His superb study is unique in that it draws on a wide range of sources: Jewish literature written in Greek, classical sources, and rabbinic texts, both ancient and medieval. It also features a detailed discussion of many of the central rabbinic texts dealing with conversion to Judaism. Ioudaios Iudaeus Judaean Jew. From Ethnos to Ethnoreligion.
The Rabbinic Conversion Ceremony. Boundaries, Varieties, Uncertainties Shaye J. His earlier books include Josephus in Galilee and Rome: A Profile of Judaism Us and Them" Cohen shares some final remarks concerning Jewishness in the modern Jewish mind. Cohen's first chapter asks the question, "Was Herod Jewish? Herod was of Idumaean descent, and so represents a third generation convert to Judaism of some kind.
How was he classified? Several ancient witnesses are appealed to in an effort to answer this question. The results run the gamut from Ioudaios to Ascalonite, and from gentile slave to the Messiah. This shows the ambiguity of the term and its application in ethnic-geographic, religious, and political contexts. It also shows the complexity of conversion to Judaism, or, as Cohen recasts it in chapter 3 p. If someone claimed to be a Jew, what methods of verification were available in antiquity?
How was Jewishness expressed? Cohen examines the possibility of distinctiveness in physical appearance, speech, names, occupation, and via circumcision. Ultimately, none of these characteristics provide firm footing, as far as Cohen is concerned, for identifying Jewishness. The answer is that you did not" p. This chapter is the richest in primary texts and forms the foundation of the rest of his arguments.
His thesis is that the term Ioudaios is an ethnic-geographic designation in all its uses prior to the mid-second century BCE, and should be interpreted as "Judaean.
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As he will argue in subsequent chapters, the Hasmonean dynasty and its assimilation of Hellenistic ideologies catalyzes this shift and redefines forever what it means to be Jewish. Chapter 4 begins Cohen's discussion of the crossing of boundaries.
He argues that two new definitions of Jewishness emerge from the Hasmonean rebellion: Ioudaios as a political and as a religious designation. The Idumeans represent the first example of the latter category, while two fictional conversions Antiochus IV in 2 Maccabees and Achior in Judith show the earliest intimations of the former. This time period marks a clear redefinition of Jewish identity, which Cohen attributes to increasing concern for boundary maintenance, which necessitated the need for formal processes of conversion, and to the Greek concept of politeia.
Cohen examines in chapter 5 the ways which a gentile in the Greco-Roman period "became less a gentile and more a Jew" p. He discusses gentiles associating with, appreciating, and becoming Ioudaioi, as well as the different stages of assimilation, from God-fearer to convert to Jew. These designations show a conscious desire for, and the development of, formal boundaries.
He points to three general definitions for related -izein verbs: Contrary to popular opinion, Cohen does not believe that the verb should be understood as "to become a Jew" until it is adopted by Christianity. The Christian use also, "invested the word with new meanings, new overtones, and a new specificity not previously attested" p. Chapter 7 discusses the rabbinic conversion ceremony, which is attested in two texts: Yevamot 47a-b and, with substantial changes, Gerim 1.
In the former, the ceremony consists of four main parts: The latter also has four parts. The first two are the same, but the last two consist of instruction during the immersion and exhortation after the immersion. Gerim contains no instructions regarding circumcision, which was most likely performed in a prior ritual, or was presupposed for the performance of the ritual found in Gerim 1.
Cohen concludes by pointing out the lack in either text of any mystical or spiritual requirements or exhortations. The ritual seems to be primarily one of initiation. Chapter 8 begins part three of Cohen's book, and it discusses the prohibition of intermarriage. This prohibition is traced from the earliest biblical attestations through to the Talmud.
The Beginnings of Jewishness: Boundaries, Varieties, Uncertainties by Shaye J.D. Cohen
The chapter is one of the shortest and simply argues that nothing in the Hebrew Bible prohibits the marriage of a Jew to a non-Jew. Exodus and Deuteronomy prohibit marriage to specific Canaanite nations on the grounds that it would lead to idolatry, but there is no universal prohibition. By the time of Ezra and Nehemiah there is a sense of growing disapprobation for intermarriage, but the prohibition is not fully developed until the Hellenistic period, and it is not formally outlined until the Talmud.
The title of chapter 9 is "The Matrilineal Principle," and constitutes a lengthy discussion of the origins of the modern concept of the matrilineal inheritance of Jewishness. In the biblical period the ethnicity of a woman was largely regarded as irrelevant. While many point to Ezra as the beginning of the matrilineal ideal, Cohen argues briefly that this is not certain.
He concludes that it was not present during the Second Temple Period, but is first attested in the Mishnah "It appears in the Mishnah like a bolt out of the blue" [p. The "other half" of the matrilineal principle, or the implications of a Jewish mother and a gentile father, are also developed in rabbinic literature, although of a later date.
The next chapter is a continuation of the discussion of the matrilineal principle, but it focuses on one text from the Mishnah M.
The Beginnings of Jewishness: Boundaries, Varieties, Uncertainties (Hellenistic Culture & Society)
Interestingly, one line from the text speaks of a convert whose "mother was of Israel. The differences between a convert and a born Jew disappear if the convert has a Jewish mother. Cohen seeks to explain why in this chapter. Cohen's volume makes an invaluable contribution to the discussion of Jewish identity. He certainly succeeds in unpacking and appreciating the complexity of the questions asked in his prologue. Without providing definitive answers for the most part , he draws upon vast corpora of primary texts that show the subjective and often conflicting nature of Jewishness.
Caution is exercised at almost every turn. Some conclusions are overstated, though. For example, the certainty with which he declares "Judaean" to be the proper understanding of Ioudaios for any usage prior to the mid-second century BCE is excessive. He is inconsistent with that threshold as well, dogmatically translating Josephan and later occurrences of Ioudaios as "Judaean" without argument. The story of Dinah is repeatedly referenced in discussions of its Hellenistic era reception, but its significance for a pre-Maccabean ideology of conversion is not engaged.
In many contexts equal weight is also given to Jewish and non-Jewish definitions of identity, which downplays the importance of self-identification. Philo's appeal to Aristotelian genetics and his version of the matrilineal principle are also neglected. Despite some oversights, Cohen highlights the most critical questions and his conclusions, right or wrong, have catalyzed, and will continue to catalyze, debate over those questions.
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For that alone Cohen's book is one of the most important contributions to the debate in recent years. I am not a Jew. I bought this book thinking it would explain in good part how the religious culture of the Judeans in the Second Temple period became the enduring religion of a people spread far and wide and how, after the cleansing of Judea, it gave rise to the central documents of that religion, the Mishnah and the Talmud.
What Cohen calls moving from ethnos to ethnoreligion. The book actually does little to answer that concern except glancingly. It iscentered on the period I was thinking of with many extensions later , but the contents are better described by the subtitle, Boundaries, Varieties, Uncertainties, and especially Boundaries.
Cohen is a rabbi and a professor of Judaic studies more accurately a historian of Judaism ; quite probably to him my original question was too elementary, and the general answer to it is a given, part of the background from which he speaks. From my original point of view, the book seems totally preoccupied with boundary questions, e. Yet, despite having gone in beyond my depth, I found it impossible to open the book anywhere and not keep on reading, deeply interested.
And, as I read on, I realised that the entire book is the best model of historical scholarship, on any topic, that I have ever seen. It could be read with much profit simply for the quality of the work, totally outside any question about Jewishness. If I taught history at the post-graduate level, certainly I would ask my students to spend some hours with the book and then judge by its standard all other scholarly works they will meet.
One of Cohen's qualities is that he is an admirably clear and careful expositor, and that he writes very good prose. So the book could also be proposed to social science postgrads, though it might push some to drop out. This is why I got hooked in the first place. But the main quality is in the richness of the footnotes probably two thirds of the text.
When Cohen gets through with a question he has posed, you do not simply have his answer which may be "I don't know" , but a good dossier of the sources that he thinks bear on the question, with luminous explanations -- always brief, Cohen is anything but a waster of words. Therefore, having followed his travails, you may well incline to a different conclusion. This is a touchstone for true scholarship.
This quality of mastering his material and at the same time very candidly sticking to it, extends where Cohen deals with the Christian Fathers or Aquinas.
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If Cohen is situating and explaining a passage from Aquinas, for instance, you will feel that you are reading a thomistic scholar. I have to admit, though, that Paul gets under his skin. The book is more than worth buying even if you will make heads or tails of no more than a tenth of it. To go beyond this, however, you will need "elementary pre-yeshiva".
There is not a single Hebrew character in the book, only transliterations where needed, but obviously a Talmudic student, knowing Hebrew and Aramaic, would get more out of the discussions. Ancient Greek and especially Latin would also be helpful. Of modern languages, Cohen sometimes leaves French untranslated.
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