Heywood claimed to have been involved in some plays, and they include fantastic adventures starring citizen heroes, spirited, patriotic, and inclined to a leveling attitude in social matters. His masterpiece, A Woman Killed with Kindness , is a middle-class tragedy. On the other hand, the very industriousness that the likes of Heywood viewed with civic pride became in the hands of Ben Jonson, George Chapman, John Marston, and Thomas Middleton a sign of self-seeking, avarice , and anarchy , symptomatic of the sicknesses in society at large.
Jonson began as a self-appointed social legislator, socially conservative but intellectually radical, outraged by a society given over to inordinate appetite and egotism, and ambitious through his mammoth learning to establish himself as the privileged artist, the fearless and faithful mentor and companion to kings; but he was ill at ease with a court inclined in its masques to prefer flattery to judicious advice.
Consequently, the greater satires that followed are marked by their gradual accommodations with popular comedy and by their unwillingness to make their implied moral judgments explicit: After Jonson abandoned the stage for the court, but, finding himself increasingly disregarded, he made a hard-won return to the theatres. The most notable of his late plays are popular in style: The New Inn , which has affinities with the Shakespearean romance , and A Tale of a Tub , which resurrects the Elizabethan country farce.
John Marston adopts so sharp a satirical tone that his comic plays frequently border on tragedy. His tragicomedy The Malcontent is remarkable for its wild language and sexual and political disgust; Marston cuts the audience adrift from the moorings of reason by a dizzying interplay of parody and seriousness. His unprejudiced satire touches the actions of citizen and gentleman with equal irony and detachment; the only operative distinction is between fool and knave, and the sympathies of the audience are typically engaged on the side of wit, with the resourceful prodigal and dexterous whore.
His characteristic form, used in Michaelmas Term and A Trick to Catch the Old One , was intrigue comedy, which enabled him to portray his society dynamically, as a mechanism in which each sex and class pursues its own selfish interests. He was thus concerned less with characterizing individuals in depth than with examining the inequalities and injustices of the world that cause them to behave as they do.
His The Roaring Girl c. For more traditionally minded playwrights, new anxieties lay in the corrupt and sprawling bureaucracy of the modern court and in the political eclipse of the nobility before incipient royal absolutism. His The White Devil , a divided, ambivalent play, elicits sympathy even for a vicious heroine, since she is at the mercy of her deeply corrupt society, and the heroine in The Duchess of Malfi is the one decent and spirited inhabitant of her world, yet her noble death cannot avert the fearfully futile and haphazard carnage that ensues.
As so often on the Jacobean stage, the challenge to the male-dominated world of power was mounted through the experience of its women. Already in the Jacobean period, signs of a politer drama such as would prevail after were beginning to appear. Simply in terms of productivity and longevity, the most successful Jacobean playwright was John Fletcher , whose ingenious tragicomedies and sometimes bawdy comedies were calculated to attract the applause of the emerging Stuart leisured classes. With plays such as The Faithful Shepherdess or , Fletcher caught up with the latest in avant-garde Italianate drama, while his most dazzling comedy, The Wild Goose Chase produced , printed , is a battle of the sexes set among Parisian gallants and their ladies; it anticipates the Restoration comedy of manners.
In The Lady of Pleasure and Hyde Park , Shirley presented the fashionable world to itself in its favourite haunts and situations. However, the underlying tensions of the time continued to preoccupy the drama of the other major Caroline playwrights: The plays of Ford, the last major tragic dramatist of the Renaissance, focus on profoundly conservative societies whose values are in crisis.
In The Broken Heart ? Massinger, too, wrote some fine tragedies The Roman Actor , , but his best plays are comedies and tragicomedies preoccupied with political themes, such as The Bondman , which deals with issues of liberty and obedience, and A New Way to Pay Old Debts performed , printed , which satirizes the behaviour and outlook of the provincial gentry. The tradition of subversive domestic satire was carried down to the English Civil Wars in the plays of Brome, whose anarchic and popular comedies, such as The Antipodes and A Jovial Crew produced , printed , poke fun at all levels of society and include caustic and occasionally libelous humour.
The outbreak of fighting in forced the playhouses to close, but this was not because the theatre had become identified with the court. Rather, a theatre of complex political sympathies was still being produced.
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In the early Stuart period the failure of consensus was dramatically demonstrated in the political collapse of the s and in the growing sociocultural divergences of the immediately preceding years. While it was still possible for the theatres to address the nation very much as a single audience, the court—with the Baroque style, derived from the Continent, that it encouraged in painting, masque, and panegyric—was becoming more remote from the country at large and was regarded with increasing distrust.
In fact, a growing separation between polite and vulgar literature was to dispel many of the characteristic strengths of Elizabethan writing. Simultaneously, long-term intellectual changes were beginning to impinge on the status of poetry and prose.
Shakespeare, William (DNB00)
From the circle of Lucius Cary, Viscount Falkland , at Great Tew in Oxfordshire—which included poets such as Edmund Waller , Thomas Carew , and Sidney Godolphin —William Chillingworth argued that it was unreasonable for any individual to force his opinions onto any other, while Thomas Hobbes reached the opposite conclusion in his Leviathan , that all must be as the state pleases. In this context, the old idea of poetry as a persuader to virtue fell obsolete, and the century as a whole witnessed a massive transfer of energy into new literary forms, particularly into the rationally balanced couplet, the autobiography, and the embryonic novel.
At the same time, these influences were neither uniform nor consistent; Hobbes might repudiate the use of metaphor as senseless and ambiguous , yet his own prose was frequently enlivened by half-submerged metaphors. Writers responded to these conditions in different ways, and in poetry three main traditions may broadly be distinguished, which have been coupled with the names of Spenser, Jonson, and John Donne. This privateness, of course, was not new, but the period in general experienced a huge upsurge of contemplative or devotional verse.
Donne has been taken to be the apex of the 16th-century tradition of plain poetry, and certainly the love lyrics of his that parade their cynicism , indifference, and libertinism pointedly invert and parody the conventions of Petrarchan lyric, though he courts admiration for his poetic virtuosity no less than the Petrarchans. Donne is the first London poet: Donne treats experience as relative, a matter of individual point of view; the personality is multiple, quizzical, and inconsistent, eluding definition.
His love poetry is that of the frustrated careerist. These expand into the classic statement of Jacobean melancholy , an intense meditation on the vanity of the world and the collapse of traditional certainties.
Donne would, reluctantly, find respectability in a church career, but even his religious poems are torn between the same tense self-assertion and self-abasement that mark his secular poetry. The only true Metaphysical , in the sense of a poet with genuinely philosophical pretensions, was Edward Herbert Lord Herbert of Cherbury , important as an early proponent of religion formulated by the light of reason. Herbert, a Cambridge academic who buried his courtly ambitions in the quiet life of a country parsonage, wrote some of the most resonant and attractive religious verse in the language.
By contrast, the poems of Crashaw a Roman Catholic and the Welsh recluse Vaughan move in alternative traditions: By contrast, the Jonsonian tradition was, broadly, that of social verse, written with a Classical clarity and weight and deeply informed by ideals of civilized reasonableness, ceremonious respect, and inner self-sufficiency derived from Seneca; it is a poetry of publicly shared values and norms. His favoured forms were the ode, elegy, satire, epistle , and epigram, and they are always beautifully crafted objects, achieving a Classical symmetry and monumentality.
For Jonson, the unornamented style meant not colloquiality but labour, restraint, and control; a good poet had first to be a good man, and his verses lead his society toward an ethic of gracious but responsible living. With the Cavalier poets who succeeded Jonson, the element of urbanity and conviviality tended to loom larger. The growth of Augustan gentility was further encouraged by work done on translations in mid-century, particularly by Sir Richard Fanshawe and Thomas Stanley. Nostalgia was a dangerous quality under the progressive and absolutist Stuarts; the taste for Spenser involved a respect for values—traditional, patriotic, and Protestant—that were popularly, if erroneously, linked with the Elizabethan past but thought to be disregarded by the new regime.
These poets believed they had a spokesman at court in the heroic and promising Prince Henry, but his death in disappointed many expectations, intellectual, political, and religious, and this group in particular was forced further toward the Puritan position. The failure of the Stuarts to conciliate attitudes such as these was to be crucial to their inability to prevent the collapse of the Elizabethan compromise in the next generation. Puritanism also had a powerful effect on early Stuart prose. Puritans preferred sermons in the plain style too, eschewing rhetoric for an austerely edifying treatment of doctrine, though some famous preachers, such as Henry Smith and Thomas Adams, believed it their duty to make the Word of God eloquent.
The other factor shaping prose was the desire among scientists for a utilitarian style that would accurately and concretely represent the relationship between words and things, without figurative luxuriance. Its impact on earlier writing, though, was limited; most early Stuart science was written in a baroque style. The impetus toward a scientific prose derived ultimately from Sir Francis Bacon , the towering intellect of the century, who charted a philosophical system well in advance of his generation and beyond his own powers to complete.
In the Advancement of Learning and the Novum Organum , Bacon visualized a great synthesis of knowledge, rationally and comprehensively ordered so that each discipline might benefit from the discoveries of the others. The two radical novelties of his scheme were his insight that there could be progress in learning i. The level exposition of idea in the Advancement is underpinned by a tactful but firmly persuasive rhetoric , and the famous Essays ; enlarged , are shifting and elusive, teasing the reader toward unresolved contradictions and half-apprehended complications.
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The Essays are masterworks in the new Stuart genre of the prose of leisure, the reflectively aphoristic prose piece in imitation of the Essays of Michel de Montaigne. Character-writing led naturally into the writing of biography ; the chief practitioners of this genre were Thomas Fuller , who included brief sketches in The Holy State ; includes The Profane State , and Izaak Walton , the biographer of Donne, George Herbert, and Richard Hooker.
The essayists and character writers initiated a reaction against the orotund flow of serious Elizabethan prose that has been variously described as metaphysical, anti-Ciceronian, or Senecan, but these terms are used vaguely to denote both the cultivation of a clipped, aphoristic prose style, curt to the point of obscurity, and a fashion for looseness, asymmetry, and open-endedness.
The search for new kinds of political order and authority generated an answering chaos of styles, as voices were heard that had hitherto been denied access to print. The radical ideas of educated political theorists like Hobbes and the republican James Harrington were advanced within the traditional decencies of polite if ruthless debate, but they spoke in competition with writers who deliberately breached the literary canons of good taste— Levelers , such as John Lilburne and Richard Overton , with their vigorously dramatic manner; Diggers , such as Gerrard Winstanley in his Law of Freedom ; and Ranters , whose language and syntax were as disruptive as the libertinism they professed.
John Milton , the last great poet of the English Renaissance, laid down in his work the foundations for the emerging aesthetic of the post-Renaissance period. During the Civil Wars and the Cromwellian republic —60 , Milton saw his role as the intellectual serving the state in a glorious cause. But the republic of virtue failed to materialize, and the Cromwellian settlement was swept aside in by the returning monarchy. Milton showed himself virtually the last defender of the republic with his tract The Ready and Easy Way to Establish a Free Commonwealth , a courageous but desperate program for a permanent oligarchy of the Puritan elect, the only device he could suggest to prevent the return to royal slavery.
Phillips gave evidence against Essex and his friends, and Southampton was imprisoned until the queen's death. But no proceedings were taken against the players. For several years Shakespeare's genius as dramatist and poet had been acknowledged by critics and playgoers alike, and his social and professional position had become considerable. Shakespeare's popularity and influence. Inside the theatre his influence was supreme. He took a part when the piece was performed.
Jonson, despite his difficult and jealous temper, which may have led to an occasional coolness, cherished esteem and affection for his benefactor till death cf. Shakespear, with the English man of war, lesser in bulk, but lighter in sailing, could turn with all tides, tack about, and take advantage of all winds by the quickness of his wit and invention.
Of the many testimonies paid to Shakespeare's literary reputation at this period of his career, the most striking was that of Francis Meres's eulogy, His name was thenceforth of value to unprincipled publishers. None of these six plays have any internal claim to Shakespeare's authorship, but all were included in the third folio of his collected works With even smaller justification, the worthless old play on the subject of King John was attributed to Shakespeare in the re-issues of and But poems as well as plays in which Shakespeare had no hand were deceptively placed to his credit.
This obscure allegory may be from Shakespeare's pen; happily he wrote nothing else of like character. Shakespeare, in middle life, brought to practical affairs a singularly sane and sober temperament. As soon as his position in his profession was assured, he devoted his energies to re-establishing the fallen fortunes of his family in his native place, and to acquiring for himself and his successors the status of gentlefolk. His father's pecuniary embarrassments had steadily His father's difficulties. Creditors harassed him unceasingly. In one Nicholas Lane pursued him for a debt for which he had become liable as surety for his brother Henry.
Through and he retaliated with pertinacity on a debtor named John Tompson. But in a creditor, Adrian Quiney, obtained a writ of distraint against him, and although in he attested inventories taken on the death of two neighbours, Ralph Shaw and Henry Field, father of the printer, he was on 25 Dec. In January —7 he conveyed a slip of land attached to his dwelling in Henley Street to one George Badger.
There is a likelihood that the poet's wife fared, in the poet's absence, no better. The only contemporary mention made of her between her marriage in and her husband's death in is as the borrower at an His wife's debt. The money was unpaid when Whittington died in , and he directed his executor to recover the sum from the poet and distribute it among the poor of Stratford Halliwell-Phillipps , ii. It was probably in that Shakespeare returned, after nearly eleven years' absence, to his native town, and worked a revolution in the affairs of his family.
The prosecutions of his father in the local court then ceased. Thenceforth the poet's relations with Stratford were uninterrupted. Two months later the bankrupt father, took a step, by way of regaining his prestige which must be assigned to his son's intervention. Miscellanea Genealogica et Heraldica , 2nd ser. A new grant was drafted by the college of arms three years later, when it was alleged that a coat-of-arms had been assigned to John while he was bailiff of Stratford. In the draft of greater emphasis was laid on the gentle descent of Shakespeare's mother, the arms of whose family her children were authorised to quarter with their own.
But this draft, like the first, remained unconfirmed. Two copies of the draft of and one of that of are at the college of arms. Although no evidence survives to show that the poet used the arms personally, they are prominently displayed on his tomb; they appear on the seal and tomb of his elder daughter Susanna, impaled with those of her husband; and they were quartered by Thomas Nash, the first husband of the poet's granddaughter, Elizabeth Hall French , Genealogica Shakespeareana , p.
In the poet took in his own person a more effective step in the way of rehabilitating himself and his family in the eyes of his fellow Purchase of New Place. On 4 May he purchased the largest house in the town, known as New Place. It had been built by Sir Hugh Clopton [q. But Shakespeare paid for it, with two barns and two gardens, the then substantial sum of 60l.
Owing to the sudden death of the vendor, William Underhill, on 7 July , the original transfer of the property was left at the time incomplete. Underhill's son Fulk died a felon, and he was succeeded in the family estates by his brother Hercules, who on coming of age, May , completed in a new deed the transfer of New Place to Shakespeare Notes and Queries , 8th ser. The inventory was made owing to the presence of famine in the town, and very few inhabitants were credited with a larger holding.
In the same year he procured stone for the repair of the house, and before had planted a fruit orchard. He is traditionally said to have interested himself in the garden, and to have planted after with his own hands a mulberry tree, which was long a prominent feature of it. When this was cut down, in , numerous relics were made from it, and were treated with an almost superstitious veneration Halliwell-Phillips , i.
Shakespeare does not appear to have permanently settled at New Place till His grandmother seems to have been a Shakespeare. He often acted as the poet's legal adviser. It was doubtless under Shakespeare's guidance that his father and mother set on foot in November —six months after the acquisition of New Place—a lawsuit against John Lambert for the recovery of the mortgaged estate of Asbies in Wilmcote.
The litigation dragged on for some years without result. Three letters written during by leading men at Stratford are still extant among the corporation's archives, and leave no doubt of the reputation for wealth and influence with which the purchase of New Place invested the poet in his fellow-townsmen's eyes. Abraham Sturley, who was once bailiff, writing early in , apparently to a brother in London, says: It seemeth by him that our countryman, Mr. Shakspere, is willing to disburse some money upon some odd yardland or other at Shottery, or near about us: By the instructions you can give him thereof, and by the friends he can make therefor, we think it a fair mark for him to shoot at, and would do us much good.
Abraham Sturley pointed out to him in a letter dated 4 Nov. The financial prosperity, to which this correspondence and the transactions immediately preceding it point, has been treated as one of the chief mysteries of Shakespeare's Financial position before It was not until , when the Globe Theatre was built, that he acquired any share in the profits of a playhouse. But his revenues as a successful dramatist and actor were by no means contemptible at an earlier date. His gains in the capacity of dramatist were certainly small.
The highest price known to have been paid to an author for a play by an acting company was 10 l. In order to compare the sums mentioned here with the present currency, they should be multiplied by ten. The publication of a play produced no profit for the author. The nineteen plays which may be set to Shakespeare's credit between and cannot consequently have brought him more than l.
But as an actor his income was far larger. An efficient actor received in as large a regular salary as l. The lowest known valuation set an actor's wages at 3 s. Shakespeare's emoluments as an actor in are not likely to have fallen below l. Shakespeare's friendly relations, too, with the printer Field, secured him, despite the absence of any copyright law, some part of the profits in the large and continuous sale of his poems. Thus over l. Such a sum would be regarded as a substantial income in a country town. Whether his income or savings wholly justified his fellow-townsmen's opinion of his wealth in , or sufficed between and to meet his expenses, in rebuilding the house, stocking the barns with grain, and in various legal proceedings, may be questioned.
A munificent gift, added to professional gains, would amply account for Shakespeare's financial position before After his sources of income from the theatre greatly increased. In the heirs of the actor Richard Burbage were engaged in litigation respecting their proprietary Financial position after The documents relating to this litigation supply authentic, although not very detailed, information of Shakespeare's interest in theatrical property.
Richard Burbage, with his brother Cuthbert, erected at their sole cost the Globe Theatre in the winter of —9, and the Blackfriars, which their father was building at the time of his death in , was also their property. The shares, which numbered sixteen in all, carried with them the obligation of providing for the expenses of the playhouse, and were doubtless in the first instance freely bestowed.
Hamlet claims, in the play scene iii. How many shares originally fell to Shakespeare there is no means of determining. Records of later subdivisions suggest that they did not exceed two. But the Globe was an exceptionally popular playhouse, and its receipts were large.
According to the documents of , an actor-sharer at the Globe received above l. Thus Shakespeare drew from the Globe Theatre, at the lowest estimate, more than l. His interest in the Blackfriars Theatre was comparatively unimportant, and is less easy to estimate. The often quoted documents on which Collier depended to prove him a substantial shareholder in that playhouse have been long proved to be forgeries.
The profits were far smaller than at the Globe, and if Shakespeare held one share certainty on the point is impossible , it added not more than l. His remuneration as dramatist for the seventeen plays completed between and may be estimated, in consideration of their exceptional Later income. With an annual professional income reaching near l. These properties, it must be remembered, represented investments, and he drew rent from most of them. He traded, too, in agricultural produce.
Shakespeare realised his theatrical shares several years before his death in , when he left, according to his will, l. His friends and fellow-actors, Heming and Condell, amassed equally large, if not larger, fortunes, while a contemporary theatrical proprietor, Edward Alleyn, purchased the manor of Dulwich for 10, l. Gifts from patrons may have continued to occasionally augment Shakespeare's resources, but his wealth can be satisfactorily assigned to better attested agencies.
There is no ground for treating it as of mysterious origin cf. Between and , while London remained Shakespeare's chief home, he built up his estate at Stratford. In his father died, being buried on 8 Sept. He apparently left no will, and the poet, as the eldest son, inherited the houses in Henley Street, the only portion of the elder Shakespeare's or his wife's property which had not been alienated to creditors. Shakespeare permitted his mother to reside in one of the Henley Street houses till her death she was buried 9 Sept. On 1 May he purchased of the rich landowners William and John Combe of Formation of the estate at Stratford, — Stratford, for l.
A third purchase quickly followed. They were held practically in fee-simple at the annual rental of 2 s. It appears from the roll that Shakespeare did not attend the manorial court then held at Rowington, and it was stipulated that the estate should remain in the hands of the lady of the manor until he completed the purchase in person. At a later period he was admitted to the copyhold, and he settled the remainder on his two daughters in fee.
In April he purchased from the Combes 20 acres of pasture land, to add to the of arable land that he had acquired of the same owners in As early as Abraham Sturley had suggested that Shakespeare should purchase the tithes of Stratford. Seven years later he became their part owner, and thus The Stratford tithes.
On 24 July he bought for l. The moiety was subject to a rent of 17 l. The investment brought Shakespeare, under the most favourable circumstances, a net income of 38 l. After he joined with two interested persons, Richard Lane of Awston and Thomas Greene, the town clerk of Stratford, in a suit in chancery to determine the exact responsibilities of all the tithe-owners, and in they presented a bill of complaint to Lord-chancellor Ellesmere, with what result is unknown.
Shakespeare inherited his father's love of litigation, and stood rigorously by his rights. In March he recovered in London a debt of 7 l. In Recovery of small debts. July , in the local court at Stratford, he sued one Philip Rogers, to whom he had supplied since the preceding March malt to the value of 1 l. Rogers paid back 6 s. During and he was at law with another fellow-townsman, John Addenbroke. Shakespeare avenged himself by proceeding against one Thomas Horneby, who had acted as the absconding debtor's bail Halliwell-Phillipps , ii.
With an inconsistency that is more apparent than real, the astute business transactions of these years — synchronise with the production of Shakespeare's Literary work in It was produced at Middle Temple Hall on 2 Feb. The ludicrous gravity of Malvolio proved exceptionally popular on the stage. In Shakespeare made a new departure. The general topic was already familiar on the stage cf. Hamlet , act iii. A play of the same title was known as early as , and was acted in by Shakespeare's company.
Shakespeare's piece, which is a penetrating study of political life, is exceptionally well planned and balanced. The characters of Brutus, Antony, and Cassius are exhibited with faultless art. Meanwhile, Shakespeare's friend Ben Jonson was engaged in bitter warfare with his fellow-dramatists, Marston and Dekker, and in Ben Jonson's quarrels. Feis , Shakespeare and Montaigne , Episodically he expresses approval of the work of another character, Virgil, in terms so closely resembling those which he is known to have applied to Shakespeare that they may be regarded as intended to apply to him act v.
Jonson points out that Virgil, by his penetrating intuition, achieved the great effects which others laboriously sought to reach through rules of art. Shakespeare's attitude to Jonson's quarrel has given rise to various conjectures. He brought up Horace, giving the poets a pill; but our fellow Shakespeare hath given him a purge that made him bewray his credit. But such a conclusion is otherwise uncorroborated. The general references subsequently made by Shakespeare Hamlet , act ii.
At any rate in Shakespeare finally left Jonson and all friends and foes lagging far behind. But the second quarto was itself printed from a copy which had been curtailed for acting purposes. A third version long the textus receptus figured in the folio of Here some passages, not to be found in the quartos, appear for the first time, but a few others that appear in the quartos are omitted. The folio text probably followed an acting copy which had been curtailed in a different fashion from that adopted in the second quarto cf. Hamlet —parallel texts of the first and second quarto, and first folio—ed.
George Macdonald, , a study with the text of the folio. Humorous relief is supplied to the tragic theme by Polonius and the gravediggers, and if the topical references to contemporary theatrical history ii. The action develops slowly; at times there is no movement at all. Yet the interest excited by the character of the hero carries all before it, and amply accounts for the position of the play in popular esteem.
Shakespeare's company Arber , iii. The metrical characteristics—the regularity of the blank verse—powerfully confirm the date of composition which Roberts's license suggests. Six years later, however, on 28 Jan. This statement was probably a commercial trick, rendered safe from immediate detection by the fact that the play had not been produced for six years. Perhaps, too, it was speciously justified by recent revisions which their edition embodied. At the time of publication a revival was in contemplation. Helen and Cressida are presented as heartless coquettes.
In style the work is unequal, but in the speeches of Ulysses Shakespeare concentrates a mass of pithily expressed worldly wisdom, much of which has obtained proverbial currency. Despite the association of Shakespeare's company with the rebellion of , it retained its hold on court favour till the close of Elizabeth's reign, and as late as 2 Feb. Her death on 24 March drew from Shakespeare's early eulogist, Queen Elizabeth's death, 24 March Chettle, a vain appeal to him, under the fanciful name of Melicert, to.
England's Mourning Garment , , sign. But the withdrawal of one royal patron only supplied Shakespeare and his friends with another, who proved even more liberal and appreciative. Ten actors are named. Lawrence Fletcher stands James I's patronage. Shakespeare comes second and Burbage third; the rest were doubtless all members of the lord chamberlain's company.
In December the company performed at Wilton while the king was on a visit to William Herbert, third earl of Pembroke. At the time the prevalence of the plague had led to the closing of the theatres in London, and James sent the king's players a gift of 30 l. On 15 March the company walked from the Tower of London to Westminster in the procession which accompanied the king on his formal entry into London, and in August they were all summoned to attend at Somerset House on the occasion of the arrival there of the new Spanish ambassador, Juan de Taxis, Conde de Villa Mediana.
Under the incentive of such exalted patronage, Shakespeare's activity redoubled. To the composition of two of his greatest plays can be confidently assigned. It was produced at Whitehall on 1 Nov. Neither was printed in Shakespeare's lifetime. The tragedy displays to magnificent advantage the dramatist's fully matured powers. An unfaltering equilibrium is maintained in the treatment of both plot and characters.
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The romance had been twice rendered into English by George Whetstone [q. The duke's reference to his dislike of mobs, despite his love of his people, was perhaps penned in deference to James I, whose horror of crowds was notorious act i. The allusion by the porter act ii. The characters of Macbeth and his wife are depicted with the utmost subtlety and concentrated insight. Nowhere, moreover, has Shakespeare introduced comic relief into a tragedy with bolder effect than in the porter's speech after the murder of Duncan act ii. The theory that this and a few other passages were from another hand does not merit acceptance cf.
Clark and Wright, Clarendon Press Ser. The faithful fool who attends the king jests sadly, and serves to intensify the pathos. But the character of Timon himself and all the scenes which he dominates are from Shakespeare's pen. Timon is cast in the mould of Lear. The presence of a third hand, of even inferior merit to Wilkins, has been suspected, and to this collaborator perhaps William Rowley may be best assigned the three scenes of purposeless coarseness which take place in or before a brothel iv.
From so distributed a responsibility the piece naturally suffers. It lacks homogeneity, and the story is helped out by dumb shows and prologues. But a matured felicity of expression characterises Shakespeare's own contributions, which charmingly narrate the romantic quest of Pericles for his daughter Marina, who was born and abandoned in a shipwreck. At many points he here anticipated his latest dramatic effects. The shipwreck is depicted act iv.
The play was issued as by William Shakespeare in a mangled form in , and again in , , , and It was not included in Shakespeare's collected works till In May Edward Blount [q. It was first printed in the folio of But he breathed into the characters even more than his wonted fire, and invested the whole theme with a dramatic grandeur which lifts even Cleopatra's moral worthlessness into sublimity.
He adhered to the text of Plutarch with the utmost literalness. In its austere temper it contrasts at all points with its predecessor. The courageous self-reliance of Coriolanus's mother, Volumnia, is severely contrasted with the submissive gentleness of Virgilia, Coriolanus's wife. The hero falls a victim to unchecked pride of caste, but for the rabble, who procure Coriolanus's overthrow, Shakespeare shows ironical contempt.
The placidity of tone conspicuous in these three plays has been often contrasted with the storm and stress of the great tragedies that preceded them. But the commonly accepted theory that traces in this change of tone a corresponding development in the author's own emotions ignores the objectivity of Shakespeare's dramatic work. Every phase of feeling lay within the scope of his intuition, and the successive order in which he approached them bore no explicable relation to the course of his private life or experience.
The Ginevra of the Italian novel corresponds to Shakespeare's Imogen. On Imogen Shakespeare lavished all the fascination of his genius. The poor verse of the vision of Posthumus act v. Forman at the Globe on 15 May But Shakespeare created the thievish pedlar Autolycus and the high-spirited Paulina, and invented the reconciliation of Leontes with Hermione. In Perdita, Florizel, and the boy Mamilius, he depicted youth in its most attractive guise. The freshness of the pastoral incident, too, surpasses that of all his presentations of country life. The crew, escaping in two boats of cedar to Virginia, reached England in English actors were performing at Nuremberg, where Ayrer lived, in and , and may have brought reports of the piece to Shakespeare.
Or perhaps both English and German plays had a common origin in some novel that has not yet been traced. Gonzalo's description of an ideal commonwealth is derived from Florio's translation of Montaigne's essays This marriage took place on 14 Feb. The plot, which revolves about the forcible expulsion of a ruler from his dominions, and his daughter's wooing by the son of the usurper's chief ally, is hardly one that a shrewd playwright would have chosen as the setting of an official epithalamium in honour of the daughter of a monarch so sensitive about his title to the crown as James I cf.
Universal Review , April , by Dr. Many of the characters seem the outcome of speculation respecting the least soluble problems of human existence. Ariel appears to suggest the capabilities of human intellect when detached from physical attributes. Caliban seems to typify human nature before the evolution of moral sentiment cf. In Prospero, the guiding providence of the romance, who resigns his magic power in the closing scene, traces have been sought without much reason of the lineaments of the dramatist himself, who in this play probably bade farewell to the enchanted work of his life.
But if in Shakespeare finally abandoned dramatic composition, there seems little doubt that he left with the manager of his Unfinished plays. His place at the head of the active dramatists was at once filled by John Fletcher — [q. Moseley, whose description may have been fraudulent, failed to publish the piece, and nothing is otherwise known of it.
John Fletcher and Mr. The last included it in his edition of Shakespeare. Coleridge detected Shakespeare's hand in act i.
The early histories
The residue is disfigured by indecency and triviality, and is of no literary value. Some recent critics assign much of the alleged Shakespearean work to Massinger, and they narrow Shakespeare's contribution to the first scene with the opening song and act v. Certainty is impossible, but frequent signs of Shakespeare's workmanship are unmistakable. Court and Times of James I. The three chief characters—the king, Queen Katharine of Arragon, and Cardinal Wolsey—bear clear marks of Shakespeare's best workmanship; but only act i. Katharine's trial , act iii.
The remaining thirteen scenes are from the pen of Fletcher, perhaps with occasional aid from Massinger. Wolsey's familiar farewell to Cromwell act iii. James Spedding's theory that Fletcher hastily completed Shakespeare's unfinished draft for the special purpose of enabling the company to celebrate the marriage of Princess Elizabeth and Elector Palatine, which took place on 14 Feb. The concluding years of Shakespeare's life — were mainly passed at Stratford, and probably in he disposed of his shares in the Globe and Blackfriars theatres.
He owned none at the date of his death. But until he paid frequent visits to London, where friends in sympathy with his work were alone to be found. His plays continued to form the staple of court performances. Shakespeare's former colleague, produced at Whitehall no less than seven of his plays, viz. Of his actor-friends, one of the chief, Augustine Actor-friends.
Burbage and he were credited with having engaged together in many sportive adventures. Such gossip deserves little more acceptance than the later story, in the same key, which credits Shakespeare with the paternity of Sir William D'Avenant [q. The story was long current in Oxford, and was at times complacently accepted by the reputed son. But it is safer to adopt the less compromising version which makes Shakespeare the boy's godfather. He was a welcome guest at John D'Avenant's house, and another son, Robert, reported the kindly notice which the poet took of him as a child cf. Aubrey , Lives ; Halliwell-Phillipps , ii.
Ben Jonson and Drayton—the latter a Warwickshire man—seem to have been Shakespeare's chief literary friends in his latest years. At Stratford Shakespeare in his declining days took a full share of social and civic responsibilities. Meanwhile, domestic affairs engaged some of his attention. Of his two surviving children—both daughters—the eldest, Susanna, had married, on 5 June , John Hall — [q.
On 15 July Mrs. Hall preferred, with her father's assistance, a charge of slander against one Lane in the ecclesiastical court at Worcester; the defendant, who had apparently charged the lady with illicit relations with one Ralph Smith, did not appear, and was excommunicated. In the same year , when on a short visit to London, he invested a small sum of money in a new property—his last Purchase of a house in Blackfriars. He purchased a house, the ground-floor of which was a haberdasher's shop, with a yard attached.
It was situated within six hundred feet of the Blackfriars Theatre—on the west side of St. The former owner, Henry Walker, a musician, had bought the property for l. Shakespeare in agreed to pay him l. The deeds of conveyance bear the date of 10 March in that year. The indenture prepared for the purchaser is in the Halliwell-Phillipps collection, which was sold to Mr.
Perry of Providence, Rhode Island, U. That held by the vendor is in the Guildhall Library. Next day, on 11 March, Shakespeare executed another deed now in the British Museum which stipulated that 60 l. He at once leased the property to John Robinson, already a resident in the neighbourhood.
In the spring of a preacher at Stratford, doubtless of puritan proclivities, was entertained at New Place after delivering a sermon. Shakespeare's son-in-law Hall was probably responsible for the civility. In July John Combe, a rich inhabitant of Stratford, died and left 5 l. The legend that Shakespeare alienated him by composing some doggerel on his practice of lending money at ten per cent.
Combe's death involved Shakespeare more conspicuously than before in civic affairs. Combe's heir William no sooner succeeded to his father's lands than he, with a neighbouring owner, Arthur Mannering, steward of Lord-chancellor Ellesmere who was ex-officio lord of the manor attempted to enclose the common fields, which belonged to the corporation of Attempt to enclose the Stratford common fields. Stratford, about his estate at Welcombe. The corporation resolved to offer the scheme a stout resistance.
Shakespeare had a twofold interest in the matter by virtue of his owning acres at Welcombe and Old Stratford, and as joint owner—now with Thomas Greene, the town clerk—of the tithes of Old Stratford, Welcombe, and Bishopton. His interest in his freeholds could not have been prejudicially affected, but his interest in the tithes might be depreciated by the proposed enclosure. Shakespeare consequently joined with his fellow-owner Greene in obtaining from Combe's agent Replingham in October a deed indemnifying both against any injury they might suffer from the enclosure.
But having secured himself against loss, Shakespeare threw his influence into Combe's scale. In November he was on a last visit to London, and Greene, whose official position as town clerk compelled him to support the corporation, visited him there to discuss the position of affairs. Happily Combe's efforts failed, and the common lands remained unenclosed Shakespeare and the Enclosure of Common Fields at Welcombe , a facsimile of Greene's diary, now at Stratford, with a transcript by Mr. Scott, edited by Dr.
At the beginning of Shakespeare's health was failing. He directed Francis Collins, a solicitor of Warwick, to draft his will, but, though it was prepared for signature on 25 Jan. The ceremony took place before a license was procured, and the irregularity led to the summons of the bride and bridegroom before the ecclesiastical court at Worcester and the imposition of a fine.
June , credited Shakespeare with engaging at an earlier date in a prolonged and violent drinking bout at Bidford, a neighbouring village cf. Malone , Shakespeare , , ii.
The cause of his death is undetermined, but probably a recurrence of illness led him in March to sign the will that had been drafted in the previous January. On Tuesday, 23 April, he died at the age of fifty-two. The date is in the old style, and is equivalent to 3 May in the new; Cervantes, whose death is often described as simultaneous, died at Madrid ten days earlier—on 13 April in the old style, i.
Hard by was the charnel-house, where bones dug up from the churchyard were deposited. Over the poet's grave were inscribed the lines:. Shakespeare's will, the first draft of which was drawn up before 25 Jan. Hall, in London on 22 June following. The religious exordium is in conventional phraseology, and gives no clue to Shakespeare's personal religious opinions. What those opinions were, we have neither the means nor the warrant for discussing. No other bequest was made her. Her right to a widow's Bequest to his wife.
The precision with which the will accounts for and disposes of every known item of his property refutes, too, the conjecture that he had provided for his wife under a previous settlement or jointure. But however plausible the theory that his relations with her, especially in early life, were wanting in sympathy, it is improbable that the slender mention of her in the will was a deliberate mark of his indifference or dislike. Local tradition subsequently credited her with a wish to be buried in his grave; and her epitaph proves that she inspired her daughters with genuine affection.
Probably her ignorance of affairs and the infirmities of age she was past sixty combined to unfit her in the poet's eyes for the control of property, and he committed her to the care of his elder daughter, who inherited, according to such information as is accessible, some of his own shrewdness, and had a capable adviser in her husband. This elder daughter, Susannah Hall, was, according to the will, to become mistress of New Place, and practically of all the poet's estate. She received with remainder to her issue in strict entail New Place, all the land, barns, and gardens at and near Stratford except the tenement in Chapel Lane , and the house in Blackfriars, London, while she and her husband were appointed executors and residuary legatees, with full rights over nearly all the poet's household furniture and personal belongings.
To his younger daughter he also left, with the tenement in Chapel Lane in remainder to the elder daughter , l. To the poet's sister, Joan Hart, whose husband, William Hart, predeceased the testator by only six days, he left, besides a contingent reversionary interest in Judith's pecuniary legacy, his wearing apparel, 20 l. To the poor of Stratford he gave 10l. Thomas Combe apparently a brother of William, of the enclosure controversy his sword. Before an elaborate monument, by a London sculptor, Gerard Johnson, was erected to Shakespeare's memory in the chancel of the The tomb.
Dugdale , Diary , , p. It includes a half-length bust, and a pen is in the right hand. The inscription, which was apparently written by a London friend, runs:. Stay passenger, why goest thou by so fast? No other contemporary left on record any definite impression of Shakespeare's personal character. But the references in his will to his fellow-actors, and the spirit in which as they announce in the first folio they approached the task of collecting his works after his death, corroborate the description of him as a sympathetic friend.
Pope had just warrant for his surmise that Shakespeare. With his literary power and sociability there clearly went the shrewd capacity of a man of business. His literary attainments and successes were chiefly valued as serving the prosaic end of providing permanently for himself and his children. His highest ambition was to restore among his fellow-townsmen the family repute which his father's misfortunes had imperilled.
Ideals so homely are reckoned rare among poets, but Chaucer and Sir Walter Scott, among writers of exalted genius, vie with Shakespeare in the sobriety of their personal aims and the sanity of their mental attitude towards life's ordinary incidents. Shakespeare's widow died on 6 Aug. Some affectionately phrased Latin elegiacs—doubtless from Dr. Hall's pen—were inscribed on a brass plate fastened to the stone above her grave.
The younger daughter, Judith, resided with her husband, Thomas Quiney, at The Cage, a house which he leased in Bridge Street from till There he carried on the trade of a vintner, and took part in municipal affairs, acting as a councillor from and as chamberlain in —2 and —3, but after his affairs grew embarrassed, and he left Stratford late in for London, where he seems to have died a few months later.
Of his three sons by Judith, the eldest, Shakespeare bapt. Judith survived her husband, sons, and sister, dying at Stratford on 9 Feb. The elder daughter, Susannah Hall, resided at New Place till her death. Her sister Judith alienated to her the Chapel Place tenement before , but that, with the interest in the Stratford tithes, she soon disposed of. Her husband John Hall died on 25 Nov. In James Cooke, a surgeon in attendance on some royalist troops stationed at Stratford, visited Mrs. Hall and examined manuscripts in her possession, but they were apparently of her husband's, not of her father's, composition cf.
Hall , Select Observations , ed. Hall at New Place for three days. Hall's only child, Elizabeth, was the last surviving descendant of the poet. In April she married her first husband, Thomas Nash of Stratford b , who studied at Lincoln's Inn, was a man of property, and, dying childless at New Place on 4 April , was buried in Stratford church next day. About the same date she seems to have abandoned New Place for her husband's residence at Abington.
Dying without issue, she was buried there on 17 Feb. Her husband survived her four years, and was buried beside her Baker , Northamptonshire , i. Lady Barnard inherited under the poet's will on her mother's death in the land near Stratford, New Place, the house at Blackfriars, and on the death of the poet's sister Joan in the houses in Henley Street, while her father left her in a house at Acton with a meadow. She sold the Blackfriars house, and apparently the Stratford land, before By her will, dated January —70, and proved in the following March, she left small bequests to the daughters of Thomas Hathaway, of the family of her grandmother, the poet's wife.
The houses in Henley Street passed to her cousin, Thomas Hart, the grandson of the poet's sister Joan, and they remained in the possession of Thomas's direct descendants till the male line expired on the death of John Hart in Sir John rebuilt it in On the death of his son Hugh in it was bought by the Rev. Of Shakespeare's three brothers, only one, Gilbert, seems to have survived him.
Richard, John Shakespeare's third son, died at Stratford, in February , aged Much controversy has arisen over the spelling of the poet's surname. It has been proved capable of four thousand variations Spelling of the poet's surname. Wise , Autograph of William Shakespeare … together with 4, ways of spelling the name , Philadelphia, The name of the poet's father is entered sixty-six times in the council books of Stratford, and is spelt in sixteen ways.
Blackfriars, dated 10 March —13 since in the Guildhall Library ; his signature to the mortgage deed relating to the same purchase, dated 11 March —13 since in the British Museum ; and the three signatures on the three sheets of his will, dated 25 March —16 now at Somerset House. In all the signatures some of the letters are represented by recognised signs of abbreviation.
It is the spelling adopted on the title-pages of the majority of contemporary editions of his works, whether or not produced under his supervision. It is adopted in almost all the published references to the poet during the seventeenth century. It appears in the grant of arms in , in the licence to the players of , and in the text of all the legal documents relating to the poet's property.
The poet, like most of his contemporaries, acknowledged no finality on the subject. According to the best authority, he spelt his surname in two ways when signing his will. There is consequently no good ground for abandoning the form which is sanctioned by legal and literary custom cf.
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There is considerable discrepancy between the two; their main point of resemblance is the baldness on the top of the head. The bust, attributed to Gerard Johnson, is a rudely carved specimen of mortuary sculpture; the round face and eyes present a heavy, unintellectual expression, and it has no apparent claim to be regarded as an accurate likeness. It was originally coloured, but in Malone caused it to be whitewashed. In the whitewash was removed, and the colours, as far as traceable, restored.
The eyes are hazel. There have been numberless reproductions, both engraved and photographic. It was first engraved—very imperfectly—for Rowe's edition in ; then by Vertue for Pope's edition of ; and by Gravelot for Hanmer's edition in A good engraving by William Ward appeared in A phototype and a chromo-phototype, issued by the New Shakspere Society, are the best reproductions for the purposes of study. Hunt, town clerk of Stratford, to the Birthplace Museum, was probably painted from the bust in the seventeenth century; the picture belonged at one time to the Clopton family.
The engraved portrait—nearly a half-length—which was prefixed to the folio of , was by Martin Droeshout [q. The face is long and the forehead high; the top of the head is bald, but the hair falls in abundance over the ears. There is a scanty moustache and a thin tuft under the lower lip. A stiff and wide collar, projecting horizontally, conceals the neck. The coat is closely buttoned and elaborately bordered, especially at the shoulders.
In the unique proof copy which belonged to Halliwell-Phillipps now with his collection in America , the tone is clearer than in the ordinary copies, and the shadows are less darkened by cross-hatching and coarse dotting. Of the numerous extant paintings which have been described as portraits of Shakespeare, only the three at Stratford The Chandos portrait. Of those presenting other features of interest, the most famous is the Chandos portrait. Its pedigree suggests that it was designed to represent the poet, but some conspicuous divergences from the two authenticated likenesses show that it was painted from fanciful descriptions of him after his death.
The face is bearded, and rings adorn the ears. Oldys reported that it was from the brush of Burbage and had belonged to Joseph Taylor, an actor contemporary with Shakespeare. Later owners are said to have been D'Avenant, Betterton, and Mrs. In Sir Godfrey Kneller made a copy as a gift for Dryden. At length it reached the hands of James Brydges, third duke of Chandos, through his father-in-law, John Nichols, and it subsequently passed, through Chandos's daughter, to her husband, the Duke of Buckingham, at the sale of whose heir's effects at Stowe in it was purchased by the Earl of Ellesmere.
The latter presented it to the nation. Edward Capell presented a copy by R. It was engraved for Pope's edition , and often later, one of the best engravings being by Vandergucht. The Baroness Burdett-Coutts purchased in a portrait of similar type, which had at one time belonged to John, lord Lumley ? A fine mezzotint by R. Earlom was issued in Felton of Drayton, Shropshire, in of J.
Neagle for Isaac Reed's edition in Three portraits are assigned to Zucchero, who left England in , and cannot have had any relations with Shakespeare. One is in the Art Museum, Boston, U. Langford of Birmingham, was engraved in mezzotint by H. Green; a third, purchased in , belonged to the Baroness Burdett-Coutts. Wright, painter, of Covent Garden, in , when I. Soest was born twenty-one years after Shakespeare's death, and the portrait is only on fanciful grounds identified with the poet. A chalk drawing by Joseph Michael Wright [q. A miniature by Hilliard, at one time in the possession of William Somerville [q.
Lumsden Propert, and a third is at Warwick Castle. The warehouse had been erected on the site of the Duke's Theatre, which was built by D'Avenant in The bust, which was believed to have adorned the proscenium of the Duke's Theatre, was acquired by William Clift [q. The latter sold it to the Duke of Devonshire, who presented it in to the Garrick Club, after having two copies made.
The Kesselstadt death-mask was discovered by Dr. Ludwig Becker in a rag-shop at Mayence in The features resemble those of an Alleged death-mask.
Becker purchased in This picture had long been in the possession of the family of Count Francis von Kesselstadt of Mayence, who died in Becker brought the mask and the picture to England in , and Richard Owen supported the theory that the mask was taken from Shakespeare's face after death, and was the foundation of the bust in Stratford church.
The mask is now the property of Dr. Ernest Becker the discoverer's brother , and is at the ducal palace, Darmstadt. The features are singularly attractive; but the chain of evidence which would identify them with Shakespeare is incomplete. A monument, the expenses of which were defrayed by public subscription, was set up in the Poets' Corner in Westminster Abbey in Pope and the Earl of Burlington were among the promoters.
The design was by William Kent [q. Another statue was executed by Roubiliac for Garrick, who bequeathed it to the British Museum in A third statue is in Leicester Square, London; a fourth by Mr. Paul Fournier, was erected in Paris in , at the expense of an English resident, Mr. Knighton; it stands at the point where the Avenue de Messine meets the boulevard Haussmann. At Stratford, the Birthplace, which was acquired by the public in and converted into a museum, is, with Anne Hathaway's cottage acquired by the Birthplace trustees in , a place of pilgrimage for tourists from all parts of the globe.
The 27, persons who visited it in represented over forty nationalities. The site of the demolished New Place, with the gardens, was also purchased by public subscription in Of a new memorial building on the river-bank at Stratford, consisting of a theatre, picture-gallery, and library, the foundation-stone was laid on 23 April Performances of Shakespeare's plays have since been given annually during April. A memorial Shakespeare library was opened at Birmingham on 23 April to commemorate the tercentenary of , and, although destroyed by fire in , was restored in , and now possesses 9, volumes relating to Shakespeare.
The first editions of these four volumes were reproduced in facsimile at Oxford in Marshall's copy of the Droeshout engraving of formed the frontispiece. Of the sixteen fully authenticated quartos, two plays reached five editions before , viz. Three reached four editions, viz. Three reached three editions, viz.
Four reached two editions, viz. Four achieved only one edition, viz. Lithographed facsimiles of most of these volumes, with some of the quarto editions of the poems forty-eight volumes in all , were prepared by Mr. Ashbee, and issued to subscribers by Halliwell-Phillipps between and A cheaper set of quarto facsimiles, undertaken by Mr. Griggs, and issued under the supervision of Dr. Furnivall, appeared in forty-three volumes between and The largest collection of the original quartos—each of which only survives in four, five, or six copies—are in the libraries of the Duke of Devonshire, the British Museum, the Bodleian, and Trinity College, Cambridge.
Perfect copies range in price, according to their rarity, from l. All the quartos were issued in Shakespeare's day at sixpence each. Thirty-six pieces in all were thus brought together. The volume was sold at a pound a copy, and was described in the colophon as printed at the charges of W. Aspley, as well as of Blount. The latter doubtless saw it through the press cf.
Doubtless the large work was long in printing. On the title-page is engraved the Droeshout portrait. About fourteen perfect copies and imperfect copies of the first folio seem now known. One of the finest copies was purchased by the Baroness Burdett-Coutts for l. Frederick Locker-Lampson's copy fetched 3, l. A reprint unwarrantably purporting to be exact was published in —8 cf. The best reprint was issued in three parts by Lionel Booth in , , A photo-zincographic reproduction by Sir Henry James, under the direction of Howard Staunton, was issued in sixteen folio parts between Feb.
A reduced photographic facsimile appeared in , with a preface by Halliwell-Phillipps. The second folio edition was printed in by Thomas Cotes for Robert Allot and William Aspley, each of whose names figures as publisher on different copies. To Allot The Second Folio. Blount had transferred, on 16 Nov.
The second folio is identical with the first. The third folio was first published in by Peter The Third Folio. Chetwynde, who reissued it next year with the addition of seven plays, six of which have no claim to admission among Shakespeare's works. Pericles, Prince of Tyre. The History of Thomas Ld. Sir John Oldcastle, Lord Cobham. The Tragedy of Locrine. Since some two hundred independent editions of the collected works have been published in Great Britain and Ireland, and many Eighteenth-century editors.
The chief eighteenth-century editors of the collected works were: Alexander Pope , 6 vols. Sir Thomas Hanmer , 6 vols. Bishop Warburton, who re-edited Pope's version in in 8 vols. Johnson , 8 vols. Meanwhile, George Steevens, who reprinted twenty of the quartos in , joined with Johnson in producing the first attempt at a The Variorum Editions.
Farmer and Malone were incorporated. This long remained the standard edition.