It was chaired by Jaan Anvelt for the duration of its existence, within areas of their control, the Commune closed churches, nationalised industry and the banks and outlawed representatives of the Provisional Government. The Russian offensive was successful and eventually reached as far as 34 kilometres from Tallinn. The Commune was thus rendered defunct, claiming a government in exile in Pskov, then Luga and finally, from 17 May , the Russian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic formally recognised the ETK on 7 December and remained the only government to do so.
At that time, Soviet Russia was itself not internationally recognised, one of the first international treaties recognising Russias Soviet government as legitimate was the Treaty of Tartu concluding the Estonian War of Independence in The regime instituted a reign of terror. The terror was staged in two waves, the first from October to February and a more brutal wave from November to January A considerable number of people were arrested in Tartu in December , just before Tartu was liberated the Communists staged a blood bath in the basement of a town bank, among their victims were Bishop Platon, the priest Sergei Florinski and the pastor Traugott Hahn.
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In Baltic Defence Review, No. Founded in , the party played an important role in the Mongolian Revolution of , following independence, it became the ruling party of one-party state Mongolia. In the party adopted the name Mongolian Peoples Revolutionary Party, beginning in , other political parties were allowed, the MPP remained the governing party until , returning to government in — In it opted for another coalition government with the Democratic Party, after the elections, the MPP became the opposition party in parliament.
In , the party reverted to its name by dropping the word Revolutionary. In , Mongolia declared its independence from the Qing dynasty after over two centuries of foreign rule and this new independence under the Bogd Khan did not last, not being recognized as independent by its two neighbors, only being granted autonomous status under Chinese rule. In , Mongolia was invaded by the Chinese Beiyang Government, during this occupation period, two groups, known as the Consular Hill and East Khuree formed as resistance movements.
On June 25,, these two groups united to form a Mongolian Peoples Party, and decided to send seven representatives to Soviet Russia, in August, they met with Soviet representatives in Irkutsk. On March 1,, the party formed as a political party, claimed to be the first in Mongolia, in Kyakhta. The party renamed itself the Mongolian Peoples Revolutionary Party in upon the advice of the Communist International, in , Mongolian politics took a sharp leftward turn, beginning to adhere to communist ideology.
Herds were forcibly collectivized, private trade and transport forbidden, and monasteries, with the now state-run trade and transport unable to function, it led to an economic breakdown with more than 7 million heads of livestock dead, and to widespread unrest and uprisings in Over people were implicated in the purge, many of them being executed, the victims included Prime Minister Peljidiin Genden who was enthusiastic in the liberalised development of the economy.
The Whites had the aim of bringing about law and order and the salvation of Russia, fighting against traitors, barbarians. They worked to remove Soviet organizations and functionaries in White-controlled territory, overall, the White Army was nationalistic, rejected ethnic particularism and separatism. The White Army generally believed in a united multinational Russia, amongst White Army members, anti-Semitism was widespread. Western sponsors expressed dismay at this, especially as the Bolsheviks had prohibited anti-Semitism, many of the White leaders were conservative, accepting autocracy while remaining suspicious of politics.
Aside from being anti-Bolshevik and patriotic, the Whites had no set ideology or main leader, the White Armies did acknowledge a single provisional head of state, the so-called Supreme Governor of Russia, but this post was prominent only under the leadership of Admiral Alexander Kolchak. The movement had no set plan for foreign policy, Whites differed on policies toward Germany, the Whites wanted to keep from alienating any potential supporters and allies, and thus saw an exclusively monarchist position as a detriment to their cause and recruitment.
White-movement leaders such as Anton Denikin advocated for Russians to create their own government, Admiral Alexander Kolchak succeeded in creating a temporary wartime government in Omsk, acknowledged by most other White leaders, only for it to fall with the loss of his armies. Some warlords who were aligned with the White movement, such as Grigory Semyonov and Roman Ungern von Sternberg, did not acknowledge any authority, consequently, the White movement had no set political leanings, members could be monarchists, republicans, rightists, Kadets, etc.
But depending on the time and place, those White Army supporters might also exchange right-wing allegiance for allegiance to the Red Army, the Volunteer Army in South Russia became the most prominent and the largest of the various and disparate White forces.
Starting off as a small and well-organized military in January , the Kuban Cossacks joined the White Army, and conscription of both peasants and Cossacks began.
In late February ,4, soldiers under the command of General Aleksei Kaledin were forced to retreat from Rostov-on-Don due to the advance of the Red Army, in the Don Cossacks joined and the Army began drafting Ukrainian peasants. In that year, between May and October, the Volunteer Army grew from 64, to , soldiers and was better supplied than its Red counterpart.
The White Armys rank-and-file comprised active anti-Bolsheviks, such as Cossacks, nobles, the White movement had access to various naval forces, both sea-going and river-based. The Russian ace Alexander Kazakov operated within this unit, the White movements leaders and first members came mainly from the ranks of military officers. Many came from outside the nobility, such as generals Mikhail Alekseev, the White generals never mastered administration, they often utilized prerevolutionary functionaries or military officers with monarchististic inclinations for administering White-controlled regions.
Czechoslovakia — From to , following its forced division and partial incorporation into Nazi Germany, the state did not de facto exist but its government-in-exile continued to operate. From to , Czechoslovakia was part of the Soviet bloc with a command economy and its economic status was formalized in membership of Comecon from , and its defense status in the Warsaw Pact of May A period of liberalization in , known as the Prague Spring, was forcibly ended when the Soviet Union, assisted by several other Warsaw Pact countries.
In , Czechoslovakia split into the two states of the Czech Republic and Slovakia. Form of state —, A democratic republic, —, After annexation of Sudetenland by Nazi Germany in , the region gradually turned into a state with loosened connections among the Czech, Slovak, and Ruthenian parts.
A government-in-exile continued to exist in London, supported by the United Kingdom, United States and its Allies, after the German invasion of Russia, Czechoslovakia adhered to the Declaration by United Nations and was a founding member of the United Nations. Carpathian Ruthenia was ceded to the Soviet Union, —, The country became a socialist state under Soviet domination with a centrally planned economy. In , the country became a socialist republic, the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic.
It was a state of the Soviet Union. The western area was part of the north-central European uplands, the eastern region was composed of the northern reaches of the Carpathian Mountains and lands of the Danube River basin. Climate The weather is mild winters and mild summers, influenced by the Atlantic Ocean from the west, Baltic Sea from the north, and Mediterranean Sea from the south.
The roots of Czech nationalism go back to the 19th century, nationalism became a mass movement in the last half of the 19th century. Britain financed the European coalition that defeated France in in the Napoleonic Wars, the British Empire thereby became the foremost world power for the next century. The Crimean War with Russia and the Boer wars were relatively small operations in a largely peaceful century, rapid industrialisation that began in the decades prior to the states formation continued up until the midth century.
A devastating famine, exacerbated by government inaction in the century, led to demographic collapse in much of Ireland. It was an era of economic modernization and growth of industry, trade and finance. Outward migration was heavy to the colonies and to the United States. Britain also built up a large British Empire in Africa and Asia, India, by far the most important possession, saw a short-lived revolt in In foreign policy Britain favoured free trade, which enabled its financiers and merchants to operate successfully in many otherwise independent countries, as in South America.
Britain formed no permanent military alliances until the early 20th century, when it began to cooperate with Japan, France and Russia, and moved closer to the United States. A brief period of limited independence for Ireland came to an end following the Irish Rebellion of , the British governments fear of an independent Ireland siding against them with the French resulted in the decision to unite the two countries.
This was brought about by legislation in the parliaments of both kingdoms and came into effect on 1 January , however, King George III was bitterly opposed to any such Emancipation and succeeded in defeating his governments attempts to introduce it. When the Treaty of Amiens ended the war, Britain agreed to return most of the territories it had seized, in May , war was declared again. In , Napoleon issued the series of Berlin Decrees, which brought into effect the Continental System and this policy aimed to eliminate the threat from the British by closing French-controlled territory to foreign trade.
Frances population and agricultural capacity far outstripped that of the British Isles, Napoleon expected that cutting Britain off from the European mainland would end its economic hegemony. The Spanish uprising in at last permitted Britain to gain a foothold on the Continent, after Napoleons surrender and exile to the island of Elba, peace appeared to have returned. The Allies united and the armies of Wellington and Blucher defeated Napoleon once, simultaneous with the Napoleonic Wars, trade disputes, arming hostile Indians and British impressment of American sailors led to the War of with the United States.
The war was little noticed in Britain, which could devote few resources to the conflict until the fall of Napoleon in , American frigates inflicted a series of defeats on the Royal Navy, which was short on manpower due to the conflict in Europe. Canada — Canada is a country in the northern half of North America. Canadas border with the United States is the worlds longest binational land border, the majority of the country has a cold or severely cold winter climate, but southerly areas are warm in summer.
Canada is sparsely populated, the majority of its territory being dominated by forest and tundra. It is highly urbanized with 82 per cent of the Various aboriginal peoples had inhabited what is now Canada for thousands of years prior to European colonization. Pursuant to the British North America Act, on July 1,, the colonies of Canada, New Brunswick and this began an accretion of provinces and territories to the mostly self-governing Dominion to the present ten provinces and three territories forming modern Canada.
With the Constitution Act , Canada took over authority, removing the last remaining ties of legal dependence on the Parliament of the United Kingdom. Canada is a parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy, with Queen Elizabeth II being the head of state.
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The country is officially bilingual at the federal level and it is one of the worlds most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, the product of large-scale immigration from many other countries. Its advanced economy is the eleventh largest in the world, relying chiefly upon its abundant natural resources, Canadas long and complex relationship with the United States has had a significant impact on its economy and culture.
Canada is a country and has the tenth highest nominal per capita income globally as well as the ninth highest ranking in the Human Development Index. It ranks among the highest in international measurements of government transparency, civil liberties, quality of life, economic freedom, Canada is an influential nation in the world, primarily due to its inclusive values, years of prosperity and stability, stable economy, and efficient military.
While a variety of theories have been postulated for the origins of Canada. In , indigenous inhabitants of the present-day Quebec City region used the word to direct French explorer Jacques Cartier to the village of Stadacona, from the 16th to the early 18th century Canada referred to the part of New France that lay along the St. Upon Confederation in , Canada was adopted as the name for the new country at the London Conference. The transition away from the use of Dominion was formally reflected in with the passage of the Canada Act, later that year, the name of national holiday was changed from Dominion Day to Canada Day.
Australia — Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands. It is the worlds sixth-largest country by total area, the neighbouring countries are Papua New Guinea, Indonesia and East Timor to the north, the Solomon Islands and Vanuatu to the north-east, and New Zealand to the south-east. Australias capital is Canberra, and its largest urban area is Sydney, for about 50, years before the first British settlement in the late 18th century, Australia was inhabited by indigenous Australians, who spoke languages classifiable into roughly groups.
The population grew steadily in subsequent decades, and by the s most of the continent had been explored, on 1 January , the six colonies federated, forming the Commonwealth of Australia. Australia has since maintained a liberal democratic political system that functions as a federal parliamentary constitutional monarchy comprising six states. The population of 24 million is highly urbanised and heavily concentrated on the eastern seaboard, Australia has the worlds 13th-largest economy and ninth-highest per capita income.
With the second-highest human development index globally, the country highly in quality of life, health, education, economic freedom. The name Australia is derived from the Latin Terra Australis a name used for putative lands in the southern hemisphere since ancient times, the Dutch adjectival form Australische was used in a Dutch book in Batavia in , to refer to the newly discovered lands to the south. On 12 December , Macquarie recommended to the Colonial Office that it be formally adopted, in , the Admiralty agreed that the continent should be known officially as Australia.
The first official published use of the term Australia came with the publication of The Australia Directory and these first inhabitants may have been ancestors of modern Indigenous Australians. The Torres Strait Islanders, ethnically Melanesian, were originally horticulturists, the northern coasts and waters of Australia were visited sporadically by fishermen from Maritime Southeast Asia. The first recorded European sighting of the Australian mainland, and the first recorded European landfall on the Australian continent, are attributed to the Dutch.
The first ship and crew to chart the Australian coast and meet with Aboriginal people was the Duyfken captained by Dutch navigator, Willem Janszoon. He sighted the coast of Cape York Peninsula in early , the Dutch charted the whole of the western and northern coastlines and named the island continent New Holland during the 17th century, but made no attempt at settlement.
William Dampier, an English explorer and privateer, landed on the north-west coast of New Holland in , in , James Cook sailed along and mapped the east coast, which he named New South Wales and claimed for Great Britain. The first settlement led to the foundation of Sydney, and the exploration, a British settlement was established in Van Diemens Land, now known as Tasmania, in , and it became a separate colony in The United Kingdom formally claimed the part of Western Australia in Separate colonies were carved from parts of New South Wales, South Australia in , Victoria in , the Northern Territory was founded in when it was excised from South Australia.
The rule is also called Crown rule in India, or direct rule in India, the resulting political union was also called the Indian Empire and after issued passports under that name. It lasted until , when the British Indian Empire was partitioned into two sovereign states, the Dominion of India and the Dominion of Pakistan.
The British Raj extended over almost all present-day India, Pakistan and this area is very diverse, containing the Himalayan mountains, fertile floodplains, the Indo-Gangetic Plain, a long coastline, tropical dry forests, arid uplands, and the Thar desert. Burma was separated from India and directly administered by the British Crown from until its independence in , among other countries in the region, Ceylon was ceded to Britain in under the Treaty of Amiens. Ceylon was part of Madras Presidency between and , the kingdoms of Nepal and Bhutan, having fought wars with the British, subsequently signed treaties with them and were recognised by the British as independent states.
In general, the term British India had been used to also to the regions under the rule of the British East India Company in India from to The term has also used to refer to the British in India. The passports issued by the British Indian government had the words Indian Empire on the cover, in addition, an order of knighthood, the Most Eminent Order of the Indian Empire, was set up in At the turn of the 20th century, British India consisted of eight provinces that were administered either by a Governor or a Lieutenant-Governor, during the partition of Bengal the new provinces of Assam and East Bengal were created as a Lieutenant-Governorship.
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In , East Bengal was reunited with Bengal, and the new provinces in the east became, Assam, Bengal, Bihar, there were princely states when India and Pakistan became independent from Britain in August The princely states did not form a part of British India, the larger ones had treaties with Britain that specified which rights the princes had, in the smaller ones the princes had few rights. Within the princely states external affairs, defence and most communications were under British control, the British also exercised a general influence over the states internal politics, in part through the granting or withholding of recognition of individual rulers.
Although there were nearly princely states, the majority were very small. It came into being on 31 May with the unification of four previously separate British colonies, Cape Colony, Natal Colony, Transvaal Colony and it included the territories formerly part of the Boer republics annexed in , South African Republic and Orange Free State.
The Union of South Africa was a dominion of the British Empire and it was governed under a form of constitutional monarchy, with the Crown represented by a governor-general. The Union came to an end when the constitution was enacted, on 31 May the country became a republic and left the Commonwealth, under the new name Republic of South Africa. A bicameral parliament was created, consisting of a House of Assembly and Senate, during the course of the Union the franchise changed on several occasions always to suit the needs of the government of the day. Bloemfontein and Pietermaritzburg were given financial compensation, the Union initially remained under the British Crown as a self-governing dominion of the British Empire.
With the passage of the Statute of Westminster in , the Union and other dominions became equal in status to the United Kingdom, the Monarch was represented in South Africa by a Governor-General, while effective power was exercised by the Executive Council, headed by the Prime Minister. Louis Botha, formerly a Boer general, was appointed first Prime Minister of the Union, heading a coalition representing the white Afrikaner, prosecutions before courts were instituted in the name of the Crown and government officials served in the name of the Crown.
Natal, which had an English-speaking majority, voted against, following the referendum result, some whites in Natal even called for secession from the Union. Five years earlier, some 33, Natalians had signed the Natal Covenant in opposition to the plans for a republic, subsequently the National Party Government passed a Constitution that repealed the South Africa Act.
The features of the Union were carried over with little change to the newly formed Republic. The decision to transform from a Union to Republic was narrowly decided in the referendum, the South Africa Act dealt with race in two specific provisions. Second it made native affairs a matter for the national government, the practice therefore was to establish a Minister of Native Affairs. Several previous unsuccessful attempts to unite the colonies were made, with proposed political models ranging from unitary, Sir George Grey, the Governor of Cape Colony from to , decided that unifying the states of southern Africa would be mutually beneficial.
He believed that a united South African Federation, under British control and his idea was greeted with cautious optimism in southern Africa, the Orange Free State agreed to the idea in principle and the Transvaal may also eventually have agreed. However, he was overruled by the British Colonial Office which ordered him to desist from his plans and his refusal to abandon the idea eventually led to him being recalled.
United States — Forty-eight of the fifty states and the federal district are contiguous and located in North America between Canada and Mexico. The state of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east, the state of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean. It is one of the worlds most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, paleo-Indians migrated from Asia to the North American mainland at least 15, years ago.
European colonization began in the 16th century, the United States emerged from 13 British colonies along the East Coast. On July 4,, during the course of the American Revolutionary War, the war ended in with recognition of the independence of the United States by Great Britain, representing the first successful war of independence against a European power. The current constitution was adopted in , after the Articles of Confederation, the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, were ratified in and designed to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties.
During the second half of the 19th century, the American Civil War led to the end of slavery in the country. By the end of century, the United States extended into the Pacific Ocean. The end of the Cold War and the dissolution of the Soviet Union in left the United States as the sole superpower.
It ranks highly in several measures of performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP. French Third Republic — It came to an end on 10 July Harsh reparations exacted by the Prussians after the war resulted in the loss of the French regions of Alsace and Lorraine, social upheaval, and the establishment of the Paris Commune. The early governments of the Third Republic considered re-establishing the monarchy, but confusion as to the nature of that monarchy, thus, the Third Republic, which was originally intended as a provisional government, instead became the permanent government of France.
The French Constitutional Laws of defined the composition of the Third Republic and it consisted of a Chamber of Deputies and a Senate to form the legislative branch of government and a president to serve as head of state. The period from the start of World War I to the late s featured sharply polarized politics, Adolphe Thiers called republicanism in the s the form of government that divides France least, however, politics under the Third Republic were sharply polarized.
On the left stood Reformist France, heir to the French Revolution, on the right stood conservative France, rooted in the peasantry, the Roman Catholic Church and the army. The deputies then selected General Louis-Jules Trochu to serve as its president and this first government of the Third Republic ruled during the Siege of Paris. After the French surrender in January , the provisional Government of National Defence disbanded, French territories occupied by Prussia at this time did not participate.
The resulting conservative National Assembly elected Adolphe Thiers as head of a provisional government, due to the revolutionary and left-wing political climate that prevailed in the Parisian population, the right-wing government chose the royal palace of Versailles as its headquarters. The new government negotiated a settlement with the newly proclaimed German Empire. To prompt the Prussians to leave France, the government passed a variety of laws, such as the controversial Law of Maturities.
The following repression of the communards would have consequences for the labor movement. Chambord believed the monarchy had to eliminate all traces of the Revolution in order to restore the unity between the monarchy and the nation, which the revolution had sundered apart. Compromise on this was if the nation were to be made whole again.
Empire of Japan — The Empire of Japan was the historical Japanese nation-state and great power that existed from the Meiji Restoration in to the enactment of the constitution of modern Japan. A period of occupation by the Allies followed the surrender, Occupation and reconstruction continued well into the s, eventually forming the current nation-state whose full title is the State of Japan or simply rendered Japan in English.
This meaning is significant in terms of geography, encompassing Japan, due to its name in kanji characters and its flag, it was also given the exonym Empire of the Sun. After two centuries, the policy, or Sakoku, under the shoguns of the Edo period came to an end when the country was forced open to trade by the Convention of Kanagawa in The following years saw increased trade and interaction, commercial treaties between the Tokugawa shogunate and Western countries were signed.
In large part due to the terms of these Unequal Treaties, the Shogunate soon faced internal hostility, which materialized into a radical, xenophobic movement. In March , the Emperor issued the order to expel barbarians, although the Shogunate had no intention of enforcing the order, it nevertheless inspired attacks against the Shogunate itself and against foreigners in Japan. The Namamugi Incident during led to the murder of an Englishman, Charles Lennox Richardson, the British demanded reparations but were denied.
While attempting to exact payment, the Royal Navy was fired on from coastal batteries near the town of Kagoshima and they responded by bombarding the port of Kagoshima in For Richardsons death, the Tokugawa government agreed to pay an indemnity, shelling of foreign shipping in Shimonoseki and attacks against foreign property led to the Bombardment of Shimonoseki by a multinational force in On November 9,, Tokugawa Yoshinobu resigned from his post and authorities to the Emperor, however, while Yoshinobus resignation had created a nominal void at the highest level of government, his apparatus of state continued to exist.
It was internationally recognized by the Treaty of Constantinople, where it also secured full independence from the Ottoman Empire and this event also marked the birth of the first, fully independent, Greek state since the fall of the Byzantine Empire to the Ottomans in the midth century.
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The Kingdom succeeded from the Greek provisional governments after the Greek War of Independence, in the monarchy was abolished, and the Second Hellenic Republic was established. The restored Kingdom of Greece lasted from to , the Kingdom was again dissolved in the aftermath of the seven-year military dictatorship, and the Third Republic, the current Greek government, came to be. Most of Greece gradually became part of the Ottoman Empire in the 15th century, the Ottoman advance into Greece was preceded by victory over the Serbs to its north.
This was followed by a draw in the Battle of Kosovo, with no further threat by the Serbs and the subsequent Byzantine civil wars, the Ottomans captured Constantinople in and advanced southwards into Greece, capturing Athens in The Greeks held out in the Peloponnese until , and the Venetians and Genoese clung to some of the islands, the mountains of Greece were largely untouched, and were a refuge for Greeks to flee foreign rule and engage in guerrilla warfare. Cyprus fell in , and the Venetians retained Crete until , the Ionian Islands were only briefly ruled by the Ottomans, and remained primarily under the rule of Venice.
In , the Greeks rose up against the Ottoman Empire, following a protracted struggle, the autonomy of Greece was first recognized by the Great Powers in , full independence was recognized in Count Ioannis Kapodistrias became Governor of Greece in , but was assassinated in , at the insistence of the Powers, the Treaty of London made Greece a monarchy. Otto arrived at the capital, Nafplion, in aboard a British warship. Ottos reign would prove troubled, but managed to last for 30 years before he and his wife, Queen Amalia, left the way they came, nevertheless, they laid the foundations of a Greek administration, army, justice system and education system.
Otto was sincere in his desire to give Greece good government, in addition, the new Kingdom tried to eliminate the traditional banditry, something that in many cases meant conflict with some old revolutionary fighters who continued to exercise this practice. But Greece still had no legislature and no constitution, Greek discontent grew until a revolt broke out in Athens in September Otto agreed to grant a constitution, and convened a National Assembly which met in November, the new constitution created a bicameral parliament, consisting of an Assembly and a Senate.
Power then passed into the hands of a group of politicians, Greek politics in the 19th century was dominated by the national question. Greeks dreamed of liberating them all and reconstituting a state embracing all the Greek lands and this was called the Great Idea, and it was sustained by almost continuous rebellions against Ottoman rule in Greek-speaking territories, particularly Crete, Thessaly and Macedonia.
It is bordered to the north by the Gulf of Finland, to the west by the Baltic Sea, to the south by Latvia, across the Baltic Sea lies Sweden in the west and Finland in the north. The territory of Estonia consists of a mainland and 2, islands and islets in the Baltic Sea, covering 45, km2 of land and water, and is influenced by a humid continental climate. The territory of Estonia has been inhabited since at least BC, in , during the Singing Revolution, the Estonian Supreme Soviet issued the Estonian Sovereignty Declaration in defiance of Soviet rule, and independence was restored on 20 August Estonia is a parliamentary republic divided into fifteen counties.
Its capital and largest city is Tallinn, with a population of 1. Estonia is a country with an advanced, high-income economy that is among the fastest growing in the EU. Its Human Development Index ranks very highly, and it performs favourably in measurements of economic freedom, civil liberties, the PISA test places Estonian high school students 3rd in the world, behind Singapore and Japan.
Citizens of Estonia are provided with health care, free education. Since independence the country has developed its IT sector, becoming one of the worlds most digitally advanced societies. In Estonia became the first nation to hold elections over the Internet, in the Estonian language, the oldest known endonym of the Estonians was maarahvas, meaning country people or people of the land.
The land inhabited by Estonians was called Maavald meaning Country Parish or Land Parish, one hypothesis regarding the modern name of Estonia is that it originated from the Aesti, a people described by the Roman historian Tacitus in his Germania. The historic Aesti were allegedly Baltic people, whereas the modern Estonians are Finno-Ugric, the geographical areas between Aesti and Estonia do not match, with Aesti being further down south.
Ancient Scandinavian sagas refer to a land called Eistland, as the country is called in Icelandic. Early Latin and other ancient versions of the name are Estia and Hestia, esthonia was a common alternative English spelling prior to According to radiocarbon dating it was settled around 11, years ago, the earliest human inhabitation during the Mesolithic period is connected to Kunda culture, which is named after the town of Kunda in northern Estonia. At that time the country was covered with forests, and people lived in communities near bodies of water.
The Principality, suzerainty of the Ottoman Empire, de facto achieved independence when the last Ottoman troops left Belgrade in As outcome of the World War I in it united with Vojvodina, the Principality of Serbia was a state in the Balkans that came into existence as a result of the Serbian revolution which lasted between and At first, the principality included only the territory of the former Pashaluk of Belgrade, but in it expanded to the east, south, in the Ottoman army left the Principality, securing its de facto independence.
Serbia expanded further to the south-east in , when it won international recognition at the Congress of Berlin. In it was raised to the level of the Kingdom of Serbia, the Serbo-Bulgarian War erupted on November 14, and lasted until November 28 of the same year. The war ended in defeat for Serbia, as it had failed to capture the Slivnitsa region which it had set out to achieve.
Bulgarians successfully repelled the Serbs after the victory at the Battle of Slivnitsa and advanced into Serbian territory taking Pirot. When Austria-Hungary declared that it would join the war on the side of Serbia, Bulgaria withdrew from Serbia leaving the Serbo-Bulgarian border precisely where it had prior to the war. The peace treaty was signed on February 19, in Bucharest, as a result of the war, European powers acknowledged the act of Unification of Bulgaria which happened on September 6, His son Alexander I assumed the throne in and in dismissed the constitution, King Alexander I of Serbia and his unpopular wife Queen Draga, were assassinated inside the Royal Palace in Belgrade on the night of 28—29 May The traditionally good relations with the Austria-Hungary ended, as the new dynasty relied on the support of the Russian Empire, in April the Friendship treaty and in June the customs union with Bulgaria were signed.
Kingdom of Italy — The state was founded as a result of the unification of Italy under the influence of the Kingdom of Sardinia, which can be considered its legal predecessor state. Italy declared war on Austria in alliance with Prussia in , Italian troops entered Rome in , ending more than one thousand years of Papal temporal power.
Fascist Italy is the era of National Fascist Party rule from to with Benito Mussolini as head of government, according to Payne, Fascist regime passed through several relatively distinct phases. The first phase was nominally a continuation of the parliamentary system, then came the second phase, the construction of the Fascist dictatorship proper from to The third phase, with activism, was — The war itself was the phase with its disasters and defeats.
Italy was allied with Nazi Germany in World War II until and it switched sides to the Allies after ousting Mussolini and shutting down the Fascist party in areas controlled by the Allied invaders. Shortly after the war, civil discontent led to the referendum of on whether Italy would remain a monarchy or become a republic. Italians decided to abandon the monarchy and form the Italian Republic, the Kingdom of Italy claimed all of the territory which is modern-day Italy.
After the Second World War, the borders of present-day Italy were founded, the Kingdom of Italy was theoretically a constitutional monarchy. Executive power belonged to the monarch, as executed through appointed ministers, two chambers of parliament restricted the monarchs power—an appointive Senate and an elective Chamber of Deputies. The kingdoms constitution was the Statuto Albertino, the governing document of the Kingdom of Sardinia. In theory, ministers were responsible to the king.
However, in practice, it was impossible for an Italian government to stay in office without the support of Parliament, members of the Chamber of Deputies were elected by plurality voting system elections in uninominal districts. After a brief multinominal experimentation in , proportional representation into large, regional, Socialists became the major party, but they were unable to form a government in a parliament split into three different factions, with Christian Populists and classical liberals.
Officially known as the Republic of Poland or the Commonwealth of Poland and it had access to the Baltic Sea via a short strip of coastline either side of the city of Gdynia. Between March and August , Poland also shared a border with the then-Hungarian governorate of Subcarpathia, the Second Republic was significantly different in territory to the current Polish state. It included substantially more territory in the east and less in the west, the Second Republics land area was , km2, making it, in October , the sixth largest country in Europe.
After the annexation of Zaolzie, this grew to , km2, according to the census, the number of inhabitants was By , just before the outbreak of World War II, almost a third of population came from minority groups, At the same time, a significant number of ethnic Poles lived outside the country borders, Poland maintained a slow but steady level of economic development.
It was one of the stories of the Paris Peace Conference. Poland solidified its independence in a series of wars fought by the newly formed Polish Army from to The extent of the half of the interwar territory of Poland was settled diplomatically in In a failed attempt to resolve the Polish question as quickly as possible, Berlin set up a German puppet state on 5 November , with a governing Provisional Council of State, the Council administered the country under German auspices, pending the election of a king.
A month before Germany surrendered on 11 November and the war ended, the Regency Council had dissolved the Council of State, with the notable exception of the Marxist-oriented Social Democratic Party of the Kingdom of Poland and Lithuania, most Polish political parties supported this move. On Sunday,10 November at 7 a. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Theaters of the Russian Civil War. Estonian War of Independence and British campaign in the Baltic — Southern Front of the Russian Civil War. Accessed January 24, General Annual Report of the British Army — Parliamentary Paper , XX, Cmd.
The Anglo-Russian Alliance Routledge, , p.
British Officials in Russia, —39 Bloomsbury, , p. Chronicling the Bruce Lockhart conspiracy, Willett, Russian Sideshow , pp. The Japanese Army in the s , p. Steinberg, Oxford University Press, Central European University Press. Retrieved 18 March Australians and the Russian Intervention, —19". Journal of the Australian War Memorial. Department of National Defence. Retrieved 8 April Its contribution to the independence of the Baltic nations".
Journal of Baltic Studies. The Way of the Heavenly Sword: The Japanese Army in the s. Altstadt The Azerbaijani Turks: Schuman, Russia Since Knopf, , Retrieved from " https: CS1 Estonian-language sources et Articles with Greek-language external links Webarchive template wayback links Use dmy dates from July All articles with unsourced statements Articles with unsourced statements from December All articles lacking reliable references Articles lacking reliable references from January All articles with failed verification Articles with failed verification from January Under this pretext began allied intervention in the Russian Civil War with the United Kingdom, there were violent clashes with troops loyal to the Bolsheviks 2.
Only a small percentage lived in towns, the class of kholops, close to the one of slavery, remained a major institution in Russia until , when Peter I converted household kholops into house serfs, thus including them in poll taxation 4. The government of the Far Eastern Republic dissolved itself and transferred all its authority, the Far Eastern Republic consisted of four provinces of the former Russian empire—Trans-Baikal, Amur, the Maritime Province, and the northern half of Sakhalin island 6.
Most moved to Kharkiv and received the support of the eastern Ukrainian cities, later, this move was regarded as a mistake by some of the Peoples Commissars 8. Many came from outside the nobility, such as generals Mikhail Alekseev, the White generals never mastered administration, they often utilized prerevolutionary functionaries or military officers with monarchististic inclinations for administering White-controlled regions The roots of Czech nationalism go back to the 19th century, nationalism became a mass movement in the last half of the 19th century The war was little noticed in Britain, which could devote few resources to the conflict until the fall of Napoleon in , American frigates inflicted a series of defeats on the Royal Navy, which was short on manpower due to the conflict in Europe The transition away from the use of Dominion was formally reflected in with the passage of the Canada Act, later that year, the name of national holiday was changed from Dominion Day to Canada Day Separate colonies were carved from parts of New South Wales, South Australia in , Victoria in , the Northern Territory was founded in when it was excised from South Australia Although there were nearly princely states, the majority were very small However, he was overruled by the British Colonial Office which ordered him to desist from his plans and his refusal to abandon the idea eventually led to him being recalled Compromise on this was if the nation were to be made whole again Greeks dreamed of liberating them all and reconstituting a state embracing all the Greek lands and this was called the Great Idea, and it was sustained by almost continuous rebellions against Ottoman rule in Greek-speaking territories, particularly Crete, Thessaly and Macedonia At that time the country was covered with forests, and people lived in communities near bodies of water After a brief multinominal experimentation in , proportional representation into large, regional, Socialists became the major party, but they were unable to form a government in a parliament split into three different factions, with Christian Populists and classical liberals Russian soldiers of the anti-Bolshevik Siberian Army in June view of Vladivostok and the Golden Horn Bay.
Vladivistok City department of the Ministry of Emergency Situations. The Russian Empire Russian: Peter the Great officially renamed the Tsardom of Russia as the Russian Empire in and became its first emperor. He instituted sweeping reforms and oversaw the transformation of Russia into a major European power. Empress Catherine the Great , who reigned from to , continued the empire's expansion and modernization. Considering herself an enlightened absolutist , she played a key role in the Russian Enlightenment.
The eleven-month siege of a Russian naval base at Sevastopol during the Crimean War. Holiday decorations to May 1. Bolshevik commissars in Ukraine some time in Territories claimed by the Ukrainian People's Republic — Soviet soldiers preparing rafts to cross the Dnieper during the Battle of the Dnieper The sign reads "To Kiev! The White movement Russian: In the summer of Denikin's troops captured Kharkov.
Czechoslovakia, or Czecho-Slovakia Czech and Slovak: Czechoslovak troops in Vladivostok The car in which Reinhard Heydrich was killed. It depicts the first session of the newly reformed House of Commons on 5 February In the foreground, the leading statesmen from the Lords: Canada listen ; French: Aboriginal rock art in the Kimberley region of Western Australia.
Portrait of Captain James Cook , the first European to map the eastern coastline of Australia in Similar ceremonies are held in many suburbs and towns. I read that a new edition or updated edition will be out in a few months. Until I can get my hands on this new copy, I'll wait.
If your really interested in this book, I really would try to go to your public library first. The number of typographical errors is excessive Unfortunately, whatever merit there may be to this book is obscured by the poor editing. The number of typographical errors is excessive it's full of poor grammar- it's clear that this book was either lightly edited or not at all. My overall impression is that this is an amateur vanity book. One person found this helpful. If you've already read the reviews up to this point, you probably have an idea what you might be getting yourself into with this book: The book is rife with small errors--poor spelling choices of names, citation issues, even more citation issues these things matter in history texts, right?
I'd be wary of a book on the February Revolution entitled, "Crushing the Palace of Fools", so naturally, this sort of fairly apparent agenda is not a good thing. I wouldn't recommend this for the subject, even in an area that is mostly unexamined in English--hopefully, the body of literature won't resemble this too much. Bottomline - A bookful of the author's collection of internet stuff and info from England. Some good info not seen before.
A great deal of extremely poor data from bad sources. No footnotes to prove anything. Extreme to the right spiteful twist on issues. Gets way off the topic with some chapters not even covering the Intervention. See all 5 reviews. Feedback If you need help or have a question for Customer Service, contact us. Would you like to report poor quality or formatting in this book? Click here Would you like to report this content as inappropriate? Click here Do you believe that this item violates a copyright?
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