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Two further treatments of the subject of The Raising of Lazarus by or attributed to Deshays are known, both vertical in format. A pen and wash drawing in the Louvre, with an arched top, has generally been thought to be a study or first idea for the Horvitz painting5, while an oil sketch formerly in the collection of Andrew Ciechanowiecki, also with an arched top, has likewise been related to the Salon.

While they are quite different in composition, the Louvre drawing and the ex-Ciechanowiecki sketch share a number of motifs with both the present sheet and the Horvitz picture. In all four works, prominence is given to the praying figure of Lazarus, seen at the lower right of the composition, while in all but the final painting there is an equally prominent figure of a man holding a torch or candle. The dynamic quality of the sketch accords well with his often dramatic subject matter, and he produced a great number relative to his overall output.

Three Women in a Landscape Graphite and stumping, pen and brown ink and grey and brown wash, with touches of watercolour. The verso in pen and grey ink and grey wash, with touches of watercolour. Peintre, dessinateur et graveur , Vol. Only a relative handful of paintings and etchings by him exist, and it is as a draughtsman that he is best known, and on which his modern reputation rests. He had ambitions as a history painter, however, and competed for the Prix de Rome three times, between and , without success.

By the end of the s, however, Saint-Aubin had largely abandoned painting indeed, only about a dozen paintings by him are known today in favour of an almost obsessive focus on drawing. Saint-Aubin was a gifted draughtsman, working with equal facility and verve in graphite, chalk, pen, wash and watercolour. One never met him without a pencil in his hand. Indeed, Saint-Aubin seems never to have left Paris, and it was as a chronicler of the life of the city that he produced much of his finest work.

He also recorded, in the form of thumbnail sketches in the margins of exhibition and auction catalogues, the appearance of thousands of works of art exhibited at the annual Salons or sent for sale in Parisian auctions. Probably once part of a small sketchbook, this double-sided sheet is likely to date from the decade of the s. Identifying each element of the drawings is, in itself, an ambitious, often not entirely feasible, undertaking, particularly with regard to fragmentary details depicted out of context…Understanding why the artist chose to bring these particular elements together, assuming it is possible to discern a pattern of selection, is a still more daunting task.

The sitters were often participants in the world of art and theater or members of his large family. On the verso of this sketch, which has the grace and appearance of a drawing by Watteau, [is] a group of women in a park; [a] very curious watercolor. Signed and dated G. Faint traces of a signature or inscription at the lower left.

Further illegibly inscribed in ink on the verso, laid down. The drawing appears, in reverse, as the second plate in the book; reproduced in an engraving fig. Given by far the largest share of the commission, Saint-Aubin worked on the project for much of the s; between and It was not until , however, that the first volume, illustrated with a set of twenty reproductive engravings of scenes from ancient Roman history, including one after the present sheet, was published.

A further twenty prints — devoted to Roman battles, military triumphs, ceremonies, public games and so forth — were issued with the second volume the following year2. Nowhere is this better seen than in a series of illustrations — the largest he produced, the most important in his eyes and the one on which he worked on the longest — which one would not think, at first glance, would offer the means of arriving at such a confirmation: Back in , though, Gabriel had no way of anticipating this disappointing outcome. At the time he can only have felt very fortunate to be included at the inception of such an expansive project, promising years of employment and possibly the sort of public notice that had eluded him so far.

Paul Getty Museum in Los Angeles8. This was also perhaps the closest he came to his youthful ambitions as a history painter. Signed and dated j. II, Catalogue of Drawings, no. Le plaisir de la nature, exhibition catalogue, Paris, , p. Born into a family of artists, Jean-Baptiste Huet was the son and pupil of the animalier painter Nicolas Huet the Elder. Huet regularly exhibited drawings of animals at the Salons until , and again between and In he was appointed peintre du roi, and in addition produced designs for the Gobelins and Beauvais tapestry factories and for printed textiles at the Manufacture Oberkampf in Jouy-en-Josas.

Huet was an extremely accomplished draughtsman, and many of his drawings were reproduced as engravings. He also produced a large number of book illustrations. His son and pupil, Nicolas Huet the Younger, enjoyed a successful career as a natural history draughtsman and engraver. A comparable drawing of the same size and date, depicting a Landscape with a Shepherd by a Lake fig.

Laid down on a 19th century mount. Signed and dated Le Prince in black ink at the lower left. Not long afterwards, in , he travelled to Russia. Despite the fact that he arrived in the country almost unknown as an artist, within a few weeks he was engaged on the painted ceiling decoration of a room in the newly-built Winter Palace in Saint Petersburg. Le Prince was to remain in Russia for five years, working mainly at the Winter Palace, although most of his work there was later destroyed by fire.

He also travelled extensively throughout the country, venturing as far east as Siberia, and produced a large number of studies of Russian life, costumes, scenery, events and customs. In December , Le Prince announced the publication of a series of thirty-six prints made from his drawings of Russian subjects, followed by a further group of etchings issued the year after, and others in and Other printmakers, such as Gilles Demarteau and Louis-Marin Bonnet, also produced engravings of Russian subjects after his drawings. Signed and dated , the present sheet is a fine and charming example of the numerous genre scenes set in Russia that Le Prince produced after his return to France.

Signed and dated Vincent f. Fragonard, Hubert Robert et leurs Amis, exhibition catalogue, Paris, , unpaginated, under no. Nineteenth Century, Stockholm, , unpaginated, under Addenda, no. Drawings from the Nationalmuseum, Stockholm, exhibition catalogue, New York, , p. He produced a large variety of drawings in Italy, including landscapes, studies of peasant types and caricatures. He returned to France in and in exhibited an important group of fifteen paintings at the Salon, including a portrait of Bergeret painted in Rome three years previously. He participated regularly at the Salons, although many of the paintings and drawings he exhibited there have since been lost.

Between and he designed a series of Gobelins tapestries depicting scenes from the life of Henry IV, while the s found him painting a number of fine portraits. Commissioned by Napoleon in to paint an enormous canvas depicting The Battle of the Pyramids, Vincent dedicated most of his energies over the next six years to completing the project, although ill health prevented him from doing so.

In the last years of his career he began losing his sight and devoted most of his time to portraits and drawings. Vincent was a brilliant and versatile draughtsman, and produced a large number of drawings, ranging from landscapes, history subjects and copies after the antique to head studies and caricatures of his fellow. His early style as a draughtsman, particularly during his years as a pensionnaire in Rome, often comes close to that of Fragonard, with whom his drawings have at times been confused, while his later drawings tend towards Neoclassicism and Romanticism.

The landscape here holds a prominent place. Note the audacity of the nocturnal representation, the energy and speed of the brush, the strong contrasts of shadow and light. The overall effect evokes some of the most beautiful achievements of Louis-Jean Desprez , a specialist in drawings of night effects. It should be noted, however that the Franco-Swedish artist [ie. Desprez] will not arrive in Italy until , after having obtained the Grand Prix for architecture.

These are, of course, drawings made for themselves and not studies for painted compositions. The energetic movements of the figures, the organization of the crowds, the drawing of the draperies, and particularly that of the hands, in a contrasting chiaroscuro, recall Parisian works like the painted sketch of the Assumption executed the year before. Of note is the importance assumed by the white gouache, used more or less diluted to obtain highly pictorial effects, and not just simply reserved for highlights.

Only a handful of other drawings by Vincent may be dated to the first year of his stay in Rome. Of the same date as the present sheet, and also of considerable dimensions, is a signed and highly finished drawing of The Arch of Constantine in Rome, in a private American collection4. Strasbourg Chiswick, London Pastoral Scene with a Shepherd and Shepherdess Pen and brown ink and brown wash, over a pencil underdrawing. Loutherbourg in pencil on the verso1. Born in Alsace, the son of an engraver and miniaturist of Swiss origins, Philippe-Jacques de Loutherbourg arrived with his family in Paris in , at the age of fifteen.

Although he was to be mainly active as a landscape painter, he received a comprehensive artistic education, studying with the history painter Carle Vanloo, the battle painter Francesco Casanova and the engraver Jean-Georges Wille. Loutherbourg came to be much admired for his landscapes, which displayed a strong Dutch influence, and his rise to success was swift. He continued to exhibit regularly at the Salons, where his pastoral landscapes and marine subjects, painted with fresh and vivid colours and imbued with a Romantic sensibility, proved very popular with the public.

All genres of painting are familiar to him and he treats them in a style so superior that even the least accomplished ones are worth the highest admiration. It was in England, where he remained for the rest of his career and where he was known as Philip James de Loutherbourg, that he first took up the practice of producing designs for the stage. Employed by David Garrick as the chief scene designer of the Drury Lane Theatre, Loutherbourg soon became as well known for his theatrical work as for his paintings.

Elected to the Royal Academy in , he exhibited views of England and Wales during much of the following decade. A failed attempt at working as a faith healer aside, Loutherbourg continued to enjoy a measure of public success in England. It is not a study for a painting, however, and was in all likelihood intended as a finished work of art in its own right. The pose of the central figure in this drawing is found, in reverse and with some variation in the angle of the head, in the figure of a sleeping shepherd in a signed and dated drawing by Loutherbourg of Owen for 4, francs; Jacques Bacri, Paris; Thence by descent until One of his earliest known dated drawings — a red chalk portrait of the painter Claude-Joseph Vernet — was executed in , and his last in He therefore exhibited mainly at the alternative Salon de la Correspondance, held between and , although he did take part in the Salons of and , which were open to all artists.

As a genre painter, Trinquesse had a particular penchant for scenes of elegantly dressed, flirtatious young figures engaged in the pursuit of love, often set in a boudoir or a garden. Although he remains among the least-studied of 18th century French artists indeed, neither the precise dates of his birth nor his death have been established , it is as a draughtsman that Trinquesse is best known today.

He made a particular speciality of drawings of elegant women dressed in fine clothes, which are generally dated between and Each of these circular drawings, including the portrait of Marianne Franmery fig. Marianne Franmery] reappears in two drawings in the Masson Collection. The first, entitled La Lettre, shows her seated beside a small table on which are a teapot and a cup. Executed in the red chalk medium and in a fluent drawing style these drawings are small masterpieces in the genre of costume design. The present sheet was included in the first of these sales and fetched the sum of 4, francs.

Design for a Frontispiece Pen and black and brown ink and grey wash. Plusieurs femmes et des laveuses animent la composition. Dessin au lavis de sepia. An earlier and slightly larger variant of the present composition, with added touches of watercolour and different lettering fig. The provenance of this small sheet includes three notable French collectors of 18th century drawings. The drawing belonged successively to the antiquaire Alfred II Beurdeley , the expert and auctioneer Marius Paulme and the eminent collector Georges Dormeuil , with whose descendants it has remained until recently.

Cauvet was particularly known and regarded for his interior decorations, as well as for his designs for boiseries, furniture, clocks and gilt bronze ornaments for such clients as the Queen, Marie-Antoinette. In the s he worked on the design of several public buildings in his hometown of Aix-en-Provence and in nearby Marseille. This drawing for an arabesque decoration is a study for the first plate fig. Like the previous drawing No. Among other comparable drawings by Cauvet is a similar study for a vertical panel, drawn in red and black chalk, in the Kunstbibliothek in Berlin3, and another arabesque design for a carved boiserie panel, in red chalk fig.

A fleur-de-lis in a shield with a crown above and WR below. Drawing in Europe , , no. While he studied architecture for several years, he also took up studies in drawing and engraving, eventually being appointed a Professor of Drawing at the Ecole Royale Militaire. Desprez was to spend almost all of his independent career outside France, however.

In he won the Prix de Rome in the field of architecture, although soon after his arrival in Italy he seems to have finally abandoned the study of architecture in favour of landscape drawing. He worked in Sweden for the rest of his career, obtaining the position of court architect and scenographer, and producing numerous stage designs for the theatres at Drottningholm and elsewhere. Buoyed by the patronage of the King, who shared with the artist a love of the theatre, Desprez enjoyed a position of some importance in Swedish artistic circles.

Following the assassination of Gustav III in , however, his star faded. In the hope of finding a new patron responsive to his ambitious vision, he made several drawings for the Empress Catherine II of Russia but was unsuccessful in gaining her support. He eventually died in poverty and obscurity in Stockholm, and much of his surviving work as a draughtsman is today to be found in Swedish collections. Indeed, it was just this ability and vision that made him such a success as a theatrical designer.

The largest extant group of drawings by Desprez is today in the Nationalmuseum in Stockholm, while a significant number of theatrical designs by the artist are in the collection of the Teatermuseum at Drottningholm. Published in Paris between and , the five volumes of the Voyage pittoresque must rank as one of the finest books of the 18th century. The Doric temple at Segesta, near the western tip of Sicily, is thought to have been built around BC, and is one of the finest surviving examples of a Hellenistic temple.

Placed on a hilltop outside the ancient Elymian city of Segesta, the temple stands in splendid isolation and is visible for miles around. Although it is unusually well preserved today, the temple appears never to have been fully completed, since it lacks a roof, an altar, and any painted or sculpted ornamentation. The engraving after the present watercolour, executed by the artist and printmaker Jean DuplessisBertaux fig.

A preparatory sheet by Despez of pen and ink sketches of the temple at Segesta is in the Nationalmuseum in Stockholm2. The artist also produced a watercolour of the interior of the temple at Segesta for the Voyage pittoresque, which is now in the collection of the Albertina in Vienna3. Far from being dry schematic renditions, his scenes are alive with action, the small figures so reminiscent of the work of Jacques Callot, which he must surely have known expressive and energetic. Active primarily as a topographical draughtsman and book illustrator, he seems to have completed only a handful of paintings, among them views of Versailles and one or two seascapes.

After the fall of Robespierre in , however, he was himself imprisoned, and was sent to the guillotine on the 7th of May the following year. None of these drawings on blue paper, however, appear to have been used in the book, and instead they have the appearance of independent, finished works. Inscribed Champ du Moulin in black ink at the lower left. A stylistically comparable drawing of the waterfalls on the Rhine at Schaffhausen, in Switzerland near the German border, and drawn on the same deep blue paper, was formerly in the collection of John Gaines in Lexington, Kentucky, and was sold at auction in He was a pupil of his brother, who was twelve years older, as well as Francesco Casanova and Louis-Gabriel Moreau the Elder, and worked primarily in watercolour and gouache.

Crescendo of the Virtuoso

His earliest dated works were executed in , and in the s he travelled throughout France, as well as to Switzerland, Italy and England. With the advent of the French Revolution, he fled France and in settled in England, where he lived for eight years and provided drawings for the print market in Paris. A number of paintings, watercolours and gouaches by the artist are today in the collection of the Nationalmuseum in Stockholm.

The famous cascades at Tivoli, twenty miles from Rome, where the river Aniene drops some feet, had long been a popular site for artists. Amidst the dreary wilds of the Campagna you would never dream that a spot so romantic was at hand Tremendous precipices of rock, down which roars a headlong torrent, — trees and bushy plants shading its foaming course, — cliffs crowned with the most picturesque ruins, and painted in tints whose beauty art can never imitate, — hills, and woods, and hanging vineyards; and Tivoli itself, which, peeping out amidst the dark cypresses at the top of these sunny banks, looks like an earthly paradise The pencil only can describe Tivoli; and though unlike other scenes, the beauty of which is generally exaggerated in picture, no representation has done justice to it, it is yet impossible that some part of its peculiar charms should not be transferred upon the canvas.

It almost seems as if nature herself had turned painter when she formed this beautiful and perfect composition. A later watercolour and gouache view by the artist of the falls at Tivoli, seen from a slightly different viewpoint and dated , was acquired in by the Government Art Collection of the United Kingdom and is today in the British Embassy in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia2.

CL above an indistinct object. His paintings of moralizing genre subjects, exhibited at the annual Salons, earned him the praise of the influential critic Denis Diderot. He was also a superb portraitist, exhibiting a number of portraits at the Salon throughout the s to considerable acclaim.

Immensely famous and successful at the height of his career, Greuze enjoyed the patronage of such prominent collectors as Jean de Jullienne, Ange-Laurent de Lalive de Jully, the Duc de Choiseul, the Marquis de Marigny and the Empress Catherine II of Russia, although his difficult temperament often alienated other clients.

One should have his drawings and his paintings, and leave the man at that. Instead he exhibited and sold his paintings from his studio, with much success. However, his reputation suffered with the rise of Neoclassicism after the Revolution, although he received a royal pension from Louis XVI in Greuze died in relative obscurity at the age of eighty, in his studio at the Louvre.

The 18th century collector,. In an earlier version of the composition of The Family Reconciliation, today in the Prat collection in Paris, the dog is absent, and the child is seen standing at a table4. A very similar child and dog is also found in a large, finished drawing of The Paternal Blessing, or the Departure of Basile, exhibited at the Salon of and today in the Art Institute of Chicago6.

The dog in the Chicago drawing, however, faces to the left. The first recorded owner of this drawing was Comte A. Levy and Clifford S. Ackley, Splendor and Elegance: Among the gifted French painters of the latter half of the 18th century, Jacques Gamelin is unusual for his refusal to make his career in Paris, choosing instead to work mainly in the Lanquedoc and Southwestern France; in Carcassone, Narbonne, Montpellier and Toulouse.

In the same year he competed, unsuccessfully, for the Prix de Rome. Gamelin then travelled to Italy under the auspices of a patron in Toulouse, the Baron de Puymaurin, and remained there for ten years. Admitted into the Accademia di San Luca in Rome in as a painter of battle scenes, he also won a commission to paint a Fall of Phaeton for a ceiling in the Palazzo Rondanini. He produced a large body of work of considerable variety and originality, and had a particular penchant for violent or dramatic episodes from classical history.

He was an avid reader of classical texts, in which he found inspiration for many of his compositions, and was often drawn to more obscure themes. Gamelin executed several paintings for churches in his native Carcassonne and was also commissioned to paint four large canvases for the church of Saint-Just in Narbonne, remaining there throughout the period of the Revolution. Gamelin often worked on prepared blue paper, and was also fond of using blue washes in his drawings, creating highly finished compositions that were intended as autonomous works of art, rather than as studies for larger works.

Members of the early Christian church in Jerusalem, Ananias and SapQhira sold their land so as to give the proceeds to the apostles. However, they secretly conspired to keep back a portion of the funds for themselves, before presenting the donation to Saint Peter: What made you think of doing such a thing? You have not lied just to human beings but to God. And great fear seized all who heard what had happened.

Then some young men came forward, wrapped up his body, and carried him out and buried him. Both artists, who were similar in age, lived and worked mainly in the south of France, largely isolated from the artistic centre of Paris, and made a speciality of finished drawings of classical subjects executed in an identical technique of blue washes. Inscribed Saphira in pencil in the lower margin. This drawing continues the story of Ananias and Saphira from Acts 5: The feet of the men who buried your husband are at the door, and they will carry you out also.

Then the young men came in and, finding her dead, carried her out and buried her beside her husband. Great fear seized the whole church and all who heard about these events. In retribution for their lack of cooperation, they were suddenly and miraculously struck dead on the spot…The images are formally austere and the figures statuary in conception, evoking the Neoclassicism of the late eighteenth century, while the nocturnal lighting suggests the dramatic illumination often associated with the emerging Romantic movement.

Little is known of the life and career of Goudin. Probably born in or near Toulouse around and thus only a few years younger than Gamelin , he is said to have studied with JosephMarie Vien in Paris. After , however, there is no record of Goudin for the next fifteen years, and it is assumed that he may have spent some of these years travelling, although he is not thought to have been to Rome.

In later years he continued to teach in Toulouse, first at the Ecole Centrale and later at the Ecole Speciale des Sciences et des Arts, where he remained until his death in He seems to have been a successful and popular teacher, and some eighty artists who showed in Toulouse in the s listed Goudin as their master in the Salon livrets. In a brief recollection of the artist was published in the Biographie Toulousaine: His taste was unsure, but he drew with much correction and energy.

His drawings washed in bistre on white or blue paper are sought after by collectors; his paintings have less value The works he exhibited in Toulouse between and , most of which are now lost3, included a number of battle scenes and religious subjects, but were predominantly scenes taken from classical history. The present pair of drawings are very close in both style and technique to a large signed drawing by Guillaume Goudin of The Sacrifice of Polyxena fig.

Fleur-de-lys in a shield, surmounted by a crown. Le Brun was, in fact, never to return to his native France. He arrived in Warsaw in and spent several years working at the Royal Palace. Between and he was back in Rome, still working for the King of Poland and continuing his study of antique sculpture.

He provided sculptural decorations for the Royal Castle in Warsaw — most of which were lost in the destruction of the Castle during the Second World War, although it was later rebuilt — and other royal residences. In he accompanied Stanislaw August on his exile to Russia, and while in Saint Petersburg produced a number of sculpted portrait busts. Le Brun only left Russia in , when he was appointed a professor at the University in Vilnius, a position he retained until his death there six years later. His drawings may be divided into two types; figure studies generally executed in red chalk and more complex compositions drawn in pen or brush with brown ink and a golden-brown wash, of which the present sheet is a particularly fine example.

The emphasis on the portrait medallion of King Stanislaw. August Poniatowksi at the top of the composition would suggest that this drawing was likely to have been intended as a design for a Royal commission. The radiant glow of thin transparent washes brushed over reflective white paper contributes significantly to the sense of triumphant affirmation evident in the design. Jolanta Talbierska has suggested that the present sheet may have been a design for a never-executed bas-relief for a room in one of the Royal palaces in Warsaw, perhaps for the Senatorial Antechamber in the Great Apartment of the Royal Castle4.

The decorative scheme of this room has been described by one scholar: A somewhat similar sculptural ensemble designed by Le Brun, showing a portrait medallion of King Stanislaw August flanked by standing, winged allegorical figures of Peace and Justice, is found in an overdoor relief fig. Among other stylistically comparable drawings by Le Brun are a Martyrdom of Seven Brothers in the Schlossmuseum in Weimar9, a pair of allegorical compositions of women in antique garb flanking portrait busts in the Louvre10, and a Minerva Patronizing the Arts and Sciences in the Hermitage in Saint Petersburg Inscribed Denon in pencil on the album page on which the drawing has been attached.

The most powerful administrator of the arts in Napoleonic France, Dominique-Vivant Denon had an extraordinary life and career. A diplomat, writer, archaeologist and engraver, he was also a discerning and wide-ranging art collector and a prolific and talented draughtsman. As a law student in Paris, Denon was introduced into the circle of the collector and antiquarian, the Comte de Caylus, and eventually attracted the attention of Louis XVI himself, who named him gentilhomme ordinaire de la chambre du roi. The following year he sold his collection of Etruscan vases to the King and departed for Italy, where he spent the early years of the Revolution.

At the end of he made a sudden return to France to avoid having his properties confiscated. Denon also began to attend the trials and debates of the various revolutionary committees, where he made quick sketches, like a courtroom reporter, of many of the significant figures of the Revolution. After the Terror, Denon was enlisted by General Bonaparte to accompany the Egyptian expedition of He meticulously measured and drew many of the monuments of Egypt, and on his return to France published the first work of scientific Egyptology, the Voyages dans la haute et basse Egypte, which appeared in He reorganized the Louvre, guided Napoleon in the selection of works to be seized from conquered nations, and presided over the official Salons until the fall of Bonaparte in A stylistically comparable drawing of a similar size by Denon, identified by him in a caption as a portrait of the Duchesse de Vicence and her child, and sharing the same 19th century provenance as the present sheet, was on the art market in Paris in Private collection, New York, since c.

His touch is extremely firm, neat, precise. One never sees hesitation or indecision in his works, all of which are characterized by a great harmony, and by an abundance of spirit. One of the most influential decorative and ornamental draughtsmen working in Europe in the second half of the 18th century, Pillement was an equally gifted painter of pastoral landscapes, marines, flowerpieces and chinoiseries.

A precocious talent, by the age of fifteen he was working as a designer at the Gobelins tapestry factory in Paris. In , aged seventeen, he left France to spend three years in Madrid. This was to be the first in a long series of travels throughout Europe over the next forty years.

After a period in Lisbon, where he was offered, and declined, the title of Painter to the King, Pillement spent the next few years, between and , working in London. His pastoral subjects, seascapes and picturesque views found an appreciative audience in England, and he became a popular and respected member of artistic society in London. It was also in England in the s that some of his ornamental designs were first engraved and published, and where he established himself as a fashionable decorative painter. He died in relative obscurity at the age of eighty, his output having suffered from the decline of the taste for the rococo in the aftermath of the Revolution.

1. Some Models of Excellence

This and the following pastel landscape No. Signed and dated J. Pillement in black chalk at the lower left. This fine pair of pastel landscapes see also No. The artist received a commission from the Empress Maria Theresa for a series of eighteen very large pastel landscapes and seascapes — all executed in blue monochrome pastel on prepared canvases — for a room known as the Blaue Pastellzimmer, or Blue Pastel Room, in her summer residence, the Blauerhof Blue Palace at Laxenburg, outside Vienna.

Eleven of these remarkable, large-scale blue pastel scenes survive today, in the collection of the Historisches Museum der Stadt Wien in Vienna1. The present pair of landscapes are very similar in technique, subject, mood and effect to the series of Laxenburg pastels. A similar pair of blue pastel landscapes on canvas, both dated , was sold at auction in France in The fact that the present sheet is dated , however, indicates that the artist appears to have produced such works not just in the s, but also well into his later career.

Nature is usually benevolent The total effect is an inviting Arcadian stage. All the ugly brutal truths of nature and peasant life in the Ancien Regime are transformed into a poetic world of harmony where a haze of contentment seems to envelop every scene. Born into modest circumstances as the son of a carpenter, Hilaire Ledru or Le Dru seems to have been largely self-taught as an artist.

Chercher un logement

He studied in Douai, and probably also in Antwerp in , and made his Salon debut in with a portrait drawing. Although Ledru occasionally worked as a painter1, he was best known as a draughtsman. Drawings in this technique were very fashionable at the end of the 18th century, made particularly popular by the works exhibited at the Salons by the artist Jean-Baptiste Isabey2. Like Isabey, Ledru was among the finest practitioners of this new medium. His talent lay in drawing, and this talent was at once fine, pleasant, correct, expressive, when the situation required it, and always elegant.

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It was with the pencil that he produced his compositions, his portraits, and he knew how to make excellent use of it. These highly finished portrait drawings — drawn in black chalk or graphite in a very precise, almost pointillist technique — were readily suited for reproduction as engravings, and several were later published as prints. Ledru continued to exhibit both portraits and genre scenes at the Salons until , and also took part in exhibitions in Lille and Douai.

The artist died in Paris in , at the age of seventy-one. Drawings by Hilaire Ledru are rare. A stylistically comparable portrait drawing of an anonymous sitter, signed by Ledru, was formerly in the collection of the late Charles Ryskamp4.

Likewise analogous in technique, although much larger in scale and also more finished, is a full-length drawing of Mme. The present sheet bears an old attribution to Jacques-Louis David, and in fact may be compared, in terms of style, medium and effect, with a signed circular portrait drawing of a young woman by David in the Louvre7, datable to c.

Of similar dimensions and drawn with an equally precise handling of black chalk and pencil, both drawings reveal the influence of the draughtsmanship of Charles-Nicolas Cochin, who made a speciality of drawn and engraved portraits in this medallion format. Framing lines in black ink. Signed fragonard-fils invenit in black ink at the lower left. A precocious student, he made his Salon debut in at the age of only thirteen, exhibiting a drawing of Timoleon Sacrificing his Brother.

A few months later he won two second prize medals at the great concours held in the Year II of the Republic. He continued to show regularly at the Salons apart from a period between and until , exhibiting drawings, scenes from Napoleonic history and, from around onwards, troubadour paintings of scenes from French history. In he painted a series of grisailles for the Palais Bourbon, while further official commissions included a series of historical subjects for the museum at Versailles and ceiling paintings for the Louvre.

As a draughtsman, Fragonard was fond of such long, frieze-like compositions, which seem to have been intended to replicate sculpted bas-reliefs. Fragonard also produced a number of similar frieze-like drawings for subjects taken from more recent history, such as his designs for several bas-reliefs depicting Napoleonic victories, drawn around and intended to decorate the Palais Bourbon, but never executed4. Wille in black ink at the upper left.

Stamped in black ink on the verso. Born in the German province of Hesse, Johann Georg Wille arrived in Paris at the age of twenty-one, and soon established a reputation as an engraver. Appointed an Academician in , Wille stopped producing portrait engravings soon afterward, since his failing eyesight did not allow him to work on portraits with his usual meticulous technique. His studio on the Quai des Augustins in Paris was a centre of printmaking and a meeting place for artists, collectors and dealers, and he was himself active in the art trade.

He was also particularly influential among the younger generation of German and Swiss artists in Paris, and among his pupils were Adrian Zingg, Jakob Matthias Schmutzer and Ferdinand Kobell. His memoirs and journal, an important source of information about the Parisian art world of the 18th century, were published posthumously in As a draughtsman, Wille is best known for his drawings in red chalk and pen and ink, although he also produced a number of charming small-scale watercolours. The largest extant group of drawings by the artist, including three albums of watercolours, is today in the Louvre.

If Wille is looking for an objective description of the motif in his first drawings [of the s] Like many French artists of his day, Victor-Jean Nicolle was captivated by the sights and buildings of Rome. Nonetheless, he surpassed most of his contemporaries in devoting much of his long career to watercolour views of the Eternal City. His initial artistic training in Paris was as a student at the Ecole Royale Gratuite de Dessin, where in he won the grand prix de perspective, and he later entered the studio of the architect Louis Charles Petit-Radel.

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Judging by the dates on some of his drawings, Nicolle spent long periods in Italy between and , and again between and His charming, picturesque drawings of Rome, while full of anecdotal detail, were also topographically accurate. They are, as such, important historical records of the appearance of the city in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. Inspired by the example of Hubert Robert, Nicolle also produced a number of architectural capriccios.

Nicolle would generally make drawings sur le motif in pen and ink, which he would then finish with watercolour in his studio. Although best known for his Roman views, he also produced drawings of other cities in Italy, including Bologna, Venice, Verona, Naples and Florence, while in France he made numerous studies of Paris and its environs.

Only a handful of paintings by the artist are known. Although he never exhibited at the Salons, his reputation as a topographical artist was such that in he received a commission from Napoleon for fifty watercolour views of the principal monuments of Paris, intended as a wedding present for the Empress Marie-Louise and now at Malmaison. Nicolle treated the subject of the Pantheon in Rome several times, although usually with the ancient building viewed from the front, with the Piazza della Rotonda in the foreground, such as in a watercolour in the National Gallery of Art in Washington, D.

Signed and dated huet fils in brown ink at the lower right. Born into a family of artists, Nicolas Huet the Younger was the eldest son and pupil of Jean-Baptiste Huet and the grandson of the animalier Nicolas Huet the Elder, and like both of them he specialized in depictions of animals. The young Huet first exhibited in at the Exposition de la Jeunesse, where he showed a still life.

A gifted watercolourist and engraver, Huet developed a particular reputation as a natural history draughtsman. The drawing depicts Marguerite, one of a pair of elephants; a male and a female, originally from Ceylon today Sri Lanka and presented as a gift to the Dutch stadthouder by the East India Company. When they were led separately into their enclosure, one observer described the scene: They breathed also through their trunks with such violence, that the blast resembled an impetuous gust of wind. Hans did exactly the same…but his pleasure was more concentrated…expressed by his tears, which fell from his eyes in abundance.

Marguerite, the female elephant drawn here by Huet in , lived for a total of thirtyfour years before her death, of unknown causes, at the Jardin des Plantes in March Two years before the present sheet was drawn, Huet exhibited another finished drawing of Marguerite at the Paris Salon of This fine sheet may be grouped with a handful of highly finished drawings in watercolour and gouache on vellum by Nicolas Huet the Younger. Several examples have appeared on the art market in recent years, including an American Cougar, signed and dated , which appeared at auction in London in , and a Tiger, signed and dated , which was sold at auction in New York in Another example is a drawing of a giraffe presented to Charles X by the Viceroy of Egypt, dated and drawn on paper rather than vellum, which is today in the collection of the Pierpont Morgan Library in New York8.

Among other watercolours of this type by Huet in public collections is a Striped Hyena, signed and dated , in the Schlossmuseum in Weimar9. Laid down on a large album page. Granet in pencil in the lower margin, below the image. Before his departure, however, he submitted a painting depicting the cloister of a church on the rue St. In Granet travelled to Rome, where he remained for much of the next twenty-two years, working extensively in the city and the surrounding Campagna. At the Salon of he exhibited a painting of The Choir of the Capuchin Church in Rome, widely praised by critics, which firmly established his reputation in France.

From then on, he seems to have been less active as a painter, although he continued to draw, and his stay in Versailles saw him produce a series of charming watercolours of the gardens. In his memoirs, the artist often makes reference to the priests and monks he met in Rome, whom he particularly admired for their devotion to their chosen calling. He produced a number of finished genre drawings of monks in their cells or at prayer, which are generally unrelated to paintings and are only occasionally dated.

All of this from the brush of M. Granet takes on a truth and vigor that carry one away He was never happier than when wandering about Rome, sketchbook in hand: And so my happiness lacked nothing. I would work the whole week through, sometimes in a square, another time in a cloister or under a palace portico… Every day I found new subjects to paint, for to know Rome well takes not six months, nor six years — no, it takes a lifetime. The French military occupation of Rome by Napoleonic troops in affected Granet deeply. Men of war had replaced the prelates, the cardinals, the monks; the military drum had silenced the sound of chants and prayer.

I was terribly saddened. I could no longer find my Rome of stillness; all its charms for the artist had disappeared, and my days seemed endless. I searched in vain in the monasteries for the sweet peace I had once possessed…I entered the cloister [of the Church of the Capuchins in the Piazza Barberini]: I entered the choir: In his memoirs, Granet noted that he was never without a sketchbook, and he must have used a number of them while in Rome; three such sketchbooks, for example, were included in the sale of the collection of the 19th century architect and interior designer Hippolyte Destailleur.

Fragmentary sketches in black chalk and brown ink on the verso. The public at large knew little or nothing of his work as a draughtsman, however, so when the contents of his studio — containing some paintings and several hundred drawings and sketchbooks — were sold at auction in November , the works on paper were a revelation, and were eagerly acquired by collectors. From a very early age, Gericault was fascinated by horses.

As a young student he made drawings of horses at the Imperial stables at Versailles, and many of his most significant works as a mature painter involved equestrian subjects. Paul Getty Museum in Los Angeles7. An unidentified collection stamp not in Lugt , stamped in blue ink on the backing sheet; Galerie Jonas, Paris, in Paris, Galerie Jonas, F. Ravier , November , no. Early in his career he met Camille Corot, who was to be a lifelong influence on his work.

He seems to have been something of a recluse, avoiding visits to town and living a life of country solitude. Ravier was especially fond of scenes at dawn and dusk, often making studies in oil or watercolour on the spot that would later be worked up into finished watercolours in his studio. Always something new, something inexhaustible — infinity! Turner, whose work he greatly admired.

I want to get at Turner, with whose work I find I have more in common than with anyone else. In the same year, however, he lost the sight in one eye, forcing him to give up painting, and by he had become totally blind. That Ravier was something of a perfectionist in his watercolour technique is seen in another letter to Thiollier, written in Without doubt I sometimes get my water-colours too heavy. These I give up; I have to wash them, sponge them, rub them out. It is an effort which has not succeeded; but it is an effort, and it would be more convenient and more easy not to have made it. I try everything, for I have a thirst for the unknown, the madness of research; but that is where my value lies.

It is imperfect, but it is not commonplace. It is typical of his poetic landscapes, in which there is almost always no trace of a human presence. As Ravier noted in a letter written from Rome soon after his arrival there in , his first visits to the countryside beyond the city walls made a deep impression on him: I walked for an hour without meeting anyone other than a monk who said his breviary…But. Unfortunately he had left there in the care of an indelicate friend, an entire trunkful of studies and watercolours which have disappeared into thin air.

The Porta Asinaria, with its two tower blocks, dominates the centre of the composition, while the Porta San Giovanni is at the left. The Porta Asinaria was built between and A. To the right of this view, although not depicted by Ravier in the present sheet, is the Basilica of San Giovanni Laterano. A far more distant watercolour view of the Aurelian Walls is in a private collection in France6, while a stylistically comparable Roman Landscape with a View of St.

Among other drawings by Ravier of sites and monuments in and around Rome is a view of the 16th century Porta Furba and the Acqua Felice aqueduct, drawn in charcoal on blue paper, in the collection of the Maison Ravier in Morestel8. The seated figures at the left and centre, as well as the upper part of the seated figure at the right, each engraved on a separate sheet and mounted by Ingres onto another, larger sheet of paper, on which the artist has drawn the background, as well as the standing woman at the right of centre and the figure in the background at the extreme left, all in pencil.

Most of the lower half of the seated figure of Edouard Gatteaux, at the right, drawn and reworked by the artist in pencil. Ingres, Paris, , unpaginated, pl. Sa vie, ses travaux, sa doctrine, Paris, , pp. Ingres, Paris, , p. Sa vie et son oeuvre, Paris, , p. Sein Leben und sein Stil, Vienna, , illustrated pl. Par Ingres ou ses graveurs? Les portraits, Paris, , unpaginated, under nos.

II, Bern, , pp. V, Bern, , p. Cohn and Agnes Mongan, Ingres. In Pursuit of Perfection: The Art of J. Ingres, exhibition catalogue, Louisville and Fort Worth, , p. The Dark Mirror, Paris, , p. Johnson and David Ogawa, ed.


Paintings and Drawings, , no. An indication of the affection felt by Ingres for Gatteaux is seen in a letter written to him in the s: Unfortunately, many of these were lost in a fire at his home in Paris, during the Commune in May In later years Gatteaux added to his collection, and at the end of his life bequeathed works to several French museums.

The present sheet, however, remained in the possession of his descendants until The Gatteaux family owned a large country house in Neauphle, near Versailles, where Ingres often stayed as a guest in the s. He returned there after the death of his first wife Madeleine in , and it was at this time that he produced the present drawing. Using single portraits made at different times, with The Gatteaux Family Ingres has created a composite family group and placed the.

Printed on thin paper, these three prints were carefully silhouetted and laid down by Ingres onto a much larger sheet, which he then overdrew in pencil in such a way that the seams between the different sheets of paper are hardly visible to the naked eye. Only the upper part of the figure of Edouard Gatteaux in this large sheet, however, is in the form of an engraving. Raised in the Gatteaux household, she married the engineer Edouard Brame in , and the present sheet eventually descended in the Brame family. The original portrait drawings by Ingres of M. Gatteaux, drawn in and respectively, as well as the bust-length portrait drawing of their son Edouard, dated , all belonged to Edouard Gatteaux and were destroyed in the fire at his home in It is interesting to note that, in this large composite drawing of The Gatteaux Family, Ingres was creating an imaginary family group.

In , when the drawing was made, Nicolas-Marie Gatteaux had been dead for eighteen years and Louise-Rosalie Gatteaux for three, while Edouard Gatteaux, seen here as a young man, was aged sixty-two. Anfrye, however, would seem to correspond to their proper ages at the time the drawing was made. Executed on several sheets of joined tracing paper, this sizeable drawing shows the seated figures full-length, a concept that Ingres abandoned in the final work. Ingres produced only three other comparably large and complex, multifigured portrait group drawings, all dated much earlier in his career: The present sheet is the last and largest of the four, and the most visually complex.

Ingres, published in , and it is very likely that Ingres made the present sheet with the intention of having it reproduced for this publication And still his work is watched over by the antique genius. Its effect is less obvious, but no less certain, than in the family portrait of thirty-five years before: We enjoy the charming glimpse of a distant room and a figure in it, but that well-marked incident cannot distract the artist from the great front plane, where the chief personages come up not merely into physical existence and nearness, but into a psychological impressiveness hardly inferior to that in one of those portrait groups where the Roman sculptor has rendered his touching homage to the companionship of a husband and wife.

Made up areas at the upper corners and near the lower right corner. Somewhat more shy and reserved than his brother, Paul Flandrin maintained a lifelong interest in landscape painting, and in particular the genre of the paysage historique, in which category he won a prize at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in The same year Hippolyte won the Prix de Rome in the category of history painting and left for Italy. Paul won the prize in the category of the paysage historique the following year and joined Hippolyte in Rome in The two brothers remained in Italy until , travelling extensively around Tuscany, Southern Italy and the Veneto.

Paul Flandrin made his Salon debut in , showing an Italian view, and began to develop his own reputation as a landscape painter. Flandrin travelled widely throughout France, and landscapes of views in Provence, the Languedoc and Normandy were to make up the bulk of his Salon entries throughout his career.

Although best known today for his landscapes, Flandrin was also greatly admired in his day as a portrait painter, and many of his commissioned portrait paintings were exhibited at the annual Salons. Apparently, he would also often produce portrait drawings of the same sitters that his brother Hippolyte was painting. The artist produced a handful of double portraits, notably a self-portrait with his brother Hippolyte of , now in the Louvre3. Dated 17 avril in pencil at the lower centre. Stamped with studio stamp H. Les informations sur l'a Des informations sur les horaires et les prix d Des informations sur les services ferrovia Que vous veniez en voiture ou non, cela ne change rien, offr En plus de son cadre La concentration des contenus in Aujourd'hui, Rijeka et ses e The apartment consists of two It comprises a single and dou It has recently been reno It consists of a hal It has been fully furni The apartment has two separate single r It faces south and offers a Parking is available on the public area close to the b The furnishing is based on an antique fa It has free Wi-Fi.

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