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PDF Bioavailability of Nutrients for Animals: Amino Acids, Minerals, Vitamins

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In addition, the fermentation of grain-based breads by using a sourdough starter breaks down phytates. Individuals who are sensitive to free glutamate should exercise caution when fermenting anything high in protein. As we mentioned above, there are a few vitamins A, D, E, and K that are only soluble in fat. That means that they are not bioavailable unless they are eaten alongside fats. Similarly, there are other foods that can improve the bioavailability of nutrients.

The organic acids found in fermented foods improve absorption by forming soluble compounds with trace minerals. Ascorbic acid in citrus fruits, tropical fruits, strawberries, tomatoes, asparagus, and brussels sprouts makes certain iron compounds more soluble.


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Ascorbic acid can also counteract the inhibitory effect of phytate and may enhance the absorption of other trace minerals like selenium. Finally, animal protein enhances the absorption of zinc, iron, and copper. Keep in mind that each of these nutrients will have a different bioavailability depending on how food is prepared and served. Vitamins are organic compounds that are vital to our health and cannot be produced in our bodies. All vitamins are considered essential. There are 13 recognized vitamins or vitamin complexes , and they are named for letters of the alphabet.

Food processing and cooking always affects vitamin content.


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Steaming and waterless cooking methods generally preserve vitamin content better than boiling or braising. Vitamins can be diluted by liquids and will often move out of the food and into the cooking liquid. Oxidation is the primary cause of vitamin loss in cooking.

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There are, however, cooking methods that can make vitamins more available. Acidic cooking liquids tend to preserve vitamin quantities in foods better than alkaline liquids. In addition, the processes of culturing dairy, soaking and sprouting nuts and seeds, and lacto-fermenting vegetables make vitamins more accessible.

The Protein Combining Myth

Vitamins have many different properties and biochemical functions. The most important property to consider is its solubility. Some vitamins, like vitamin C, are soluble in water, while others, like vitamin K, are soluble in fat. If a vitamin is fat-soluble, it needs to be eaten with some form of fat in order for the vitamin to be absorbed. Water-soluble vitamins present less of a concern, as they will inevitably be eaten in the presence of water. Dietary minerals are elements that are required by living organisms other than carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and oxygen, which are present in common organic molecules.

There are seven macrominerals that are used in great abundance in humans: These trace minerals include iron, cobalt, copper, zinc, molybdenum, iodine, selenium, chromium, and manganese. Minerals are most often eaten can be eaten in the form of a salt like sodium chloride, magnesium chloride, or calcium phosphate.

When these salts are dissolved into water or another liquid, the salt compounds break apart into two ions.


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Once the minerals are ionized, the signaling systems in our guts determine which minerals are needed and which can be expelled as waste. It is important to pay attention to the amount and method of consuming dietary minerals as certain minerals can compete and block receptor sites in the gut. For example, too much calcium may impede magnesium absorption.

Bioavailability of nutrients for animals: amino acids, minerals, and vitamins.

There are also certain substances in grains phytic acid , greens oxalic acid , and tea tannins may bind with ionized minerals and prevent their absorption in the gut. The best ways to consume minerals are mineralized water, unrefined sea salt, bone broth, and nutrient-dense foods and beverages.

All fats are made up of lipid compounds called triglycerides. Each triglyceride compound is composed of three fatty acid molecules connected to a glycerol molecule a short 3- carbon chain that acts as a frame for the triglyceride. The fatty acid molecules are have two parts, shaped like a tadpole: Each fatty acid tail can be anywhere from 4 to 34 carbons long. Fatty acids can be either saturated or unsaturated.

Saturated fatty acids have the simplest hydrocarbon structure. In those fatty acids, every carbon in the tail has two hydrogens projecting from it. Unsaturated fatty acids are slightly more complicated. Each of these double-bonded carbons can each hold on to only one hydrogen.

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Monounsaturated fatty acids have one kink in their hydrocarbon tail; polyunsaturated fatty acids have at least two kinks. Humans can produce almost all fatty acids in our bodies; there are only two essential fatty acids. Both are short-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids: On the other hand, people suffering from disease or autoimmune conditions and those with sluggish digestive systems may have trouble making this conversion. Because these three fatty acids are generally better sources of health benefits than their shorter chain precursors, it is a good idea to eat foods that contain EPA, DHA, and ARA.

A word of caution: The standard American diet typically includes a high amount of omega-6 fatty acids, and often in the form of LA. Conversely, most Americans lack omega-3 fatty acids. Ideally, we should be consuming omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids at a ratio of at least 2: For most Americans, that means really cutting back on omega-6 fatty acids and really increasing omega-3 fatty acids. Amino acids are the molecular building blocks of proteins. They consist of anywhere from 10 to 40 atoms, which are mainly carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen.

Each protein molecule can contain up to hundreds of these molecules, and many proteins consist of a wide array of different amino acids. Amino acids contribute flavors to food in two ways: First, they participate in browning reactions that create sweet, caramelized flavor. Second, some amino acids like glutamic acid have distinct flavors of their own. We commonly refer to the flavor of glutamic acid as umami. These flavorful amino acids only exhibit this properly when they have been released from their respective protein structure.

Amino acids can be released from their protein structure when the proteins are denatured. Denaturation occurs when proteins are exposed to heat, high acidity, or air bubbles in water. These catalysts break the bonds between amino acid groups on the outer portions of the protein, which causes the protein to further unravel and expose more amino acid groups to the catalyst. When it occurs in the body, the denaturation of proteins is completely healthy. When it occurs via food processing, however, problems can occur.

Read more about the problems about free amino acids in our post all about proteins. Proteins that are not completely broken down during cooking need to be broken down during digestion in order for the body to absorb the amino acids. Proteins can be broken down in the stomach high acidity , but they are also can be broken down via enzymatic activity. There are about 20 amino acids that commonly occur in foods, and nine of them are considered essential.

This practical book provides crucial information necessary to formulate diets with appropriate amounts of amino acids, minerals, and vitamins. The factors that influence how well animals obtain these critical nutrients and methods for determining bioavailability are reviewed in this comprehensive text.

In addition, data from both ruminants and nonruminants are included as well as established estimates of bioavailability for particular feed stuffs and feed supplements. Read more Read less. Product description Product Description This practical book provides crucial information necessary to formulate diets with appropriate amounts of amino acids, minerals, and vitamins.

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Nutrient Density

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