Calaméo - Radiša Dragićević - MOVIE STARS - Second draft
This is a tendency which continues and persists in a tension between processes of narrativity and of visual abstraction in such different works as Brakhage's Dog Star Man, Snow's Wavelength, the Berwick Street Collective's '36 to '77, and Greenaway'Si4 Walk through H. In these films the avant-garde differs from and does not merely 'reject', the possibilities of narrative. A third and seemingly paradoxical relationship between the avant-garde and narrativity is provided by such central instances as early and mid-period Warhol, where narrativity is not even necessarily 'complicated' in the terms.
What might perhaps be more precisely argued is that avant-garde works tend to provide different permutation of narrative understood as linear, temporal, connective, and, eventually 'closed' channels of enunciation, 'binding' the addressee the spectator in the closure of its logic, the logic of its closure. Instead, it would seem, avant-garde film will explore other 'structural' and 'organisational' models, from the 'open' models of aleatory procedure to the 'closure', more extreme than narrativity itself, of'systemic' constructs.
Hence an early interest, through the work of Brakhage, in the 'lyric' mode, which involved an understanding of the 'poetic' in terms of compression and condensation. This tendency towards the 'poetic' could move, like avant-garde treatment of narrativity, in more than one direction: To return to Warhol, for example: Chelsea Girls, in fact, depends upon the rarefied principle of minimal segmentation, minimal editing, imposed by the procedure of the 'single-take'; the film is 'structured' by the 'spontaneity' of pro-filmic action 'permitted' and,yet 'stabilised' by the single-take and the fixed camera.
It represents, in other words, and contrary to my earlier suggestion, no simple reversion to narrativity, with the latter's more obviously complex forms of structuration. This minimalist or ascetic structuralism, in evidence not only in early Fluxus work but in recent English film, then contrasts strongly with that other, more fully heterogeneous poetic, based frequently upon the fertility of editing procedures, that heterogeneity associated with the structural 'voluptuaries' — Anger, Mekas, Rice, Baillie, or Markopolous.
The New Status of the Image It was this kind of explosion of the semiotic, through the 'surfacing' and foregrounding of repressed and hence invisible structural codes, that would quickly lead to the very genre of the so-called 'structural film' described more fully in these pages by Birgit Hein and, more recently, of'Structural-Materialist' film to which I return in my final section.
But the shift from 'narrativity' to the 'structural' entailed a more immediate, and broader, implication. For this shift also logically involved an alteration in the status of the cinematographic image itself, since this too was deeply implicated in the uncovering of new forms of structuring film. That is to say, if 'extensive' structures for temporal organisation, duration, frequency, and continuity were subject to revision, then so too was the 'integrity' of the image, seemingly bound 'directly', by 'analogy' to the 'real'.
This new exploration again exposed, instead, the structuration of the visual. This departure was to take various forms, fundamental amongst which was that overarching analysis of narrativity to which we have already been referring. With superstructural features renovated, the image was no longer 'secured' or 'guaranteed' by narrativity, but could be exposed. There were to be other corresponding drives at work 'within' the image: No longer anchored in narrativity, the image was no longer bound in by the verbal, either in terms of the need to 'illustrate' a scenario or to draw 'support' from dialogue.
Image-sound relationships within the avant-garde could instead then bear not only the marks of unilateral asceticism silence , but also the very opposite — the speechband luxuriant and the image constant in its spareness Snow's A Casing Shelved , or each riddlingly 'relative' in their interpenetration Brakhage's Blue Moses.
The general play on narrativity, and on the status of the filmic image, had considerable ontological repercussions. To begin with, what was implied was nothing less than a transformation of the 'object' film. The camera, programmed, could obviate simple notions of authorial intervention and self-expressivity Snow's Back and Forth and Central Region ', the optical printer could become the site not only for the reproduction but the production of film imagery; the moment of projection could in turn become a moment of production, of the 'performance' of a no longer 'insulated' image-flow within a broader and 'mixed' spectacle.
These movements of the avant-garde towards new modes of existence for the object 'film', with all their implications for the changing role of the spectator, are copiously illustrated in the exhibition. But what should be stated here is that such variety — its ambition nothing less than an attempt to open out the repetitious closure of the mainstream cinema to a new infinity — is most radical in the very fact of its own heterogeneity.
For it surely compels analysis of those very differences within the avant-garde, and so leads to more complex notions of relativity, even contradiction, than those permitted by the present sketch. Is our 'history' nothing less than the sum total of their pluralism, or do we need the history of a thesis through their difference? After the provocation of our initial binary opposition — 'dominant' versus 'avantgarde' cinema — what are the implications of a second elementary enquiry — how many avant-gardes?
These contrasts have a certain polemical force, and produce convenient and even telling differences.
But they run the danger of oversimplifying the relationship by 'forcing' differences in the interests of separation, and of making each side of the opposition stark and monolithic, generalised and timeless. One way of answering this question is to accept the separate-ness' of avant-garde film, and to proceed upon. In the post-war period it will go trough a number of major phases — from a preoccupation with film psychodrama the early work of Anger and: Brakhage, the Deren oeuvre to an on the one hand -creasingly formal concern with lyricism Brakhage and abstraction the US West Coast film-makers and, on the: This rapid paraphrase of the common 'evolutionary' -.
To gather but a: We could repeat and extend this elementary process of -. In this volume, such contributions as Ian Christie's study of French avant-garde film work in the s, Deke Dusinberre's archaeology of the 'lost' vanguards of the 30s, Peter Weibel's reading of the cinema of Kubelka, and Al Rees' general charting of the cultural contexts for the evolution of the avant-garde all supply clear evidence of the value and the interest of this form of historical contextualisation and re-connection.
Radiša Dragićević - 1000 MOVIE STARS - Second draft
At one level this exhibition, like these writers, addresses nothing less than the poverty of historiography in relation to the avant-garde film. But the urgency of the return to history also calls for other models for the reconstruction and re-presentation of the 'past'. In addition to localised historicist analyses, we also need broader models capable of globalising these individual initiatives, of checking merely academicist appropriations of avant-garde film history.
Already having moved away from the superficialities of a binary opposition between 'dominant' and'avant-garde' cinema, perhaps I will surprise the reader by returning at this point, for special reasons, to precisely such a model. If I return once more to such a set of oppositions for reconsidering the 'history' of the avant-garde, it is once more for the sake of overview, and hence of the polemic, that it produces.
The polemic is provided by the perhaps surprising proposition that, in spite of the claims I have just been developing for the sumptuous pluralism of avant-garde film practice, there may in fact in another broader sense be no more than two avant-gardes at work within the numerous years, and films, and authors, within the apparent luxury of choice, represented in this exhibition. How could this be? The Notion of the 'Two' Avant- Gardes These 'two' avant-gardes are of course the two proposed by Peter Wollen in a recent influential essay of this title.
The force of Wollen's proposition is to introduce the crucial notion 'ideology' into the history of the avant-garde, ideology in the simple sense of 'frame of reference' or 'world-view' as mediated, and produced, by different cinematic forms and practices. Wollen's 'ideological' reading of the 'evolution' of the avant-garde is thus concerned with the possibility that there are two broad tendencies at work within its history: The former represents the 'classic' avant-garde of Eggeling, or Brakhage, and its key reference-points are formal issues within the arts; the second group is made up of the 'analytic' avant-garde of Vertov, of Godard, and of Straub, whose reference-points take in aesthetics but through the filter of notions of the social and political.
This opposition, for all its simplicity, can then be used as a tool for reassessing the very 'modernism' of avant-garde film aspirations. To return once more to the international European avant-garde of the s, for example, would. Coming up to date, to the s, the period which produces the very concept of the 'two' avant-gardes is the very period of a similarly marked general opposition within its own film culture.
Two recent major feature films from the English avant-garde, encapsulating this difference, might be seen as LeGrice's experiment in forms of narrativity, Blackbird Descending, compared with another use of landscape and location in the interests of developing political and historical methods of narration, Mulloy's In the Forest. The Case of Vertov A more classic and more central instance of the difference between these avant-garde positions, on the politics of form, is provided by a single case — the work of the early Soviet film-maker, Dziga Vertov.
For it is Vertov, more than any other pioneer, whose own attempted fusion of formal and ideological concerns—and indeed, sometimes his failure to fuse the two — has been differently understood and 'used' by figures in the different avant-gardes. When, after May , Godard and Gorin combined into the 'Dziga Vertov Group', this re-designation marked their political re-affiliation to Vertov's cause, the politics of the left documentary, redefining the 'real' through the dialectic of film montage and the 'camera eye'.
But this was only one appropriation of Vertov, exclusive to the 'second' of Wollen's avant-gardes. Within the 'formal' avant-garde what was absorbed was Vertov's editing aesthetic, and the formalities, shorn of his political concerns, of his theory of cinematic 'intervals'.
This is the Vertov claimed by Peter Weibel elsewhere in this catalogue as the progenitor of Kubelka's complex minimalism, an influence explicitly deprived of politics by Weibel so that Vertov may sit easily with Kubelka's other major formal inspiration, Webern. A fuller reading of film history would perhaps have redefined Vertov himself as being just as deeply implicated as any subsequent filmmaker in the very tensions of those tendencies separated out, posed in opposition, in the model of the 'two' avantgardes. The Case of 'Structural-Materialist' Film4 Terms and Definitions Our exhibition does not attempt to address the full complexities of the debates over the 'two' avant-gardes, over the 'formalist dilemma' witrjin the Modernist development.
Following the main lines of its West German prototype, for instance, it does not encompass the work of Godard and of Straub, and tends, as we have already noted, to underplay the 'art and politics' debates within the Soviet avant-garde by 'formalising' Vertov and by. The present exhibition has broader, and in many ways more traditional, objectives, directing its address at the level of'art history' and inserting cinema through this discourse into the institution of art culture. But these debates, central to consideration of the cinema in relation to notions of history, culture, ideology, become pertinent in another form to this event.
It is here, we might say by way of preface, that we encounter the most pressing recent claims for the progressive ideological value of what appear to be extremely formal operations within cinema, a case thus challenging, and threatening to dissolve, the separation of these concerns into the 'two' avant-gardes of Wollen's model. Structural-Materialist film is associated largely with the work of British and European film artists in the later s and early s. It represents a more complex and more polemic form of the early s 'structural' film. The main lines of the enterprise were sketched out by the London film-maker Peter Gidal as his contribution to the Studio International survey of avant-garde film in Europe and the UK — a survey which incidentally also included Wollen on 'The Two Avant-Gardes' — before they were remodelled as Gidal's introduction to his Structural Film Anthology BFI, , revised a volume designed to contextualise a National Film Theatre season comprising eighteen programmes and nearly films.
The breadth and prominence of the season, and of the anthology, buttressed by the publication in of LeGrice's polemic history, Abstract Film and Beyond, ensured a key position for the category of Structural-Materialistic film in British film culture in the second half of the s. Many of the general avant-garde film tendencies we have already been describing find a place in the work of Structural-Materialist film. According to Gidal's manifesto, for instance, Structural-Materialist film sets itself against dominant cinema in a first gesture of rejecting narrativity, and with it the 'illusionism' of mainstream film aesthetics.
Instead, Structural-Materialist film demystifies that illusionism through emphasis on signifying elements specific to the cinema and to film, so that a commitment to 'representation' is countered by an emphasis on 'presentation', on a laying bare, of the process of'production', not that of fixed and stable 'reproduction'. In general terms, that is achieved not through an interest in film 'content' but in film'material', so that what is at stake is not merely the 'deconstruction' of film narrative but rather the entire internal dialectic of film construction.
And it is the reflexivity of Structural-Materialistic film that is taken to produce reflexive spectators, producers, rather than consumers of film meaning. The passive, immobilised and ideologically 'fixed' spectator of the dominant cinema is: Challenges and Problems I run through Gidal's categories to establish that, taken at this general theoretical level, they do not construct a case radically distinct from the overall map of avant-garde 'differences sketched in earlier. Nor are they radically distinct, as a combination, from those oppositions previously proposed, in the early s, by Wollen, for the analysis of a different kind of film 'materialism' Godard's Vent d'Est — representative of another avant-garde?
A fundamental source, for instance, if again a rather different politics of art would be provided by Brecht's discussion in the twenties, in the notes on Mahagonny, of contrasts between 'classic' and 'epic' theatre. How easily ;an these putative influences be transferred to the formal avant-garde? And how appropriate is Gidal's valuable stress, new to formalism, on 'materialism' and 'dialectic' and on the ideological problems created for the spectator?
There are at least two immediate questions raised by: Firstly what is the relationship between 'Structuralism' and 'Materialism' both as rJm practices and as major theoretical pursuits and disciplines within the human sciences? Can the uses be separated out, especially since it is within the sciences of historical and dialectical materialism that notions of the political and ideological are most fully developed?
- Film as film formal experiments by Master LAV - Issuu?
- Cum Invocarum?
Does Structural-Materialism represent anything more than a reductionist appropriation of these terms? Secondly, and following from this query, how precisely do these terms designate definable levels of the film system? Or do they generalise? In other words, how do notions of the 'Structural' and 'Material' separate themselves from the elementarily 'physical', and how do the terms relate to the more complex systems of film codification elaborated by film semiotics, notably within the work of Metz?
If these issues are in doubt, queries follow on the internal logic, and polemic value, of the aesthetic. The stress on material self-reflexivity courts the danger of circularity and tautology which are central problems in the formalist dilemma; and it is possible that we are faced with a project whose emphasis on a general notion of the 'dialectic' is.
And are these areas of potential contradiction not inevitable, given a polemic against the mainstream cinema lacking full analysis of the theoretical complexities of representation and signification in general? This certainly raises problems over the applicability of the terms to selected bodies of film work.
How extensible, for example, are the terms beyond the two dozen titles provisionally listed in Gidal's charter, or the one hundred in the National Film Theatre season? How accurately do these films bear out the thesis, and what kind of textual analysis is required to demonstrate Structural-Materialist principles specifically at work within a given text?
Or, following our own earlier selfcriticisms, to what extent are the binary oppositions between dominant and Structural-Materialist film based upon an idealist and essentialist system of polemic? Finally, how accurate is the polemic's placement of the text-spectator relationship? To what extent, for instance, does the polemic, in the absence of a broader theory of film 'reading' or of textual analysis, produce too simply 'psychological' a model of film 'perception', posited upon a problematic notion of spectator 'consciousness'?
Is it perhaps the case that the polemic's foreshortened theory of perception 'under' Modernism requires fuller elaboration in terms of a fundamental analysis of the psychoanalytic features of film 'vision' and the psychoanalytic construction of the spectator? These doubts have large-scale implications for the polemic's theory of ideology seemingly located at the level of the mis-apprehension' of film structure and material. To what extent, in other words, can the 'regeneration' of the spectator come about through 'correct' film reading, or to what extent must any change be part of changes in the overall institution of the cinema?
The value of the current formulations of StructuralMaterialist film is that they serve the polemic function of re-introducing elements of ideological and political discourse — 'materialism', the 'dialectic' — and vestiges of the psychoanalytic project in terms of an interest in the 'processing' of the spectator. To a certain extent, these claims seem to bridge the notion of the 'two' avant-gardes mapped by Wollen.
But the polemic is provocative at an expense. Polemic terms are insufficiently elaborated, sometimes slackly recombined, and usually inadequately grounded in the texts to which they refer. They struggle to politicise the Structural-Materialist project, but are ultimately trapped within the formalist problematic, and so can only reinforce its crisis. Thus vexed, StructuralMaterialist film cannot in any simple sense then represent what Gidal, encouraging National Film Theatre members in a programme note, could in describe as 'the most important and advanced filmwork now being produced', or what LeGrice, concluding Abstract Film and Beyond the following year, could view as representing 'the most advanced and radical state of cinematic language and convention'.
What are the areas and topics for further work and clarification? Conclusion A variety of issues and problems is raised by the 'Film as Film' exhibition in relation to the cinemas of the avant-. These issues circulate, as I have attempted to suggest in this introduction, around such notions as film history, ideology, film form, the institution of the cinema, and the spectator. In the context of a dominant cinema, still largely deprived of access to its own history, all the more reason to ensure that histories of the avant-garde do not relapse into simple positivism, simple 'descriptivism', but are based on broader and perhaps more urgent historical drives, notably around the contextualisation of contemporary avant-garde and independent film-practice.
This is one important function of the exhibition. Hence the return, in this introduction, to such polemic concepts as the notion of the 'two' avant-gardes, loosely divisible into the 'formalist' and 'theoretical-political' projects. Over and above the specific details of avant-garde film practice, I have been suggesting, one influential view is that avant-garde and independent film activity can be seen as oscillating between these two historic poles within the overall trajectory of Modernism.
The area covered by this exhibition falls, broadly speaking, into the former category, yet places an important emphasis on such current evolutions as 'Structural-Materialist' film, where, as we have seen, an ambitious if problematic attempt is made to theorise a formal cinema in broader ideological and political terms. The emphasis I have been placing upon the importance of notions of ideology thus directly reconnects to questions of film form. Outstanding at the very least for its commitment to the exploration of film form, for its radical work on film material, for its attack on the dominant 'realist' aesthetics of the mainstream film in its pursuit of the Modernist 'logic of the signified, its participation in the Modernist 'crisis of the sign', avant-garde film practice poses the problem: How do we attach theories of meaning to formal activity, and how do these interact with broader discourses upon ideology and signification?
What kind of discourse — in film, on film — is needed? History, film form, ideology: These are in many ways the crucial points of departure from which to 'visit' the exhibition and to 'tour' its catalogue. Organised by the Arts Council of Great Britain, and presented in a major metropolitan gallery, what relation can the exhibition have, beyond the sphere of art practice and art history, to the world of cinema, with its different institutional location?
Does the event, by any reckoning a major initiative and a clear index of the growth of film activity within British art institutions, perhaps 'recuperate' the shock and challenge of avantgarde film-practice? How may film activists, and the general public, draw upon the riches of the knowledge it provides in relation to their own knowledge of, and relationship to the cinema?
Equally important, what kind of institutional history, and institutional framework does it provide for film-makers of the contemporary avant-garde and independent cinema? Dominant Cinema The following essays explore more fully the textual systems of 'dominant' cinema: The textual analyses referred to are as follows: Raymond Bellour, 'The Birds: Avant-Garde Cinema and Modernism Essential histories include: A radical critique of avant-garde and ideological ambitions, from a psychoanalytic perspective, may be found in Constance Penley, The AvantGarde and its Imaginary', Camera Obscura 2, Autumn In the futurist painter Luigi Russolo called for a 'futurist music' based on noise and mechanical sounds: Today, the machine has created many varieties and a competition of noises, not only in the noisy atmosphere of the large cities but also in the country that, until yesterday, was normally silent, so that pure sound, in its monotony and exiguity, no longer arouses emotion.
We take greater pleasure in ideally combining the noises of trams, explosions of motors, trains, and shouting crowds than in listening again, for example, to the Eroica or the Pastorale. In , Russolo conducted his intonarumori 'noise-intoners; in a performance of The Awakening of a City at the London Coliseum. Futurism is the first art movement to incorporate the new -. The Futurist photographs which Anton Oiulio Bragaglia produced in the years after enjoy a: They relate back equally to: A reconduction can only be carried out today, incompletely,:: In the Manifesto The Futurist Cinema?
At first look the cinema, born only a few years ago, may seem to be Futurist already, lacking a past and free:: Actually, by appearing in the guise of -. Consequently, everything we have said and done about the stage applies:.? The cinema is an autonomous art. It must become antigraceful, deforming, impressionistic, synthetic, dynamic,: We are convinced that only in this way can? Balla has moved during the exposure paraphrasing the multiple image effect of the painting.
This is confirmed by the descriptions provided in by Arnaldo Ginna in the magazine Bianco e Nero of the now missing film Vita Futurista, which he directed in with the authors of the Manifesto. The film consisted of eight different scenes, performed by the Futurist actors. One scene is described as a love story between the painter Balla, and a chair. The same year Anton Giulio Bragaglia directed three films: The first two have both probably been lost. The sole Futurist influence in Thais was in the painted decor.
Like Italian Futurism, Russian Futurism also took issue with the form and function of film. But here too no works of the early period have survived, against which the results of this challenge may be assessed. Goncharova, all that exists is the brief phrase of Jay Leyda, who describes the film as 'a parody on the prevalent genre of the film guignol'.
Nevertheless the Futurist movement is also of significance for the abstract film. Unfortunately for research, these films are no longer available. They have probably been lost. But the tone and details of the essay sound so convincing, that one can. Corra and Ginna proceeded to seek for the harmony of colours an analogy in the harmony of music.
This confirmed our idea, which had anyway preceded our study of physics, of adhering to music and transferring the tempered scale of music into the field of colour. We know, however, that the chromatic scale consists of only one octave, and that, on the other hand, the eye, unlike the ear, does not possess the power of resolution although rethinking this point, I realize that one must have reservations.
Yet we felt the obvious need of a subdivision of the solar spectrum, even an artificial and arbitrary one since the effect stems principally from the relationships between the colours that impress the eye. Consequently we selected four equally distanced gradations in each colour.
We had four reds chosen at equal distances in the spectrum, four greens, four violets, etc. In this way we managed to extend the seven colours in four octaves. After the violet of the first octave came the red of the second, and so on. To translate this into practice we naturally used a series of 28 coloured electric light bulbs, corresponding to 28 keys. Each bulb was fitted with an oblong reflector and the first experiments were done with direct light, and in the subsequent ones a sheet of glass was placed in front of the light bulb.
The keyboard was exactly like that of a piano but was less extensive. When an octave was played, for example, the two colours were mingled, as are two sounds in the piano. When the bulbs were bright enough, the heat discoloured them and they had therefore continually to be re-coloured. To obtain fluent colour-transitions, they removed from the projector the intermittent mechanism and the shutter.
But this way they achieved the opposite of their intentions. They replaced the parts in the machine and looked for another solution. This occurred when they chose the single frame on the film-strip as the unit of colour. Five of the films of the following period are discussed in greater detail by Corra in his article.
Here is how he described three of them: The first is the simplest one could imagine. It has two colours only, complementaries, red and green. To begin with the whole screen is green, then in the centre a small red six-pointed star appears. This rotates on itself, the points vibrating like tentacles and enlarges until it fills the whole screen. The entire screen is red, and then unexpectedly a nervous rash of green spots breaks out all over it. These grow until they absorb all the red and the entire canvas is green. This lasts a minute.
In a blue field two lines, one yellow, one white, move, bend together, detach themselves and curl up. Then they undulate towards each other and. This is an example of a linear, as well as: These rove in small jerks, grouping together, crashing against rich other, shattering and reforming, diminishing and enlarging, forming columns and lines, interpenetrating, reforming etc. The entire symphony is based on this effect of contrast between the cloudy grey of the background and: The struggle increases, the spectrum, suffocated beneath the ever blacker vortices which roll from background to foreground, manages to free itself, flashes, then disappears igain to reappear more intensely close to the frame.
Finally, in an unexpected dusty disintegration, the grey crumbles and the spectrum triumphs in a whirling of catherine-wheels which disappear in their turn, buried under an avalanche of colours. Kirby is in fact here only describing the original publicity pamphlet for the film — trans, note. Leyda reprints Mayakovskys article, 'Theatre, Cinema, Futurism', p. The light organ described by Corra at the beginning of: While Corra and Ginna certainly worked with pure light in their first experiment, it clearly emerges from their texts that they moved on, in their work with film, to the animation of abstract forms.
Malcolm Le Grice and others have argued that these films certainly looked little different from the later hand-painted films of Len Lye and Norman McLaren, and, in this context, one might further consider the early abstract films of Harry Smith. Technical Manifesto' in Umbro Apollonio, ed. In one sense, the history of'film as film' began a few days before 2 April the critic Bernhard Diebold's date , with the first showing of Walter Ruttmann's film Opus 1 to music by Max Butting.
For the first time, the movement had a finished product rather than mere proposals and an imaginative vision of a new medium. But, apart from sporadic performances, the public had to wait until 3 May , when a matinee presented the films of six artists working within the 'absolute film' tradition. Four main areas of artistic activity developed prior and parallel to 'absolute film', and these had a marked influence on the film's formal language and were also responsible for a certain amount of publicity the stage works in particular: Art and music — the 'coloured light organs' with non-objective coloured light projections, which originated from the synaesthetic theory that directly linked a certain musical note to a certain colour, thereby suggesting an abstract, coloured, film-like image in the mind of anyone listening to the music.
Art and movement — that part of Futurism which moves through Cubism to Constructivism, from the first attempts to fix movement into a static picture to the series of variations of equivalent images in Constructivism. Parallel to this is the influence of the Chinese picture scrolls, to which not only Eggeling, Richter and Graeff, but also Duncan Grant relates.
Also relevant are the picture stories of the nineteenth century, the illustrated books and the precursors of the comic book Wilhelm Busch. Art and light — projection effects and the first light sculptures also run parallel to 'absolute film'. There is a direct connection in Moholy-Nagy's work, for he used his first kinetic light sculpture with its light, shade and mirror effects as a basis for his only non-narrative film. Art and stage — on the peep-show stage the image is concentrated into a projection plane on which elements of form, music and light are combined. It was for the stage that many artists devloped non-objective, mechanical or light projection games which are very similar to 'absolute film' in their optical effects.
Art and Music It was the art critic den Topos who, since Kandinsky's first object-free images, had discussed 'musical' pictures and the parallels between abstract art and music. The previous 30 years of film development had shown no inclination towards a unique brand of rreativity, so that Bernhard Diebold later a leading champion of'absolute film' could.
How is it going to succeed in exploiting the full aesthetic resources of its technical marvels and turn them into a real and characteristic art form, which will no longer rely exclusively on photography for its effects but will use it only as a secondary aid? Which will essentially avoid both literature and impermissible copies of nature, and strive for nothing bit a new and truly great "Painting in Motion"? But only passing reference can be made here to the heritage today sadly forgotten from Isaac Newton to Alexander Laszlo.
Laszlo thoroughly outlined this chain of development in his book Coloured Light Music Leipzig Isaac Newton compared the spectral colours he had produced by splitting up the sun's light to the spectrum and the tempered octave of musical notes. Following Newton, the Jesuit Bernard Castel constructed his 'clavecin oculaire' ocular harpsichord around , which consisted of two coloured discs in 12 parts corresponding to the 12 semi-tones of the tempered octave connected to a harpsichord.
He conceived of the relationship of colours and notes as being very close, even parallel. Thus Johann Leonhard Hoffmann in his Essay on the history of harmonic painting in general and colour harmony in particular, with illustrations from music and including many practical notes, In , Alexander Wallace Rimington built a machine with 12 apertures for the projection of 12 colours, analogous to the 12 semi-tones of the musical octave. The apertures are opened by means of a key-board identical to that of a piano and allow various coloured cones of light onto the same projection surface.
The different light cones swallow up the colours to a greater or lesser extent and from this process a compound colour appears on the projection surface. Still, even if a particular colour-note cor-. Beau and Betrand-Taillet on their colour-light piano with electric light bulbs linked the note C to the colour violet, while Hermann Schroder made it yellow! For colour projections will blend into an indefinable grey, whilst connected light bulbs will not be perceived as a unified colour mood but as a variegated mixture.
Around , many artists dedicated themselves to the problem of co-ordinating colour and musical notes. Alexander Scriabin was certainly the most important musician of his time to devote himself to the question of synaesthesia. His vision of a performance of 'Prometheus' with coloured light, in a high-domed, white hall could not be realized, for the technical accomplishments of the colour organ did not particularly interest him. On a colour-piano built in New York in , cones of coloured light were projected onto the ceiling; but it was Scriabin himself along with Wassily Kandinsky, who was working through similar problems as a painter who noted the unsatisfactory optical effects.
There were no harmonious compositions of images on the large scale, but only partially projected beams of light. Alexander Laszlo, trained as a composer and a pianist, worked alone on the realisation of the differentiated projection machines he had sketched out in This we call the coloured light piano Sonchromatoscope. Basically, four large projectors are used and four small footlight machines, which are operated from a switchboard. So he bought up films by Oskar Fischinger and tried to persuade him to collaborate on his coloured light music.
Max Butting, who had himself had corresponding experiences as composer on the first 'absolute' film Opus 1 by Walter Ruttmann, wrote a telling and basic criticism: They are a marriage between romantic day-dreaming and romantic science. I find Hirschfeld's works at the Bauhaus much purer and more impressive, although or because they are of a more primitive conception' Socialist Monthly Butting here mentions the relevant point: Even the later projection games of the '50s and '60s e. In contrast to the synaesthetic coloured light instruments, the reflecting coloured light play had a much more basic and simple point of departure: All three of the idealistic film-makers of the first period around Ruttmann, Eggeling and Richter had been inspired by Futurism and Cubism.
Both worked according to a similar principle, but since Schwerdtfeger discontinued his work, Hirschfeld-Mack's research remains of outstanding importance in this area. Multi-coloured lamps threw light, given shape by movable stencils, onto a screen, so that observers on the other side of the screen experienced apparent shifts of movement and colour, indeed even the illusion of different spatial concepts.
Several Bauhaus artists played around with the stencils and lamps according to a so-called score and produced an impression which until that time only Ruttmann's Opus 1 had been able to achieve, for none of the other abstract film experiments had yet been prepared or shown. Similar to the film scores of Werner Graeff at this time, these coloured light actions were indeed able to maintain a strong and systematic formal theme. Even if better technology and more money had been available for film-making, such a widely differentiated colour version could not have been produced. The only possibility of a colour film' had been indicated by Graeff in his Filmscore , in which he painted the shapes onto the picture frames in colour, so that an almost uniform colouring was produced i.
For the viewer, the main difference between light play and film consisted in the 'personal touch' of each light play performance, that is, in the gentle shifting of forms and tonal rhythm etc. However, there was an equivalence in the intention of the artists, the linking of colour and music and its effect on the observer.
Art and Movement 1 cannot go very deeply into the early history of Futurism, through Cubism to Constructivism. These movements were naturally important sources of inspiration, particularly with respect to Ruttmann's works, which have the. I would prefer to stress the importance of the scroll pictures as an art form in their own right, not merely as the starting point for the making of a film. Eggeling, Graeff and Duncan Grant all referred to the Chinese models: Scroll paintings, as well as light organ works and 'absolute film', assume an important theoretical innovation: Josef Albers himself, from his early years at the Bauhaus through his 30 years of work leading to his 'Homage to the Square', stressed the equal value that must be given to several image-solutions to the same problem.
According to his teaching, there was no single best solution, but good solutions were those works in which personal states and knowledge were 'correctly' applied. Josef Alber's pedagogical work certainly had no direct influence on the development of 'absolute film', but the theoretical premises of his'work since should at least be mentioned here as an important parallel. Survage painted a great series of water-colours there were over a hundred which, laid alongside each other, produced a sequence of forms. Painted in strong, darkly-glowing colours, several sequences show a journey through the universe, staggered depths in space, twisted, curved paths of light which meet, rebound off one another and separate again.
Survage was never able to produce this sequence as a film: Georg Schmidt, Director of the Basel Museum and contemporary of these artists, formulates this very strikingly: While film and its tempo compel us irresistibly forward and allow no time to pause or look back, the scroll painting gives us the freedom to control the tempo; we can stop at any time and consider smaller or larger sections simultaneously, we can even change the direction. And while the still image spills out all its trump cards over us in spatial simultaneity, the scroll painting unfolds before us step by step, at the same time both a temporal sequence and a spatial unity.
The scroll painting is movement and rest in one.
Since that time, I have dreamed of scroll paintings as one of the most beautiful potentialities in creative art' quoted from Werner Graeff s Essen speech, apparently from a letter to him. Duncan Grant designed an 'abstract kinetic collage painting with sound' in , but never showed the work. Like Graeffs scores , Richter from , Eggeling from or Kurt Kranz from , these works were not used directly as models for films because many intermediary stages are missing, but they provide the viewer with the mental image of the film, for he can complete the movement sequences for himself.
For these reasons, films from scroll paintings e. Film not only implies the use of a more or less equally ranked sequence of images, but also the simultaneous and direct inclusion of light, architecture and machines. From to the s, dynamic and technological innovations were of much greater fascination than the moon landings we can see live on T. We should not look at this picture with the eye of a romantic, but see in it the function of movement, the penetration and conquest of space.
Light is the way; the material recedes. The machine is the servant of movement, no longer a functional creature of form for its own sake. Light fascinated artists as much as kinetics did. Naum Gabo net only created the first kinetic sculpture 'The Rotating Rod' , but also suggested several light sculptures. His most famous project was the installation of a light sculpture in front of the Brandenburg Gate, which was published in the Bauhaus magazine of Moholy's kinetic iight machine' is one of the most important works with respect to the inclusion of light, projected and reflected, translucent and shadow-casting.
This became the theme of his only structurally 'absolute' film: The works of Nikolaus Braun can also be mentioned here as another parallel. Unfortunately none of his Constructivist wooden reliefs with variable illumination appears to have survived, so that one is limited to descriptions. Pure light works and projections were chosen as stage backdrops. Wassily Kandinsky produced his stage works for 'Pictures At An Exhibition' in Dresden as light projections in colour.
Professional stage directors like F. Pilartz a giant coloured light system as a stage sculpture dominated Hamsun's 'Tamara' and Gustav Singer mobile stage structure with variable light elements, Civic Theatre Oberhausen, took over the innovations developed by independent art and blew them up to massive proportions.
Albert Speer used light effects as an impressive demonstration of power for Nazi party celebrations, and up to the present day this field of light projection has lost none of its attraction. One only has to look at the work of the Zero-group or Nicholas Schoeffer. Art and Stage Film-like light projections, dynamic stage imagery, indeed even a Ruttmann film as a stage backdrop: One hesitates to use the word 'ballet', because 'expressive dance' and 'abstract sequence of movement' would better fit the experimental Dance of the Future, which is the title of Fritz Bohmes' excellent and informative book.
As the film industry was only interested in mass appeal, and all the hullabaloo about stars concealed all thoughts of the intrinsic potential of the medium, artists had to create the bases for this sort of film work for themselves, under severe economic difficulties and relying on their own technical discoveries. In this way, Ruttmann April and ultimately Eggeling and Richter their first films were not produced until autumn at the earliest were to make 'absolute films' for the German-speaking regions.
These difficulties explain why those artists who wished to create moving coloured forms turned their attention to the stage. In the first place, there was working machinery available and certain financial openings; in the second place, there had been since the Baroque period a long tradition of using light effects, coloured forms and music as the natural ingredients of a stage play.
The optical effect on the observer is similar in both films and stage plays. In mechanical plays, coloured strips, shapes and gyroscopes move according to a definite rhythm. Prampolini, Loew, Baumeister, Lissitzky, Kiesler and Heckroth amongst others, all designed mechanical sculptures and relief walls. Multidimensional stage shapes and moving coloured strips which produced an abstract sequence of forms were made by Weininger, Kurt Schmidt and Buchholz. Such drama should be performed electro-mechanically or colourcinematographically or, primitively, as a puppet-show'.
However Huszar apparently did not get beyond a general conception and a draft sketch, and even the technical production remains questionable. In contrast, Willi Baumeister's 'Mecano' ideas are concrete, thoroughly thought-out and realizable as a stage production. He expressly emphasizes in his article the comparison to film and the greater potentialities of the three-dimensional stage.
Heinz Loew built a model of his 'Mechanical Stage' and published this with an accompanying article in the stage edition of the Bauhaus magazine No. All possibilities of movement and configuration should be used, including the depth illusion of rotating spirals and eccentric discs as for example also in Duchamp's Anemic Cinema and in his rotor reliefs. The separate parts had to be removable, so that the given technical structure could be replaced with new formal elements, in order to be able to present other 'plays'. Andreas Weininger, who like Graeff belonged to the school of Bauhaus students who were strongly Constructivist and much influenced by Theo van Doesburg, also designed a 'Mechanical Stage', although only in coloured crayon and water colour studies.
He conceived the changing images as horizontally or vertically running coloured stripes, which could be either painted or transparent and which, by means of rotation, could produce an infinity of new colour combinations. His works are easy to reconstruct and also to document as film, for they require.
Kurt Schmidt along with Theodor Bogler and Georg Feltscher also designed two-dimensional figure constructions for his 'Mechanical Ballet', which was originally presented at the Civic Theatre, Jena, during the Bauhaus week of August, to the music of H. Next Time I Marry The American Adventure Ostvario tv uloge, igrao u 42 filma: The Old Man and the Sea Ostvario 2 tv uloge i igrao u 58 filmova: La muerte en las calles Igrala u 45 filmova: Nagrada Kanskog festivala za La historia oficial , nominacija Oskar za sporednu ulogu u Gaby - A true Story , nominacija Zlatni globus za istu ulogu Comin Thro the Rye Ostvario tv uloga i igrao u 51 filmu: The Wiser Sex Ready, Willing and Able Igrao u 17 filmova: Ostvarila blizu 20 tv uloga i igrala u skoro 40 filmova: The Last Detail Uz preko 10 tv uloga i igrala u skoro 30 filmova: The Thundering Herd Something to Live For Igrala u 37 filmova: Swing for Sale A Girl, Three Guys, and a Gun Igrala u 47 filmova: Dobitnica Zlatnog globusa za glavnu ulogu u komediji Too Young to Kiss Lontano da dove ; Storia d amore e d amicizia, , tv , Ostvario preko 20 tv uloga i igrao u skoro 40 filmova: Savana - Sesso e diamanti Ostvarila preko 40 tv uloga i igrala u skoro 50 filmova: Ostvarila preko 20 tv uloga i igrala u skoro 30 filmova: Les favoris de la lune Ostvario 5 tv uloga i igrao u preko 70 filmova: Manifesto ; Hideaway, , tv.
Ostvarila skoro 30 tv uloga i igrala u blizu 30 filmova: Blood Oath ; Bangkok Hilton, , tv. Ostvarila 6 tv uloga i igrala u skoro 50 filmova: Ostvarila 45 tv uloga i igrala u 45 filmova: Igrala u preko 70 filmova: II , Adelaide, South Australia — 3. Igrala u 26 filmova: Nominacija Oskar za sporednu ulogu u filmu Rebeka The Cat Gang Ostvarila skoro 70 tv uloga i igrala u preko 30 filmova: The Movie , Wives and Daughters Song of Love Igrala u 62 filma: Nominacija za Oskar za sporednu ulogu u Mildred Pierce Ostvario preko tv uloga i igrao u skoro 80 filmova: Demons 2 , Sogni e bisogni, , tv.
Ostvarila 5 tv uloga i igrala u skoro 50 filmova: Zoo , Close Friends , Trauma , Perdiamoci di vista! Paul, Minnesota, US — Ladies Must Live A Whale of a Tale Ostvario 28 tv uloga i igrao u filmova: From Russia with Love Ostvario 3 tv uloge i igrao u filma: X , Saginaw, Michigan, US — The Main Event For Those Who Think Young Ostvario tv uloge i igrao u 52 tv uloge i igrao u filmova: The Misleading Lady Ostvario 14 tv uloga i igrao u filmova: I , Cleveland, Ohio, US — Angel of Mercy Igrao u filma: The Eleventh Commandment Igrao u 45 filmova: Lancelot and Guinevere Nominacija Oskar za sporednu ulogu u Juarez The Guns of Loos The Last Leaf Ostvarila 48 tv uloga i igrala u 45 filmova: Papa s Slay Ride Please Don t Eat the Daisies Igrala u 98 filmova: I , London, England, UK — Ostvarila 71 tv ulogu i igrala u 40 filmova: Kogda zvuchat struny serdtsa , Poslednji film: Igrala u 32 filma: The Best Christmas Pageant Ever Ostvarila 15 tv uloga i igrala u skoro 30 filmova: The Dark Avenger The Testimony of Taliesin Jones Igrao u 61 filmu: Igrao u 35 filmova: Book II , Oh, God!
You Devil , 18 Again! Dobitnik Oskara za sporednu ulogu u The Sunshine Boys Les beaux jours Ostvario 10 tv uloga i igrao u 40 filmova: The Body Beautiful Ostvarila skoro 20 tv uloga i igrala u preko 40 filmova: IX , Mannheim, Germany — V , Zurich, Switzerland. Der letzte Tag The Red Shoes Igrao u 71 filmu: Nominacija Oskar za sporednu ulogu u Foreign Correspodent Ostvarila blizu 40 tv uloga i igrala u skoro 40 filmova: Ostvario blizu 10 tv uloga i igrao u skoro 40 filmova: XII , Havana, Cuba.
Igrao u preko 90 filmova: Nominacija Zlatni globus za sporednu ulogu u Scarface Nominacija Zlatni globus za najboljeg glavnog glumca u mini seriji Drug Wars: Road to Salina Ostvario 62 tv uloge i igrao u 39 filmova: Uz blizu tv uloga i igrao u skoro filmova: Cell Phones , Federal Bureau of Manners: Nominacija Zlatni globus za najboljeg sporednog glumca u mini seriji St.
Igrala u skoro 30 filmova: Nominacija Oskar za sporednu ulogu u The Artist , nominacija Zlatni globus za isti film , nominacija Bafta za isti film , nominacija Cesar za isti film Ostvario 18 tv uloga i igrao u 56 filmova: Cool Hand Luke Ostvario preko 30 tv uloga i igrao u preko 30 filmova: Adam at Six A. Joseph, Missouri, US — 5. Ostvario 32 tv uloge i igrao u neverovatna filma: Isn t Love Cuckoo? Ostvario 64 tv uloga i igrao u 46 filmova: Teen Wolf Too Ostvario blizu 40 tv uloga i igrao u preko 30 filmova: Zlatni globus za najboljeg sporednog glumca u seriji komediji Arrested Davelopment The Truth About Youth Ostvario tv uloge i igrao u filma: Ostvarila blizu 10 tv uloga i igrala u skoro 30 filmova: Ostvarila skoro 20 tv uloga i igrala u preko 30 filmova: Gracie s Choice , Reefer Madness: Banditi a Milano Igrala u skoro 50 filmova: Woman of the Year Igrao u 60 filmova: Nominacija Oskar za sporednu ulogu u Wake Island V , Tacoma, Washington, US — Laat de dokter maar schuiven Ostvario 29 tv uloga i igrao u filmova: The Valley of Decision Ostvarila 9 tv ulga i igrala u 57 filmova: What s Wrong with the Women?
The Journey s End Whistling in Dixie Igrao u 54 filma: Ostvario 1 tv ulogu i igrao u 33 filma: Fitzherbert , Your Witness Das doppelte Lottchen Ostvarila blizu 90 tv uloga i igrala u skoro 70 filmova: Sibelius , Das Testament des Dr. Taffin ; Those Glory Glory Days, , tv. Ostvario skoro 30 tv uloga i igrao u preko 60 filmova: Meet the Baron The Young Runaways Ostvarila 32 tv uloge iigrala u filmova: Six Gun Law Igrala u 22 filma: Nominacija Oskar za glavnu ulogu u Escape Me Never Morte a Venezia Igrala u preko 35 filmova: Nominacija Zlatni globus za sporednu ulogu u Cabaret , nominacija Bafta za istu ulogu Igrao u preko 30 filmova: Nominacija Bafta za Diarios de motocicleta One Way Street Ostvario skoro tv uloga i igrao u preko 70 filmova: The Gold Diggers The Facts of Life Ostvarila 9 tv uloga i igrala u filma: It s a Digital World Ostvarila blizu 10 tv uloga i igrala u preko 50 filmova: Nagrada Cesar i 9 nominacija, nagrada na festivalima Berlin, Moskva, Venecija,.
The Mutiny of the Elsinore Ostvario 69 uloga i igrao u filmu: The Richard Petty Story Igrala u preko 30 filmova: Nominacija Zlatni globus za najbolju sporednu glumicu u mini seriji Damages , X , Hamilton, Ontario, Canada — 3. The Return of Sam McCloud Ostvario 36 tv uloga i igrao u 58 filmova: Chip Off the Old Block The Helen Morgan Story Nominacija Oskar za sporednu ulogu u Mildred Pirs Papa bon coeur Le monocle noir Igrao u 57 filmova: Ostvario 45 tv uloga i igrao u filmova: Nominacija Zlatni globus za najboljeg glumca u miniseriji Blood Feud , Zlatni globus za najboljeg glumca u seriji-drama Baretta Ostvarila preko 70 tv uloga i igrala i skoro 30 filmova: Bob Roberts ; The Fall Guy, , tv.
Ostvario preko 40 tv uloga i igrao u skoro 60 filmova: Nominacija Zlatni globus za glavnu ulogu u komediji Bernie Fame Is the Spur Ostvarila 57 tv uloga i igrala u 47 filmova: Revenge Is My Destiny Ostvario 56 tv uloga i igrao u filmova: The Way We Live Now All Is Normal Nominacija Oskar za sporednu ulogu u The Exorcist Dobitnica Zlatnog globusa za sporednu ulogu u The Exorcist A Night Out and a Day In Bowery to Bagdad Ostvario 1 tv ulogu i igrao u 85 filmova: Indianapolis, Indiana, US — The Birth of a Nation Ostvario 19 tv uloga i igrao u filmova: Ostvarila blizu 10 tv uloga i igrala u skoro 60 filmova: X , Norristown, Pennsylvania, US — All Roads Lead Home Ostvario 32 tv uloge i igrao u 61 filmu: Joe , T.
I , Detroit, Michigan, US — The Edge of the Abyss Ostvarila 8 tv uloga i igrala u 52 filma: X , Greenville, Texas, US — The Sixth Commandment Babes in Bagdad Words and Music Ostvario 13 tv uloga i igrao u filmova: V , Chicago, Illinois, US Tammy and the Doctor Igrala u 64 filma: Io sono qui ; Classe di ferro, , tv. Ostvario blizu 30 tv uloga i igrao u skoro 20 filmova: On Secret Service Igrao u filmova: Small Town Murder Songs Uz 46 tv uloga, igrala u 53 filma: Johnny Got His Gun Ostvario 40 tv uloga i igrao u blizu 70 filmova: Ostvario 77 tv uloga i igrao u 63 filma: Divorce American Style Ostvarila blizu 80 tv uloga i igrala u preko 40 filmova: Nominacija Oskar za sporednu ulogu u Private Benjamin , dobitnica Zlatnog globusa za najbolju glumicu u seriji—komedija Private Benjamin , nominacija Zlatni globus za istu ulogu Port of New York Evils of the Night Ostvario 77 tv uloga i igrao u 60 filmova: X , Tampa, Florida, US — 4.
A Gentleman from Mississippi Ostvarila 1 tv ulogu i igrala u filmova: Paris mon copain Ostvario 34 tv uloga i igrao u filma: Ostvario 23 tv uloge i igrao u 46 filmova: Il rossetto , l mulino delle donne di pietra , La donna dei faraoni , Le baccanti , Akiko , Un alibi per morire , Los atracadores , Douce violence , Col ferro e col fuoco , Der Schatz im Silbersee , L invincibile cavaliere mascherato , Zorro contro Maciste , Winnetou - 1.
Take Her, She s Mine Ostvario skoro 70 tv ulova i igrao u preko 50 filmova: Love, Wedding, Marriage Nominacija Zlatni globus za najboljeg glumca u seriji — drama Hotel , New Faces of Ostvarila 33 tv uloge i igrala u 72 filma: Madame Wang s Ostvarila 9 tv uloga i igrala u 71 filmu: Flames of Passion World for Ransom Ostvario 1 tv ulogu i igrao u 78 filmova: Ostvarila 10 tv uloga i igrala u skoro 50 filmova: Halls of Montezuma The Bushido Blade Igrao u 46 filmova: The Story of Ruth The Flight of Dragons Ostvario 71 tv ulogu i igrao u 28 filmova: Earl of Puddlestone Showdown at Williams Creek Ostvario 77 tv uloga i igrao u 67 filmova: Nominacija Zlatni globus za najboljeg glumca u seriji - drama Ironside , Nominacija Oskar za sporednu ulogu u Merrily We Live Stan the Flasher Uz 9 tv uloga, igrao u 56 filmova: Lady Caroline Lamb Ostvario 14 tv uloga i igrao u 51 filmu: One More River Ostvarila 59 tv uloga i igrala u 33 filma: Somewhere I ll Find You People from Another Star Ostvario tv uloga i igrao u filmova: Il cappello a tre punte Igrala u filmova: Il feroce Saladino , L ha fatto una signora , L amor mio non muore , Mille lire al mese , Ballo al castello , Assenza ingiustificata , Manon Lescaut , Taverna rossa , Oltre l amore , La prima donna che passa , Piccolo mondo antico , Luce nelle tenebre , L amante segreta , Aquella casa en las afueras , We the Living , Le jupon rouge , Zitti e Mosca Nominacija Zlatni globus za glavnu ulogu u Phe Paper Man Kopfstand ; Der Einstand, , tv.
Ostvarlia tv uloga i igrala u 40 filmova: Hitler s Children The Bridge at Remagen Ostvario 8 tv uloge i igrao u 83 filma: Les saisons du plaisir Ostvario 18 tv uloga i igrao u filma: The Atomic Submarine Ostvario 6 tv uloga i igrao u filmova: Behind God s Back Ostvario 97 tv uloge i igrao u 42 filma: X , Cincinnati, Ohio, US — He Hired the Boss Igrala u 24 filma: Uz 8 tv uloga, igrala u 41 filmu: King of Burlesque We re Not Married! Ostvarila 2 tv uloge i igrala u 42 filma: Ostvarila skoro 30 tv uloga i igrala u preko 20 filmova: Maybe This Time Ostvario preko 10 tv uloga i igrao u skoro 60 filmova: Voulez-vous danser avec moi Uz 1 tv ulogu, igrao u 35 filmova: Igrao u preko 40 filmova: Bill Peter s Kid Igrala u 58 filmova: Aitkin, Minnesota, US — The Town That Forgot God The Private Affairs of Bel Ami Igrao u 65 filmova: Ostvarila preko 70 tv uloga i igrala u 30 filmova: Nominacija Zlatni globus za glavnu glumicu u mini seriji Baby M , nominacija Oskar za najboli kratki film On Hope , nominacija Saturn za Poltergeist The Perfect Lady Ostvario 20 tv uloga i igao u 54 filma: It s a Gift Little Dog Lost Nominacija Oskar za sporednu ulogu u The Alamo In the Heat of the Night Unmei no toki , Clay Pigeons , Shiloh 2: Weekend for Three Ostvarila 87 tv uloga i igrala u 81 filmu: V , Athens, Wisconsin, US — Mister Flirt in Wrong The Miracle of the White Reindeer Ostvario 10 tv uloga i igrao u 67 filmova: The Mystery of the Chinese Junk Ostvario preko 30 tv uloga i igrao u skoro 50 filmova: Nominacija Zlatni globus za sporednu ulogu u Going Home , nominacija Zlatni globus za sporednog glumca u seriji The Wind of War Ostvarila skoro 20 tv uloga i igrala u skoro 40 filmova: State of Grace Igrao u 26 filmova: I , Pueblo, Colorado, US — So Long Bill Ostvario 24 tv uloge i igrao u filmova: Handle with Care The Hunchback of Notre Dame Ostvarila tv 18 uloga i igrala u 49 filmova: The Return of October Ostvario 8 tv uloga i igrao u filma: The Stepford Wives ; Lucas Tanner, , tv.
The Snuff Dialogues Baby Doll ; Lights Out, , tv. Money Never Sleeps Ostvario 83 tv uloge i igrao u 80 filmova: My Son John Igrao u 29 filmova: Ostvarla 3 tv uloge i igrala u 18 filmova: The Shanghai Man The Sin Ship Igrao u 56 filmova: For the Boys ; China Beach, , tv. Ostvario 10 tv uloga i igrao u skoro 40 filmova: Ostvario preko 20 tv uloga i igrao u skoro 60 filmova: Escape from Alcatraz , Southern Comfort , Timerider: We Joined the Navy Dead or Alive Ostvario 70 tv uloga i igrao u filmova: The Girl with the Green Eyes My Forbidden Past Igrala u 39 filmova: Nominacija Oskar za sporednu ulogu u Watch on the Rhine The London Connection Igrala u 55 filmova: Digging to China Get to the Heart: Nominacija Zlatni globus za glavnu ulogu u Triteen Back to the Future Part II Ostvario blizu 19 tv uloga i igrao u skoro 60 filmova: Eight Girls in a Boat The Time Travelers Igrala u 78 filmova: Ostvario 56 tv uloga i igrao u 81 filmu: A Swingin Affair Kabluey , God Out the Window Nominacija Oskar za sporednu ulogu u Tootsie Ostvario preko 70 tv uloga i igrao u preko 30 filmova: Dobitnik nagrade Saturn za sporednu ulogu u tv seriji Alias , nominacija za istu ulogu D Lucky Boy Miracle in the Rain Igrao u 95 filmova: A Story of the London Fog Do Not Disturb Uz 27 tv uloga, igrao u 59 filmova: Her Own Story The Long Night The Todd Killings Uz 22 tv uloge, igrala u 12 filmova: Nominacija Oskar za sporednu ulogu u I Remember Mama , dobitnica Zlatnog globusa za najbolju glumicu u seriji — drama Dallas , nominacija Zlatni globus za istu ulogu u istoj seriji , Sie sind frei, Doktor Korczak Igrao u 62 filma: Nominacija Oskar za sporednu ulogu u Quo Vadis Ostvarila preko 35 tv uloga i igrala u 55 filmova: Nominacija Saturn za Bound The Nutty Professor Ostvario tv uloga i igrao u 40 filmova: Walk East on Beacon!
Ostvarila 20 tv uloga i igrala u 18 filmova: Igrao u skoro 50 filmova: Protokoll einer Revolution Ostvarila blizu 50 tv uloga i igrala u skoro 40 filmova: Teil , Der Kerl liebt mich - und das soll ich glauben? Polly of the Follies Money, Women and Guns Nominacija Oskar za sporednu ulogu u Here Comes Mr. Sherlock Holmes and the Voice of Terror Beneath the Planet of the Apes Stay Away, Joe Nominacija Oskar za sporednu ulogu u Ride the Pink Horse Ostvario preko 20 tv uloga i iglao u skoro 40 filmova: Nominacija Zlatni globus za glavnu ulogu u komediji Days of Summer Ostvario 22 tv uloge i igrao u filmova: The Naked City Ostvario tv uloge i igrao u 36 filmova: Uncle Tom s Cabin Ostvarila 41 tv ulogu i igrala u filma: The Constant Nymph Igrala u 43 filmova: Cry from the Mountain Ostvarila 67 tv uloga i igrala u 40 filmova: XI , Bucharest, Romania — L inconnu d un soir Ostvarila 6 tv uloga i igrala u 64 filma: Ostvarila 4 tv uloge i igrala u 47 filmova: The North Star The Next Big Thing Ostvario 44 tv uloge i igrao u 40 filmova: Chimmie Hicks and the Rum Omelet When I Grow Up Chicago, Illinois, US — The Legend of the Lone Ranger Ostvarila 26 tv uloga i igrala u 56 filmova: Reporter , Nancy Drew.
Nominacija Oskar za sporednu ulogu u These Three IV , Hamburg, Germany — Fabrik der Offiziere Ostvario 43 tv uloge i igrao u 35 filmova: Bei Shao lin Nominacija Oskar za sporednu ulogu u Dances with Wolves Sing As We Go Ostvario 20 tv uloga i igrao u 37 filmova: My Wife s Family Ostvarila 31 tv ulogu i igrala u 34 filma: Nominacija Zlatni globus za sporednu ulogu u Tom Jones Beyond the Valley of the Dolls Ostvarila preko 30 tv uloga i igrala u skoro 60 filmova: Nominacija Zlatni glogus za glavnu ulogu u mjuziklu-komediji Jackie Brown Troop Beverly Hills ; Who s the Boss, , tv.
Ostvarila skoro 30 tv uloga i igrala u blizu 50 filmova: Popper s Penguins , Hide , Match Ostvario 79 tv uloga i igrao u 48 filmova: Ostvarila preko 40 tv uloga i igrala u blizu 40 filmova: Geschichten aus dem Wienerwald Igrala u filmu: Life with Father Ostvarila 15 tv uloga i igrala u 31 filmu: Bara en kvinna A Day at the Beach Ostvarila 2 tv uloge i igrala u 57 filmova: The Other Side of the Mountain Ostvario preko 30 tv uloga i igrao u skoro 40 filmova: Nominacija Zlatni globus za glavnu ulogu u komediji After Hours X , Shattuck, Oklahoma, US — Without Each Other Man in the Mirror Ostvario 14 tv uloga igrao u 17 filmova: Nominacija Oskar za sporednu ulogu u Ship of Fools I , Dallas, Texas, US — The Courtship of Miles Standish The Lyons in Paris Uz 1 tv ulogu, igrala u filmu: Ostvario 33 tv uloge i igrao u 43 filma: Ostvarila 31 tv ulogu i igrala u filmova: The Judgment of the Storm Ostvario 27 tv uloga i igrao u filma: Cat s Eye Nominacija Zlatni globus za sporednu glumicu u mini seriji North and South The Secret of Convict Lake Ostvarila 6 tv uloga i igrala u 81 filmu: O Malley and Mr.
Malone , I Was an American Spy Ostvario preko tv uloga i igrao u 80 filmova: Nominacija Oskar za sporednu ulogu u Longtime Companion , nominacija Zlatni globus za sporednu ulogu u istom filmu Song of Myself Ostvario 24 tv uloge i igrao u 11 filmova: Nominacija Zlatni globus za glavnu ulogu u filmu-drama Midnight Express Way Up Thar Ostvarila 2 tv uloge i igrala u 45 filmova: The Story of Leroy Satchel Paige , tv.
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