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While leaders like Thayendenagea negotiated with the British for land grants, what they received was often far less than they were promised, and their contributions and losses still remain largely unrecognized. As always, this guide is not intended to be a comprehensive list of all of the online sources of information on Loyalist history.

Instead, it contains links to primary source collections and databases, online exhibits, media, and other resources that will be most helpful to educators, particularly at the university and college levels. If there is something you think should be added to this list, please let me know in the comments below. Thanks to Melissa N. Shaw for this suggestion! You made it to the end!

I think my poor hands are about to fall off. I hope that you have found this list to be useful. If you find this post interesting or useful, please consider sharing it on the social media platform of your choice. March 25, at 7: Ferguson and Ackerman are very common Loyalist names.

Jane Ackerman was born in Shelburne in but I have not been able to trace her parents journey to Shelburne. I have seen general information about Port Roseway. March 25, at Then be sure to check out The Loyalist Link: Your email address will not be published. So we often have people teaching outside their area of expertise. This is a great concern to ASTA. School staff are being asked to take on the management of school libraries in small schools in an effort to save money on salaries for trained professional staff.

Without qualified teacher librarians managing school libraries, teachers and students cannot expect to access, retrieve, select and organize information in a critical and efficient manner. An area in which teachers are increasingly required to teach without adequate background or training is vocational education in the post compulsory years. Again, teachers have serious reservations about such an approach. These mainly relate to teachers' lack of training in vocational subjects and to inadequate resourcing and equipping of their schools to take on these new commitments.

The Committee was advised [24] that in Queensland, for example, school teachers required to teach vocational education courses are to be given a two week 'familiarisation'. Teachers have had changes in vocational education imposed upon them. Their views have not been sought although decisions taken will affect them very directly. I think teachers feel their status is being depressed because on the one hand they are being blamed and on the other hand they are being given solutions, which in one sense tends to render them powerless because they have not been part of devising those solutions.

They do not understand them; they see them as change heaped on change. I refer to the ongoing changes in vocational education in the senior secondary areas. I cannot keep up with the name changes, let alone what it means. A teacher in a classroom not getting access to the things that I see would just be swamped by it. Teachers see such courses as 'TAFE on the cheap' and as diverting thinly spread resources away from the core business of schools. Even students, who are generally supportive of school - TAFE links, are less than enthusiastic. Schools have been very innovative in their approaches to incorporating vocational training and in extending opportunities to their post compulsory students.

In the Committee's view however, the latest proposals for the teaching of TAFE courses in schools are bound to fail unless they are accompanied by far greater resources than are currently envisaged and by appropriate training for teachers. While the Committee recognises that additional funding will follow an increase in retention, such post hoc funding arrangements severely disadvantage schools in the short term as they are required to equip themselves for their new role in the expectation that sufficient funding will follow. The extent of the funding is unclear, given the dramatic variations in estimates of the impact of the Common Youth Allowance on school retention rates.

Over the last 20 years schools have increasingly included in their mainstream classes children with disabilities who would formerly have been taught in special education schools.

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This parallels moves in other areas away from institutionalisation of people with disabilities and their inclusion in mainstream services such as housing and, where appropriate, open employment. In evidence to the Committee teachers were generally supportive of moves to include children with disabilities in regular classes. Where teachers were provided with adequate back up and support in the form of teacher aides, specialist help, withdrawal classes for intensive work with small groups etc teachers believed inclusion policies worked well both for children with disabilities and for other children in the class.

In practice however such support as was provided was rarely adequate and is declining. In this situation teachers' work load increased dramatically as they tried to juggle individual attention to those children with disabilities who required it and the needs of other children in the class. The needs of children with disabilities were not adequately met and the education of other students also suffered. This is a particular problem for government schools, which enrol much higher proportions of children with disabilities than do private schools.

Many teachers and their representatives identified inclusion policies without adequate back up as a major contributor to excessive work load. Recent Government Inquiries in New South Wales and Western Australia have made major recommendations on the further integration of students with disabilities which will significantly add to teachers' workload.

Based on experience in other states, where similar programs have been introduced, a lack of proper resourcing for the policy will further exacerbate teacher workload. The policy of inclusive education has added considerable complexity to the everyday working life of the average teacher. The demands made upon teachers will continue to grow as inclusive schooling principles are translated into practice.

Attempting to meet the social, emotional, personal and educational needs of each and every student in terms of personalised teaching and alternative resources can be a daunting task. The added requirement of consulting with and collaborating with other professionals also increases the responsibilities, time commitment and workload of the regular classroom teacher.

Reliable information on class size is difficult to obtain. In the ABS calculated [29] the average national ratio of full time equivalent [FTE] teaching staff to full time students of all ages as This was a slight rise over , when it was This figure does not equate to class size however, because it includes FTE teaching staff who do not actually teach, such as school counsellors, principals and deputy principals. Given the increased administrative load on schools as a result of devolution - much of which is being undertaken by teachers in time they would formerly have spent in classroom teaching - it is likely but difficult to prove that teachers are correct in claiming significant increases in class size.

Figures published recently by the Victorian Government [30] show an increase in average class size in government primary schools from There is some dispute in the general literature about the relationship between class size, student outcomes and teacher work load. Most work undertaken in Australia supports teachers' claims that class size affects student learning. In addition, class size appeared to have been [sic] a contributing effect to the success of the most effective teachers.

In evidence to the Committee, only education departments - and not all of those - disputed the connection between class size, student outcomes and teacher work load. Evidence from teachers was quite different. They claimed that class size has a direct impact on teacher work load and on student outcomes. It is a prime example of an issue on which it is difficult for teachers to separate industrial from professional concerns. Because of its centrality to teachers' work and to students' learning it is usually a major focus in teachers' industrial disputes. In evidence to the Committee many teachers pointed to the link between increasing class size and increasing work load, and between increasing class size and poorer student outcomes, especially at the primary school level.

At the moment, research and evidence related over the last, say, decade, indicates that a class size of under 20, particularly in the early years, simply makes very good sense. I do not think we have really moved that way in Australia and, if we have, I do believe, in the last number of years at least, we are retreating from it.

I can tell you on the record that our utmost priority is early childhood education and reducing the class sizes in early childhood. We have said that now for a number of years. We have surveyed our members; they have agreed with that. It somewhat galls us that those priorities are not being talked about in the context of the debate around literacy and child welfare generally. In studying class sizes it is worthwhile investigating the class sizes used in successful private schools. Such schools charge substantial fees, and so will work to reduce the teacher costs as far as possible and therefore the impost to families.

If large classes are effective they can be expected to operate in such schools. The Committee reiterates the point that teachers now have to bring a much higher proportion of their class to much higher skill levels, applied to much more complex tasks than was formerly the case. As a result the intensity of the teaching work load is increasing.

This is compounded by large classes. Teachers have traditionally undertaken extra curricular activities with their students, sometimes but not always related to their subject expertise. They have coached sports teams, conducted camps, run clubs and supervised homework. This work has always been unpaid but was seen by many teachers as a valuable opportunity for interacting with students in a less formal environment than the classroom, and thus developing good relationships with them. Some teachers continue to enjoy their participation in extra curricula activities but others are retreating from it.

There are a number of reasons for this. One is the fear of litigation should any mishap occur. A related issue is the need to document all aspects of extra curricula activities and to require explicit parental permission for them, which adds to the administrative load associated with such activities.

Another reason is that teachers' direct work load is such as to leave little time or energy. A further factor is the lack of appreciation of their efforts - by parents or by their employers - both of whom increasingly view such participation as a requirement rather than a choice. Teachers took industrial action two years ago and I was very involved in the issues this concerned and acted as the on site union rep. I had several phone calls from parents demanding that I restore their child's "education rights" and take them on camp, on excursions and out of school activities.

When I explained that these were activities I conducted as an act of goodwill and I was not paid for these activities I was told to go and get another job if that was my attitude as people working with children needed to be giving. The implementation of bans on all out of hours, unpaid, voluntary work by teachers [during industrial action in the ACT in ] was attacked by the government as being unprofessional because the action was hurting the students; the parents of students affected by the action accused teachers of jeopardising the educational opportunities of their children; the media, of course, accused teachers of acting out of greed and focussed on such things as the long holidays teachers enjoy each year.

The exploitation of the teacher workforce by the governments, both federal and state, has become so ingrained that there are some members in the community who now demand the voluntary component as a right for students. They refuse to acknowledge that what is being demanded is the performance of unpaid, voluntary, out of hours work. Compulsory professional development, normally in teachers' own time, also contributes to their work load.

This is discussed in Chapter 7. Teacher work load has increased as a result of higher retention rates. These have changed the composition of the post compulsory student population. Whereas it previously consisted mainly of academically gifted and motivated students aiming for university entrance it is now much more diverse.

In response, teachers have been required to provide a much broader range of courses, with a much greater focus on vocational education. The resulting increase in work load has been exacerbated by their general unfamiliarity with the subject area and lack of adequate preparation and training, as noted earlier in this Chapter. Teacher work load is now recognised as a serious concern by independent commentators. The uncontradicted evidence in these proceedings is that the standard working week of 38 hours is no more than a formality, with some Victorian teachers spending in the order of 50 hours per week or more at their work to discharge their duties in an adequate and acceptable manner.

In this situation the fact that teachers and schools still function at all is cause for celebration. That they function well in most cases is remarkable. The family has lost its moorings in traditional beliefs, there is widespread disaffection from political parties and processes. Schools are still providing that sense of certainty while all these other situations have failed our young. The fact that Australia was the highest ranking English speaking country on the TIMSS [Third International Mathematics and Science Study] measures of student performance is a significant achievement, as is the fact that Australian students regularly attain medal status in the international Mathematics and Science Olympiads.

Australian initiatives in creative and innovative mathematics teaching and learning materials for example, the Mathematics Curriculum Teaching Project materials and more recently the Working Mathematically CD Rom produced by the Curriculum Corporation are widely recognised as world best practice. But we cannot expect that, without assistance, teachers and schools will continue indefinitely to serve our young people so well.

The Committee concludes, on the basis of evidence it received, that it is appropriate for governments now to reassess what teachers do and what it is they want teachers to do.


If governments expect teachers to continue to perform the multiple roles they now undertake they must resource them accordingly. They must remunerate teachers adequately for their work and assist them by reducing class sizes and providing additional support staff, both for clerical and for welfare functions. They must, in cooperation with teachers and as a matter of urgency, rationalise the curriculum and prioritise subjects to be covered.

This section examines the impact of technology on teachers, on students and on schools more generally. While teachers' evidence to the Committee acknowledged the potential of new technology to enhance both teaching and learning the weight of evidence suggested that this potential was still largely unrealised.

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Perhaps the most significant relates to the average age of classroom teachers. This is between 45 and 47, with slight variations between States. Few teachers in this age group would have had routine access to computers during their training. Consequently many are apprehensive about their computing skills and resist computer use in the classroom. Although many teachers have purchased their own computers [42] they have had to learn to use them on the job. Few have received adequate training although, where it has been offered, courses have been oversubscribed.

In Queensland in , places were offered in professional development in computing which required teachers to give up two weeks of their leave to participate. They were, according to Education Queensland, "massively oversubscribed. Teachers' general lack of detailed knowledge of the technology and its applications especially compared with that of their students is a significant contributor to teacher stress. In addition, there was evidence that computer anxiety or cyberphobia was a factor in teacher stress.

Because of these concerns, it is unlikely that teachers will regularly use computers in classes with their students. Teachers who have taught successfully for years are now feeling threatened by the need to become completely up to date with the latest technology Teachers report that they are now spending huge amounts of time and money upgrading facilities at home. Personal computers, printers, faxes, connection to the internet and the necessary support software are now considered necessities by teachers if they are to achieve the school, government and community goals.

Technology teachers, or those in other subject areas with technology expertise, are often called upon to assist other teachers. The same thing applies if you have a teacher who is expert enough to fix the computers. That tends to be what they are doing instead of teaching their students, which is another bone of contention. One of the major difficulties associated with this [computers in schools] is that technical assistance, in the main, is not provided in the school situation.

Teachers are expected to provide the technical expertise to keep computers, printers, networks, internet etc in working order. In any other profession or business, this task would be undertaken by the appropriate technician so the practising professional in this case the teacher could pursue the task of teaching.

Maintenance of the computer network now takes place on weekends and in holidays because downtime during working hours must be minimised seven days during the last January holiday. A number of teachers questioned whether computers and other equipment in schools represented value for money. Technology is an expensive component of education which often promises more than it delivers. As someone experienced in the technology area, I am concerned that scarce resources are being diverted away from teachers and into technology for little more than PR value. Teachers identified a number of ways in which the widespread introduction of technology into classrooms could, potentially at least, impact adversely upon their teaching role.

One submission went so far as to argue that the threat to teachers' status posed by technology was without precedent. Traditionally, questions of material status may relate to such things as levels of income and education, and the amount of autonomy a worker is perceived to possess in the workplace, and the standards of competency achieved. In the case of the information revolution, however, teachers risk the contempt of their clients on the one thing that they, as teachers, are assumed to possess - the knowledge about how to access information.

There is evidence that education departments are moving to address teachers' concerns about the impact of computer technology in schools. At the end of that period ACT schools would have one computer for every two students. The effectiveness of the ACT and New South Wales approaches has been questioned by some commentators [53] because of the lack of provision for support and training of teachers.

To get more of the benefit which appears to exist in computer technology for education it will not be enough for teachers to learn, with some trepidation, how to operate the machines as capably as their students. They will need to be actively involved in the design and development of software which is educationally sound and useful and which complements the rest of their teaching programs. Certainly there are individual schools which are well resourced and whose teachers are well trained in computing use and well supported. But such schools remain in the minority.

Many students arrive at school well versed in the use of computers. Consequently they and their parents expect that computers will be routinely available in schools and that they will be used effectively by teachers. When this proves not to be the case there is a danger that their respect for teachers will be undermined and teachers' self esteem and confidence correspondingly diminished. The difference in the technology use now is that the students have access to a wider range of information than the teacher has. The students have more time and more ability to access information that the teacher has never even heard of, which may be beyond the teacher's knowledge.

Therefore, the teacher's authority can no longer rest on superior knowledge. Often the teacher will have superior knowledge, but often they will not. Often students have access to more sophisticated technology for longer periods of time than their teachers and the student - as - expert has undermined the self-esteem of many teachers.

Sometimes a student in the class is able to help the teacher with a computer problem, but this cannot be relied on - and teachers naturally feel the strain of this uncertainty. A small number of students in computer classes would still expect the teacher to know everything, but I have found that most are understanding of the situation, especially if one is frank with them. We learn together, and help one another. On the surface this is fine, but the underlying insecurity felt by the teachers should not be deemed unimportant.

In fact, many younger teachers seem to see this role reversal as a constructive bonding tool in the student - teacher relationship. There are many benefits to students from the widespread introduction of technology into schools, as the earlier witness also noted. There have been many positive features relating to the widespread introduction of technology into government schools in Queensland.

The opportunities available to our students are extraordinary, which is particularly obvious to someone in my situation who has been in the job for so long. One submission commented on the benefits of technology to students who were not high achievers in traditional, book based learning. The potential for maintaining interest and participation among a group of students not always well served by traditional curriculum approaches deserves further attention. It appears that some Australian students have taught themselves from the internet, abstract and complicated computer programming language which they then use to complete a number of internet related tasks from constructing a web site to establishing webzones.

Interestingly, many of these students have been streamed by their state high schools into low level mathematics and English classes. A submission from the Association of Women Educators commented on the particular difficulties faced by women teachers in becoming computer literate.

These related to time available, negative attitudes to women's abilities, financial constraints and discouragement from using the internet through fear of 'cyber-violence' and 'cyber-sexual harassment. The widespread use of technology in schools has potential benefits for school administrators. But again, evidence presented to the Committee suggested that they have not been fully realised.

Chapter 6 - The school environment - factors affecting teachers' morale, performance and status

Building Literacy in Social Studies: Engaging Minds in the Classroom: Cultivating Curiosity in K—12 Classrooms: Understanding How Young Children Learn: Authentic Learning in the Digital Age: Honoring Diverse Teaching Styles: Researching in a Digital World: How do I teach my students to conduct quality online research? Parrett and Kathleen M.

Patterson and Paul Kelleher. Fast and Effective Assessment: The Mathematics Program Improvement Review: How do I improve teaching using multiple measures? Hubbell and Matt Kuhn. Pollock and Susan Hensley. Pollock and Sharon M. Ford and Margaret M. Instruction That Measures Up: Test Better, Teach Better: Transformative Assessment in Action: Posamentier, Daniel Jaye and Stephen Krulik. How to Teach Now: Leading Change in Your School: Where Great Teaching Begins: Digital Portfolios in the Classroom: Five Myths About Classroom Technology: How do we integrate digital tools to truly enhance learning?

Richetti and Benjamin B. Tapping the Power of Personalized Learning: Managing Your Classroom with Heart: The New Principal's Fieldbook: Strategies for Success with English Language Learners: Learning in the Fast Lane: Teaching in the Fast Lane: Teaching Every Student in the Digital Age: Rosebrough and Ralph G.

Transformational Teaching in the Information Age: Peer Feedback in the Classroom: Teaching Students to Self-Assess: How do I help students reflect and grow as learners?

Broken Promise Teacher Resource Guide

Partnering with Parents to Ask the Right Questions: Challenging the Whole Child: Engaging the Whole Child: Keeping the Whole Child Healthy and Safe: On Being a Teacher: On Poverty and Learning: Supporting the Whole Child: Causes and Cures in the Classroom: How do we make it work? Building a Math-Positive Culture: Making Sense of Math: Taking Charge of Professional Development: Sheninger and Thomas C. Thomas Dewing and Matthew J. Silver and Matthew J.

Morris and Victor Klein. Strong and Matthew J. So Each May Learn: Jackson and Daniel R. Fisher and Nancy E. Better Than Carrots or Sticks: Frey, Ian Pumpian and Douglas E. Education and Public Health: Relationship, Responsibility, and Regulation: Sousa and Carol Ann Tomlinson. Differentiation and the Brain: Teaching the Critical Vocabulary of the Common Core: How do I teach vocabulary effectively with limited time?

Connecting Character to Conduct: Lesson Imaging in Math and Science: Sternberg and Wendy M. How do I empower my teachers to lead and learn? How do I make time to lead and learn as a principal? Teachers as Classroom Coaches: Professional Development for Differentiating Instruction: Tools for High-Quality Differentiated Instruction: Teaching What Matters Most: Tucker and Jennifer L.

Stronge, Xianxuan Xu, Lauri M. Leeper and Virginia C. Richard and Nancy Catano.

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    Tucker and James H. Teaching Reading in the Content Areas: If Not Me, Then Who? Villa and Jacqueline S. Leading an Inclusive School: Connecting Teachers, Students, and Standards: Wald and Michael S. Questioning for Classroom Discussion: Wessler and William Preble. Becoming a Great High School: Charting a Course to Standards-Based Grading: Closing the Achievement Gap: Learning to Love Math: Teaching the Brain to Read: Teaching Students to Drive Their Brains: Witmer and Carolyn S.

    Summarization in Any Subject: Encouragement in the Classroom: