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Theory and Method really liked it 4. This book seeks to deepen our understanding of the cultural aspects of human psychology. These are aspects of psychology that originate in, are formed by, reflect, perpetuate, and modify social processes and factors outside the individual mind. My motivation in pursuing cultural psychol- ogy is both scientific and political. I believe that construing psychology as a cultur This book seeks to deepen our understanding of the cultural aspects of human psychology.
I believe that construing psychology as a cultural phenomenon is the scientifically correct way to understand psychology; a cultural analysis of psychology can also provide crucial insights for political action to improve human life. The scientific and political aspects of cultural psychology are inter- dependent and reciprocally reinforcing. The scientific identification and explanation of cultural aspects of psychology can identify societal changes that will enhance human psychology-to help people become more intel- ligent, far-sighted, logical, harmonious, helpful, moral, and secure, and less stressful, disturbed, prejudiced, competitive, aggressive, lonely, insecure, depressed, mystified, and irrational.
Conversely, the political orientation of cultural psychology to enhance psychological functioning through comprehending and improving the social fabric advances the scientific understanding of psychology as a cultural phenomenon. Social goals direct cultural psychology to devise special theories and methods that investigate cultural origins, formation, characteristics, and functions of psychology.
Traditional theories and methods are not necessarily appli- cable because they are informed by a vision of psychology as individual, biological, or universal. The scientific study of cultural psychology is a check on political analyses. Hardcover , pages. To see what your friends thought of this book, please sign up. To ask other readers questions about Cultural Psychology , please sign up.
Lists with This Book. This book is not yet featured on Listopia. Aug 29, Bruce Lerro rated it it was amazing. Well, something similar has happened to Vygotsky theories. Its application was limited to education and comparing cultures. A rare exception to this story is the work of Carl Ratner. Carl writes about cultural psychology from the point of view of activity theory where individuals are active social and historical beings before they become individuals. This short book covers a lot of ground and traces the historical origins masculinity, anorexia, and hysteria, shows their roots in capitalism.
The book systematically criticizes the work of the leading American Vygotskyians for their individualism. Also included is a call for qualitative interviewing techniques. This is a careful, provocative book. Japanese individuals are therefore more likely to describe themselves in relation to others, such as "I try not to upset anyone," or "I am a father, a son, and a brother. Interactions with other people and products reinforce cultural behaviors on a daily basis.
Stories, songs, architecture, and advertisements are all methods of interaction that guide individuals in a culture to promote certain values and teach them how to behave. In the US, no-smoking signs focus on individual action by simply saying "No Smoking". These signs reflect underlying cultural norms and values, and when people see them they are encouraged to behave in accordance with the greater cultural values. The next layer of culture is made up of the institutions in which everyday interactions take place.
These determine and enforce the rules for a society and include legal, government, economic, scientific, philosophical, and religious bodies. Institutions encourage certain practices and products while discouraging others. In Japanese kindergartens, children learn about important cultural values such as teamwork, group harmony, and cooperation. During "birthday month celebration," for example, the class celebrates all the children who have birthdays that month.
This institutional practice underscores the importance of a group over an individual. In US kindergartens, children learn their personal value when they celebrate their birthdays one by one, enforcing the cultural value of uniqueness and individualism. Everyday institutional practices such as classroom birthday celebrations propagate prominent cultural themes. John and Beatrice Whiting, along with their research students at Harvard University , developed the "Whiting model" for child development during the s and s, which specifically focused on how culture influences development.
The Whitings coined the term "cultural learning environment", to describe the surroundings that influence a child during development. This results in maintenance systems i. These factors inform learned behavior, or progressive expressive systems that take the form of religion, magic beliefs, ritual and ceremony, art, recreation, games and play, or crime rates.
Many researchers have expanded upon the Whiting model,  and the Whiting model's influence is clear in both modern psychology and anthropology. According to an article by Thomas Weisner in the Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology , "All these [more recent] approaches share a common intellectual project: While self-enhancement is a person's motivation to view themselves positively, self-improvement is a person's motivation to have others view themselves positively.
The distinction between the two modes of life is most evident between independent and collectivistic cultures. Some strategies employed when self-enhancing often include downward social comparison , compensatory self-enhancement, discounting, external attributions and basking in reflected glory. This motivation is often derived from a desire to not lose face and to appear positively among social groups.
A main distinction to understand when looking at psychology and culture is the difference between individualistic and collectivistic cultures. People from an individualistic culture typically demonstrate an independent view of the self; the focus is usually on personal achievement. The Fundamental Attribution Error has been shown to be more common in America individualistic as compared to in India collectivistic. Each representation is at either end; thus, some members of individualistic cultures may hold collectivistic values, and some collectivistic individual may hold some individualist values.
- Lalphabet des petites bêtes (Mon premier alphabet) (French Edition).
The concepts of collectivism and individualism show a general idea of the values of a specific ethnic culture but should not be juxtaposed in competition. These differences in values across cultures suggests that understanding and expressing empathy may be manifested differently throughout varying cultures. Duan and Hill  first discussed empathy in subcategories of intellectual empathy: This created four types of empathy to further examine: These four branches allowed researchers to examine empathic proclivities among individuals of different cultures.
While individualism was not shown to correlate with either types of dispositional empathy, collectivism was shown to have a direct correlation with both types of dispositional empathy, possibly suggesting that by having less focus on the self, there is more capacity towards noticing the needs of others. More so, individualism predicted experienced intellectual empathy, and collectivism predicted experienced empathic emotion.
These results are congruent with the values of collectivistic and individualistic societies. The self-centered identity and egoistic motives prevalent in individualistic cultures, perhaps acts as a hindrance in being open to fully experiencing empathy. Cultural empathy became broadly understood as concurrent understanding and acceptance of a culture different from one's own.
This idea is meant to foster cultural empathy as well as engender cultural competence. Eysneck  conceptualized ethnocentrism as using one's own culture to understand the rest of the world, while holding one's own values as correct. Concomitant with this barrier to intercultural empathy, Rasoal, Eklund, and Hansen  posit five hindrances of intercultural empathy; these include:. These five points elucidate lack of both depth and breadth as hindrances in developing and practicing intercultural empathy.
Another barrier to intercultural empathy is that there is often a power dynamic between different cultures. Bridging an oppressed culture with their upper-echelon oppressor is a goal of intercultural empathy. One approach to this barrier is to attempt to acknowledge one's personal oppression.
Through this, the goal is that intercultural empathy can lend toward broader intercultural understanding across cultures and societies. Four important facets of cultural empathy are: These four aspects may be especially helpful for practicing cultural competence in a clinical setting. Given that most psychological practices were founded on the parochial ideals of Euro-American psychologists, cultural competence was not considered much of a necessity until said psychologists increasingly began seeing clients with different ethnic backgrounds.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. The cultural matrix of social psychology. Essays on mind, self, and emotion. The Oxford Handbook of Culture and Psychology. Behavioral and Brain Sciences. Trends in Cognitive Sciences. A Cycle of Mutual Constitution". Perspectives on Psychological Science. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. Archived from the original PDF on A cultural look at new look" PDF. A Once and Future Discipline. The Psychology of Violence in the South. The Culture of Morality: Social Development, Context, and Conflict.
Comment on Oyserman et al" PDF.
Cultural psychology : theory and method in SearchWorks catalog
The reference-group problem" PDF. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience.
- Cultural Psychology: Theory and Method by Carl Ratner.
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