of the wider definitions in use, Aberdeen could be considered the largest city in the Highlands, although it does not share the recent Gaelic cultural history typical of the Highlands proper. The Highland Council area, created as one of the local government regions of Scotland , has been a unitary council area since The council area excludes a large area of the southern and eastern Highlands, and the Western Isles , but includes Caithness. Highlands is sometimes used, however, as a name for the council area, as in Highlands and Islands Fire and Rescue Service.

Northern , as in Northern Constabulary , is also used to refer to the area covered by the fire and rescue service. This area consists of the Highland council area and the island council areas of Orkney , Shetland and the Western Isles. Much of the Highlands area overlaps the Highlands and Islands area. An electoral region called Highlands and Islands is used in elections to the Scottish Parliament: Highlands and Islands has, however, different meanings in different contexts.


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Northern , as in Northern Constabulary , refers to the same area as that covered by the fire and rescue service. There have been trackways from the Lowlands to the Highlands since prehistoric times. Many traverse the Mounth , a spur of mountainous land that extends from the higher inland range to the North Sea slightly north of Stonehaven. Although most of the Highlands is geographically on the British mainland, it is somewhat less accessible than the rest of Britain; thus most UK couriers categorise it separately, alongside Northern Ireland , the Isle of Man , and other offshore islands.

They thus charge additional fees for delivery to the Highlands, or exclude the area entirely.

Whilst the physical remoteness from the largest population centres inevitably leads to higher transit cost, there is confusion and consternation over the scale of the fees charged and the effectiveness of their communication, [29] and the use of the word Mainland in their justification. Since the charges are often based on postcode areas, many far less remote areas, including some which are traditionally considered part of the lowlands, are also subject to these charges.

Performance Pedigree of Highland King - Hippomundo

This, however, applies only to mail items and not larger packages which are dealt with by its Parcelforce division. This part of Scotland is largely composed of ancient rocks from the Cambrian and Precambrian periods which were uplifted during the later Caledonian Orogeny. Smaller formations of Lewisian gneiss in the northwest are up to 3 billion years old. These foundations are interspersed with many igneous intrusions of a more recent age, the remnants of which have formed mountain massifs such as the Cairngorms and the Cuillin of Skye.

A significant exception to the above are the fossil-bearing beds of Old Red Sandstone found principally along the Moray Firth coast and partially down the Highland Boundary Fault. The Jurassic beds found in isolated locations on Skye and Applecross reflect the complex underlying geology. The music in this book was drawn from three important lute manuscripts: The Rowallan Lute Book c.

Original spelling is retained in the titles with the often-fancifu Original spelling is retained in the titles with the often-fanciful end result still legible.

Highland King

Even with the sixth string frequently tuned to D, players at the intermediate level should find these pieces rewarding sight-reading material. Those who wish to add the suggested ornamentation will be duly challenged.


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I choys to ly my lon Ladi ly nier mee In ane inch I warrant Through the wood Laudie Mi lady binnis lilt