Crossing the Jordan, then, meant two things for Israel. First, they must be totally committed to going against armies, chariots, and fortified cities. But then, if they were to be successful, they must also be committed to a focused walk of faith in Yahweh , the only true and living God rather than, as they had done in the wilderness, a walk according to the flesh and their own resources.
For believers today, crossing the Jordan represents passing from one level of the Christian life to another.
It is not a picture of a believer dying and entering heaven. For the Israelites Canaan was hardly heaven! It is a picture of entering into spiritual warfare to claim what God has promised. This should mean the end of a life lived by human effort and the beginning of a life of faith and obedience.
And the people hurried and crossed; 11 and it came about when all the people had finished crossing, that the ark of the LORD and the priests crossed before the people. Who is like Thee, majestic in holiness, Awesome in praises, working wonders? There He made for them a statute and regulation, and there He tested them. In only three days this people who had seen and sung of the mighty works of God suddenly seemed to have developed a serious case of amnesia.
Negative illustrations of remembering: These verses comprise only a partial list of warnings and commands to remember rather than forget because of our natural tendencies. The memorial of commemoration of stones falls into three objectives:. The very site of the stones was to be an encouragement, but also a reminder of the sovereign power of the Lord over nations and creation so they might fear the Lord forever and remain faithful to their purpose in the plan of God.
Parents dare not and cannot abdicate this to others. God charges parents with this privilege and responsibility. Here God was again reminding Israel of her purpose as a nation of priests Ex. The application to us should be obvious. Christians are living stones of a holy temple, living memorials of the power of God. But we too face the threat of forgetting the Lord by forgetting our pilgrim character through preoccupation with the world. By way of application, what are some of the things we regularly do and are called to do that form memorials of the saving grace of God and our calling as believers in Christ?
Chapter 5 describes the consecration of the people of Israel in preparation for the great task that lay before them. As such, it stands as a bridge between the crossing of the Jordan and the beginning of the military campaigns to subjugate the inhabitants of the land. From all appearances, now was the time to attack the enemy. The people of Israel were filled with the excitement and motivation of having miraculously crossed the Jordan. They apparently knew the enemy was in disarray from the standpoint of their morale 5: Now is the logical time and the enemy is ripe for the taking!
As one man, the whole nation has handed over all its resources to the Government. We have invested the Cabinet with the right to conscript any of us for any task, to take our goods, our money, our all. Never have rich men set such little store by their wealth; never have we been so ready to lay down life itself, if only our cause may triumph. To ensure victory, God took them through several events to instruct and prepare them for battle. Chapter five falls into five instructive sections, each one fundamental to victory.
Essential to spiritual victory is our understanding that in Christ, all the enemies we face are, in essence, defeated foes cf. It was an act of faith and spiritual preparation. By partaking of the Passover, Israel was to relive their deliverance out of Egypt by the blood of the Lamb, but as with circumcision, this too was related to the land. As observing the Passover in Egypt protected them from the destroying angel, it also assured them of two more things: Remembering the past became an excellent preparation of faith for the tests of the future.
It spoke of their new beginning, of their new life as the people of God delivered from judgment and rock solid in the place of blessing. May I repeat the principle: Now when all the Amorite kings west of the Jordan and all the Canaanite kings along the coast heard how the LORD had dried up the Jordan before the Israelites until we had crossed over, their hearts melted and they no longer had the courage to face the Israelites NIV.
This first important statement in verse 2 shows the demoralized condition of the inhabitants of the land. They were, in essence, an already defeated foe. They were fearful of the nation of Israel because of the mighty works of God described in verse 1. However, this truth needs to be seen in light of the twofold purpose of 4: Before moving on to the renewal of circumcision, it would be well to reflect briefly on the statements of verse one regarding the morale of the inhabitants in view of the mighty works of God. There are some significant and instructive New Testament parallels here.
In the world you have tribulation, but take courage; I have overcome the world. Our capacity, however, to overcome and tear down the fortresses raised up against the knowledge of God and their impact on us and others is always dependent on our new life in the Savior.
But being triumphant in Christ is not automatic. Overcoming through the Savior requires that we be rightly related to Him as well as focused and dependent on Him as the source of our daily walk, step by step. Our need is to be strong in the Lord and in the strength of His might Eph. For this reason, Israel not only needed to know they faced a defeated and demoralized foe, but they needed spiritual preparation.
Thus, the Lord led them through a number of important experiences to spiritually fortify and prepare them to enter into the battle that lay before them. In verse 2, the Lord instructs Joshua to circumcise the sons of Israel a second time. Rather, as a nation this was the second time all the men were circumcised, the first being while the old generation was still in Egypt.
During the time the children of Israel were slaves in Egypt they had not practiced circumcision, not until they were about to leave. Circumcision was an Egyptian practice with religious connotations, being reserved for the priests and upper-class citizens. Because of this, it would most likely have been prohibited as a practice for the Israelites. At any rate, every male who partook of the Passover in Egypt, native Israelite or stranger, was then circumcised cf. The comment concerning this circumcision in Exodus But why the renewal of the rite of circumcision and especially at this time for it would certainly leave the men of war more vulnerable to attack because it totally disabled the men for a period of time.
For an illustration of the effects of circumcision on adult men, compare the story in Genesis 34 regarding the Shechemites and the sons of Jacob. The Shechemite men, who wanted to intermarry with the Israelites women, agreed to be circumcised, but this was only a ruse to incapacitate them for battle. Verses explain the specific reasons:. They had failed to practice the right of circumcision while in the wilderness vss. But more than anything else, because of what circumcision stood for, it was unfitting for them to practice circumcision in the wilderness as a judged people who would die there.
The old generation would never possess the land because of their unbelief. As such, it was to be a sign of faith in what God would do through and for His people. Undoubtedly, for this reason no male could legitimately partake of the Passover if he was uncircumcised Ex. The Passover reminded Israel of their deliverance from Egypt, but it was a deliverance that had as its goal the possession of the land.
So there is a play on words here for the sake of teaching an important truth. But what was the reproach of Egypt? Based on Genesis A new significance was thus attached to the name Gilgal. First, Gilgal would stand for what God had done in rolling back the waters of Jordan that they might cross on dry land. But, second, it would also remind Israel of what they had done as an act of faith and obedience through the rite of circumcision. Circumcision symbolized their faith in what God would do to enable them to posses the land.
Included in this was their separated commitment to Him and to His purposes for them as His people. It was these two things, the mighty works of God and their act of faith, that had rolled away the reproach of Egypt. In essence, then, God was saying at Gilgal that to be victorious against the enemies of the land, you must be a holy people and trust Me to fight your battles; you must trust in My covenant promises and be committed to me as My people, ever keeping in mind your purpose as a nations of priests, My own possession among all the peoples of the earth Ex.
With circumcision accomplished, the people were spiritually ready and qualified to observe the Passover. It is also significant that they crossed just in time to observe it on the fourteenth day of the month. This was only the third Passover the people had kept. The first was in Egypt Ex. Sinai just before they broke camp Num. But why the Passover? By partaking of the Passover, they were to relive their deliverance out of Egypt by the blood of the Lamb sprinkled on the doorposts and on the lintel of their houses in Egypt.
As the lambs were slain they were assured that as the Red Sea crossing was followed by the destruction of the Egyptians, so the crossing of the Jordan would be followed by the defeat of the Canaanites. So remembering the past was an excellent preparation for the tests of the future. The Passover not only reminded them of their deliverance and redemption out of Egypt, but it looked forward to other victories—to the defeat of the Canaanites, but also to a victory accomplished in Jerusalem on Calvary.
It naturally pointed to the cross where Christ, our Passover, was sacrificed for us. Clean out the old leaven, that you may be a new lump, just as you are in fact unleavened. For Christ our Passover also has been sacrificed 1 Cor. The Passover was a memorial of a physical deliverance from Egypt by the sacrifice of a lamb Ex. The Passover was also an anticipation in shadows and types of a future fulfillment—the person and work of Christ in His first advent, which encompassed His birth, sinless life, and death on the Cross as the Lamb of God to redeem us from the clutches of sin.
As one studies the Passover and how it was to be observed according to Scripture, this becomes even more evident and significant when you consider how the Passover is celebrated today by the Jewish community. When Jews today celebrate the Passover they do not sacrifice a lamb.
They have only a dry bone of a lamb. They have not celebrated the Passover by sacrificing a lamb for over nineteen hundred years. Consequently, since the temple was destroyed in 70 A. On the one hand God demands that they kill a lamb as a permanent ordinance. On the other hand, God makes it impossible for Jews to do this very thing.
Because Jesus Christ is the Lamb and the answer. Since His death, the observance of the Passover in the typical Jewish fashion is illegitimate. For Christ our Passover also has been sacrificed. Let us therefore celebrate the feast, not with old leaven, nor with the leaven of malice and wickedness, but with the unleavened bread of sincerity and truth. Instead, our responsibility lies with the feast of unleavened bread which speaks of purity of life. As it was with Israel, so today the Lord wants Christians to dispossess their enemies.
Our enemies are those things that stand against our fellowship with the Lord and our fruitfulness. We too must remember that our deliverance comes from one source—the work of God for us in Christ. But this is so hard for us to grasp regardless of what we know doctrinally because of our natural penchant to lean on our own strategies and effort to live our lives by our own means, even in spiritual matters.
With verse eleven, our attention is focused on the fact they ate of the crops of the land on the very next day after celebrating the Passover. The explanation that follows answers this question. It spoke of the their new beginning, of their new life as the people of God delivered from judgment and rock solid in the place of blessing. As mentioned, the Passover had not been observed since Mount Sinai Numbers 9 after which they broke camp and began their march toward the land.
But now the new generation had crossed over by faith in the power of God. Now that they are in the land and have celebrated the Passover in faith, they are able to appropriate the blessings of the land and taste of the goodness of the Lord. Leaven is a symbol of corruption and evil in Scripture.
So, the nation ate of the produce, which was surely to be a demonstration of faith and a lesson from the Lord of the saving life of God through fellowship with Him. After eating the produce of the land, our attention is immediately focused on the fact the manna ceased. There is an obvious connection here. But what is it? But they were still His people; they were the objects of His love, and because of that and for the sake of the younger generation who would cross over, the manna continued to be supplied.
But what was the manna? It was a supernatural gift for the desert journey , but it was not food for the land of promise. When we walk with the Lord, when we focus on Him and live obediently, we are able to appropriate and taste of His goodness. Miracles like the manna are exceptions to the rule, special provisions for special purposes. While the Lord is always able to work supernatural miracles at will, we should not expect them nor should we be disappointed or think something is wrong with our walk when we do not experience them. Finally, we need to note that tasting of the blessings of the Promised Land was only a foretaste of what was to come.
Experiencing our blessings in Christ should lead to a two-fold expectation: How exactly is the Holy Spirit defined for us in the New Testament? What do you suppose he was doing there? Joshua was naturally concerned about several things. First of all, he needed a plan of action. Just how would they go about attacking Jericho, probably the best fortified city in Canaan. They had little or no experience for besieging a city like Jericho.
Further, they undoubtedly lacked equipment such as battering rams, catapults, scaling ladders or moving towers. All they had were swords, arrows, slings, and spears which naturally would seem totally inadequate for the task before them. So how would Joshua prepare his army and how should they go about taking the city? He must have felt like the weight of the world was pressing down on his shoulders.
Can we fault Joshua for being at Jericho and surveying the situation? In fact, another great leader, Nehemiah, did the same when faced with the condition of the walls of Jerusalem. Nevertheless, Joshua needed an encounter with the God whom he served that he might grasp afresh an important truth, one that was equally vital as part of his preparation for victory by the power of God.
Perhaps he simply needed to be reminded of some very important truth for both clarification and encouragement. What kind of picture does this bring to mind and what does it mean? Standing with any weapon drawn is a military position of one who either stands guard defensively or stands ready to go against a foe offensively. Standing with sword drawn suggested he was there to fight either for or against Israel. Compare the response of Paul in Acts No one from the army of Israel should have been there for evidently no orders had been given for anyone to leave the camp.
So who was this stranger who suddenly appeared out of nowhere? What then is that mindset? We tend to see the battles we face as our battles and the forces we face as forces marshaled against us and our individual causes, concerns, agendas, and even our theological beliefs or positions on doctrine. And in a sense, that is true, if we are truly standing in the cause of Christ.
But there is another sense in which that is simply not true, and that is the issue here. The answer comes in two parts. The second part of the answer gives the reason. We tend to approach our battles and causes backwards; we turn things around and try to marshal God to support us rather than to submit and follow Him. Likewise, the promise of His powerful provision always carries with it the promise of His infinite supply and power no matter how impossible the problem may appear to us. Three other passages can serve as helpful examples that we might grasp the issue here and its significance to our daily walk.
First, compare 2 Kings 6: When Elisha was at Dothan with his young servant, he found himself surrounded by the army of Ben-Hadad, who, during the night had marched out and surrounded the city of Dothan. What shall we do? A second example is found for us in Matthew With the disciples still reluctant and perplexed over the fact Christ must go to the cross, Peter drew his sword and struck the slave of the high priest cutting off his ear. Or do you think that I cannot appeal to My Father, and He will at once put at My disposal more than twelve legions of angels?
How we each need this response—the response of worship and submission. He quickly got the picture. Joshua had been thinking of a conflict between the Israelite and the Canaanite armies. Perhaps he had been thinking of this as his battle. Certainly he felt the weight of responsibility on his shoulders.
But after being confronted by the divine Commander, he was reminded of a truth he heard Moses declare many years earlier when they stood on the banks of the Red Sea. What a comfort and how encouraging to know that we never have to bear our burdens or face our enemies alone. What is our part? Scofield was pastor of the First Congregational Church of Dallas, there came a time when the burdens of the ministry seemed heavier than he could bear.
All but crushed by the weight of the frustrations and problems of the work, he knelt one day in his office. In deep agony of spirit, he opened the Scriptures, looking for some message of comfort and strength. Led by the Spirit to the closing verses of Joshua 5, he saw at once that he was trying to carry the responsibilities alone. That day he turned his ministry over to the Lord, assured that it was His work and that He could accomplish it. He is the head of the church, indeed, the King of kings and Lord of lords. The passage also reminds us that God is not present to fight our battles or help in our causes or jump to our rescue when we get in trouble as though He were a genie in a bottle.
Instead, it reminds us that the battle is His and that our role is that of soldier-servants: Here we see that the warfare of the Christian is a holy calling, but also a divine undertaking accomplished in those who humble themselves under the mighty hand of God. In this chapter, Joshua had an encounter with the living Logos , the very revelation of God. The experience mentioned previously of Dr. Scofield illustrates the same truth through this very passage. May we see how much we each need to be in the Word with a listening ear so God can teach us the things we need to hear.
Joshua standing and perhaps walking about the city of Jericho studying what lay before him, weighed down with the burden of his responsibility is so very much like us today! We see the things we believe God has called us to do, but we are so prone to activity and running ahead more than we are to worship and praying for divine guidance. Our need is a lifestyle that sends us out into battle mindful of the Lord and who He is to our every move and mindful of those principles of His Word that must guide our every thought and step and fortify hearts with the comfort of God.
May we, then, as we look over the battles or tasks that lie before us, look up and see the Commander of the Lord of Hosts and remove our sandals. I, Moody Press, Chicago, , p. It was to be an external sign of a inward spiritual reality. Circumcision was to the Old Testament saint what water baptism is to the New Testament saint. This emphasis finds its illustration in the experiences of Israel in connection with Gilgal because the nation often returned there during their military campaigns.
It became a place of renewed commitment and consecration. According to the New Testament it signified: The nation, then, was to understand that circumcision was not simply a cutting of the flesh, but it was to include an inward work of faith which touched the heart and encompassed the whole life.
A plan for conquering the land of Canaan with its fortified cities and giants was, of course, crucial, but God never leaves His people to their own strategies. He comes to their aid with His own divinely-provided plan. Indeed, we are repeatedly warned in Scripture against leaning on our own understanding or plans Prov.
Undoubtedly, the strategy for invading the land was based on the geographical lay of the land. The pattern of divine strategy for the conquest of Canaan was based on geographic factors. From their camp at Gilgal near the Jordan River the Israelites could see steep hills to the west. Jericho controlled the way of ascent into these mountains, and Ai, another fortress, stood at the head of the ascent.
If the Israelites were to capture the hill country they must certainly take Jericho and Ai. This would put them on top of the hill country and in control of the central ridge, having driven a wedge between the northern and southern sections of Canaan. Israel could then engage the armies of the south in battle followed by the more remote enemy in the north. Palestine is a hilly country, and the major passage through it is a connecting road that runs from south to north through the highest portions of the land. Then, when the enemy forces were divided, they would first destroy the opposition to the south and then the opposition to the north.
This is the outline of the campaign described in Joshua Before the country could be divided, a wedge had to be driven from the Jordan River valley to the mountains. The first obstacle was at this point: Jericho was a military fortress built to defend the eastern approach to the high country. They thus attacked the central portion first, which prepared the way for operations to the south and then to the north. You shall do so for six days. If Joshua had met with his military advisors, no one would have come up with this plan. The plan set forth by the Lord in chapter 6 certainly illustrates the principle of a number of passages from the Bible like Proverbs So today, men are prone to believe in a plan of salvation and sanctification that in some way or another introduces works into the equation rather than faith alone in Christ alone.
Joshua 6, therefore, illustrates several vital concepts for walking by faith and dealing with the spiritual enemies we face in this life. Verse 1 is a parenthesis designed to introduce us to the plan for the overthrow of Jericho, but in the process, it shows us how Jericho, having stopped its normal activities, was preparing for a siege by Israel, but undoubtedly fearful with melted hearts because of the mighty works of God.
They knew about the Red Sea and they had surely heard about the miracle at Jordan. Before the Lord outlined His plan, He graciously assured Joshua of victory. Likewise over and over again in the New Testament, we are assured of our triumph over sin and Satan. See also Romans 6: Victory was assured by the promise of an omnipotent, faithful, and immutable God. This battle plan is highly unusual to say the least. The ordinary methods and weapons of warfare like battering rams or scaling ladders or towers were not to be used at all.
The city covered only about 8. On the seventh day they were to march seven times around the city and the priests were to blow their trumpets. The number seven figures prominently in this chapter. In fact it is used eleven times. Seven priests, with seven trumpets were to march around the city seven days with seven trips around the city on the seventh day. Seven is a significant number in Scripture: We have in this a reminder of 2 Corinthians We are destroying speculations and every lofty thing raised up against the knowledge of God, and we are taking every thought captive to the obedience of Christ.
As the walls of Jericho were brought down apart from human ability, so the spiritual weapons of our warfare are appropriated through prayer, faith, and various truths of the Word of God. Our weapons are designed to tear down strongholds. Strongholds are those things human reasoning or ideas, values, and designs, etc. These trumpets could produce only a few notes. They were used mainly as an instrument of signal. They were used at the time of jubilee in connection with the religious feasts to proclaim the worship and presence of God and they were used in military contexts.
Both concepts are applicable here. This was not just a military undertaking, the trumpets declared that the Lord of heaven and earth was present to tear down the walls of Jericho. We each have our Jericho or Ai that stands in the way of our ability to possess our possessions in Christ; virtual strongholds that impede our spiritual progress. It may be a weakness in our character, a physical infirmity, it may be indifference to spiritual things in general or to a specific area we are neglecting.
It could be materialism or some life-dominating pattern. For the LORD has given you the city. There were not just one or two breaches in the wall where soldiers were able to pour into the city. Some interpreters claim that an earthquake caused the destruction. We should not forget that these instructions and the events of this chapter were preceded by a number of things God used to prepare the people to believe and obey Him.
Israel had been prepared to trust the Lord by the events of the first chapters and their consecration to the Lord, especially in chapter 5. I am reminded of Luke Can you imagine the difficulty of this? Several hundred thousand people marching around the city without a word, not even a whisper!
There were the priests with their trumpets, those with the ark, the armed men and then the rest of the people. This may have included the women and children as well. If this was the case, the silence may be even a bigger miracle than the walls falling down! The passage does not tell us why they were to be silent, but perhaps it illustrates and teaches the principle of being silent before God and just resting in Him.
Does any passage come to mind? What about Exodus Our tendency is to gripe and complain to others or seek our comfort from people more than we talk to God and seek our comfort from Him. Regardless how unusual the plan was or how hard it was to carry out, there was explicit obedience. We read in Hebrews He was their source of strength.
For we through the Spirit, by faith, are waiting for the hope of righteousness Gal. Behold, to obey is better than sacrifice, And to heed than the fat of rams.
FOLIO: Joshua, HWV64
Because you have rejected the word of the Lord. Yet, a careful reading of the text also suggest Joshua did not unfold the entire plan at the first, but day by day gave them instructions. Each day they would go out and march silently around the city and then return with nothing happening. The walls were still standing and Jericho had not surrendered. They simply obeyed day after day until the seventh day when they marched around the city seven times. At the command of Joshua on the seventh day they gave the great shout and the walls came tumbling down by the mighty hand of God.
Is it not significant that Hebrews This remind us that the Lord often works slowly. We want immediate deliverance, but the Lord often tests our faith and in the process builds our character and our relationship with Him so we find the Lord to be what we really need.
Too often we want immediate solutions and all our needs and wants met so we do not have to wait on the Lord and trust Him. We want to trust in our health, our bank accounts, our position in the community, our reputation, in our talent, education, and abilities.
Studies in the Life of Joshua
Cleansing only came to Naaman when he humbled himself and washed seven times, not four or five or even six, but seven. See also Psalm Surely, the Lord was teaching Israel the need to wait patiently to find their rest in Him. Only the silver and gold and articles of bronze and iron, they put into the treasury of the house of the LORD. In these final verses we see some marvelous facts about God and His dealings with people. The promises to Rahab were kept—she and her family were delivered.
Third, in keeping with His faithfulness to keep His promises, the prophecy against any who would seek to rebuild Jericho vs. The prophecy of verse 26 came to be fulfilled in the days of Ahab see 1 Kings Jericho was occupied sporadically after its destruction, but never to the previous degree. Revell, New Jersey, , p.
After such a wonderful experience at Jericho, chapter 7 is surprising to say the least. Suddenly we are presented with a series of failures that stand in striking contrast to the victories of the past six chapters.
But how instructive this is if we only have the ears to listen to the message of this chapter. The thrill of victory was so quickly replaced with the agony of defeat. Here is the story of life and one we must learn to deal with in our daily walk because this passage is so typical of most of us. One minute we can be living in victory—the next in defeat. The distance between a great victory and a great defeat is only one step, and often only a short one at that. One sad truth of reality in a fallen world is that we can be riding high on the cloud of some great spiritual success and the very next moment find ourselves in a valley of spiritual failure and despair.
One moment we can be like Elijah standing victoriously on Mount Carmel and the next shriveled up under a juniper tree or hiding in a cave in deep despair complaining to God: Because of its strategic location, Ai was the next objective in the path of conquest. As with Jericho, its defeat was vital to the conquest of the entire land. Ai was smaller than Jericho, but its conquest was essential because it would give Israel control of the main route that ran along the highlands from north to south in the central portion of the land.
So, to surrender something to God meant devoting it to the service of God or putting it under a ban for utter destruction. For something to be under the ban meant one of two things. First, everything living was to be completely destroyed. This has been called barbaric and primitive and nothing less than the murder of innocent lives. The Canaanites, however, were by no means innocent. They were a vile people who practiced the basest forms of immorality including child sacrifice. God had given them over four hundred years to repent, but now their iniquity had become full see Gen.
The few who did turn to the Lord Rahab and her family were spared. As with Sodom and Gomorrah, if there had been even ten righteous, God would have spared the city Gen. Further, if any city had repented as did Nineveh at the preaching of Jonah, He would have spared that city, but in spite of all the miraculous works of God which they had heard about, there was no repentance, they remained steadfast in their depravity. No other nation either before or after Israel has been a theocracy.
Thus, those commands were unique. Israel as a theocracy was an instrument of judgment in the hands of God. First, there was the thrill of victory , but now there is the agony of defeat. This little conjunction of contrast is designed to drive home an important truth—the reality of the ever present threat and contrasts of life—victory is always followed by at least the threat of defeat.
Never is the believer in greater danger of a fall than after a victory. We are so prone to drop our guard and begin trusting in ourselves or in our past victories rather than the Lord. One victory never guarantees the next. A New Testament chapter that deserves consideration here is 1 Corinthians 10, especially verse The sin here was both an act of spiritual infidelity, being a friend of the world rather than a friend to the Lord Jam.
There was sin in the camp and God would not continue blessing the nation as long as this was so. This does not mean this was the only sin and the rest of the nation was sinless, but this sin was of such a nature direct disobedience and rebellion that God used it to teach Israel and us a couple of important lessons.
God viewed the nation of Israel as a unit. It is a matter of loving the world—and to do so is to make one behave as though he or she was an enemy of God Jam. Such behavior can create trouble for the rest. Though the crime was committed by one person, the whole nation was considered guilty. The nation was responsible for the obedience of every citizen and was charged with the punishment of every offender. This should call to mind the following verses:. See to it that no one comes short of the grace of God; that no root of bitterness springing up causes trouble, and by it many be defiled; that there be no immoral or godless person like Esau, who sold his own birthright for a single meal Hebrews Your boasting is not good.
Do you not know that a little leaven leavens the whole lump of dough? For Christ our Passover also has been sacrificed 1 Corinthians 5: The apostle Paul saw the same principle of solidarity at work in the church 1 Cor 5: Sin never escapes His watchful eye. We can fool ourselves and others, but never the Lord. God sees the sin in our lives and desires us to deal with it, not hide it.
The Numbers text, however, does not just teach that sin will be discovered but that the consequences of our sin become active agents in discovering us see Gal. Sin is no small matter with God because sin is rebellion and rebellion is as the sin of divination 1 Sam. It is against His holy character His holiness, righteousness, love, etc.
Thus, God must deal with us and the sin in our lives; He deals with us as a Father and as the Vine Dresser, but He nevertheless deals with us John Ai was smaller than Jericho! How could such a defeat occur so quickly? The root cause, as summarized in verse one, was the sin of Achan. There are other issues involved, however, which led Joshua to go up against Ai when he should not have. Sin has many consequences, none of them good. But being a little self-confident and resting too much on the victory at Jericho, Joshua evidently failed to take time to get alone with the Lord to inquire of Him and seek His strength.
If he had, he would not have remained ignorant of the sin of Achan and could have dealt with it first. Four deadly errors were the result: With Gideon, however, the Lord had him reduce his forces lest they boast in their own power as the source of their victory Judges 7: How often are we not just like Joshua here in chapter 7? Because of a workaholic mentality or an activity-oriented bent or a desire to get things done and to be successful, there is the tendency to rush off without taking time to draw near to the Lord, draw on His resources, and to put on the full armor of God.
Such is not only unwise, but it often causes us to be insensitive to serious failures in our own lives and ministries which grieve and quench the Spirit and leave us defenseless against the enemy because we are operating in our own strength and wisdom. Ultimately, then, these failures stand in the way of our progress and ability to handle the various challenges in life. This is perhaps even more significant than the defeat itself because it created misgivings and a lack of confidence in the Lord. Rather than examine their own lives as the source of their defeat, they began to doubt the Lord and wonder if He had changed His mind or if they had misread His directions.
Should we have crossed the Jordan? Should we have stayed on the other side? In our sinful human nature, we are typically just like that. We are so quick to become depressed , discouraged , and disoriented. We look in every direction for a reason for defeat—except to ourselves. We blame, we make excuses, we hide and hurl, but we so often fail to honestly examine our own lives. We assume the problem could not possibly be us … could it? If only we had been willing to dwell beyond the Jordan! And what wilt Thou do for Thy great name? In this description of Joshua we see one of the great evidences of the inspiration of Scripture.
God does not touch up the photo.
Rather, He shows us their humanness to comfort us in our own failures and to challenge us to realize He can use us greatly if we will but trust Him. Failure is unique to none of us … and it is not the end. In fact, it can be the beginning depending on how we respond. Of course, it is always better to make a few new mistakes and learn from them than to repeat old ones. When we keep making the same mistakes our defeats have no life-changing value.
Failure is unique to no one. Failure, like all testings, are common to all men 1 Cor. A study of Bible characters reveals that most of those who made history were men who failed at some point, and some of them drastically, but who refused to continue lying in the dust. Their very failure and repentance secured for them a more ample conception of the grace of God.
They learned to know Him as the God of the second chance to His children who had failed Him—and the third chance, too …. The successful leader is a man who has learned that no failure need to be final and acts on that belief, whether the failure is his own or that of another. He must learn to be realistic and prepared to realize that he cannot be right all the time. There is no such thing as a perfect or infallible leader.
Joshua, of course, was stunned by the defeat and catastrophe at Ai, and his actions and those of the elders were in keeping with the Hebrew practices of mourning and despair.
Joshua, HWV64 | Sheet Music Now
Prostrating himself before the Ark of the Lord certainly suggests that he and the elders were humbling themselves before the Lord. Joshua and the elders were not guilty of callused indifference. However, from the words that follow, intermingled with these feelings, there is also evidence of some self-pity and doubt. Today we do not normally tear our clothes, fall face down on the ground, and put dust on our heads. But we do have ways of showing our consternation and pain and doubt. We may fall on our knees or put our face in our hands and sob, but if there are feelings of self-pity and depression, we may become inactive or sullen.
But these responses do not remove the pain nor do they solve the problem and enable us to grow through the experience. Finally, after a whole day on his face, Joshua verbalized his perplexity in three questions and two statements. He did what we should all do—he took it to the Lord.
The First Question vs. It often, as here, points to a mood of hopelessness and defeat. Here is a perfect illustration of how focusing on the problem negatively affects our view of God which in turn affects our faith in His purposes, plan, and promises. A wrong focus, on the one hand, often turns mountains into mole hills. Perhaps, trusting in their past victory instead of the Lord, they had their eyes on the smallness of Ai and saw it as just a little problem.
On the other hand, with their eyes on the defeat, they turned this mole hill into a mountain that was too big for the Sovereign Lord to handle. Whenever we are occupied with the problem, or whenever we fail to focus our minds and eyes on the Lord, we become insensitive to the Person, plan, promises, and purposes of God.
In such a condition we no longer see the Lord as our hope, instead He becomes the villain. The First Statement vs. We go into reverse and look back. In order to be comfortable we are willing to settle for a life of mediocrity rather than learn what the hindrances are so that we can move ahead in the pursuit of excellence. There is the assumption here that, since they had been defeated, they could not go forward and that it would have been better not to have encountered the enemy. This is a typical assumption, but one that is wrong. God is never limited by our defeats. The Second Question vs.
Will this failure preempt my ability to do what you have called me to do because of their attitudes and questions? What could he possibly say to them? This was really a prayer for wisdom Jam.
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Perhaps also, feeling a little shame or personal blame for the way the men had turned and fled, he was doubting his own ability to lead the army. He was perhaps feeling that he had let them down, that people would be blaming him for the defeat, and he was concerned about the impact of all this on his ability to lead the people. A Second Statement and Worry vs.
Would this provide a beachhead for the enemy to now go on the offensive and attack Israel rather than vice versa? The world is watching us and the way we handle our problems affects the attitude of the world toward the Christian community 1 Pet. Joshua may have been guilty of thinking what people often think, that one failure must lead to other failures; that victory is less likely now because they had so miserably failed. True, our sin and failure may affect our testimony for a while; it may give Satan an opportunity to establish a beachhead; it may have repercussions in other ways, but God is always able to work all things together for good for those who love Him.
Nothing is ever accomplished with our face in the dirt or with our eyes on our failures and problems. First, we must confess our failures and the things that caused them when they can be determined. Then we must seek to learn from them. Why is it that you have fallen on your face? And they have even taken some of the things under the ban and have both stolen and deceived. Moreover, they have also put them among their own things. I will not be with you anymore unless you destroy the things under the ban from your midst.
You cannot stand before your enemies until you have removed the things under the ban from your midst. And it shall be that the tribe which the LORD takes by lot shall come near by families, and the family which the LORD takes shall come near by households, and the household which the LORD takes shall come near man by man. God cares about our lives and ministries and is ever at work to reveal Himself and teach us about ourselves and what we need to be doing as we walk through life 1 Pet.
The issue is are we listening? As mentioned, falling on his face demonstrated his deep concern and humility since he was crying out to God. Since nothing is accomplished with our face in the dirt, the Lord tells Joshua to rise up out of this condition. From this literal meaning, qum often has a figurative idea. Several of these ideas are applicable here. While the Lord understands and sympathizes with our problems and fears, and while humbling ourselves before the Lord is always needed, He nevertheless never condones our being prostrate in despair nor excuses us from appropriating His grace and moving out in obedience.
His word to us is get up off our face, get our eyes on Him and deal with our problems according to the principles and promises of Scripture. This is a call for decisive action that is willing to make tough decisions to deal with our sin. Feeling sorry and sad about our condition is not enough. We must be willing to deal decisively with our sins. In effect, God is saying in view of who I am, in view of My plan for Israel and My promises to you, Joshua, what possible reason could you have for such despair?
Here then is a call to get his eyes on the Lord but also to look for the cause in their own sinfulness! When failure comes, we should never think God has abandoned us or that His plan has failed. We need to ask, could I be the cause? This, then, is a call for Joshua and for us when this is applicable to examine the nature of what we are doing and to look for the root causes for the defeats of life when they occur.
We need to know precisely just what lessons God is seeking to teach us. Is this caused by something I did or failed to do? Israel has sinned; they have violated my covenantal commandment. They have taken some of the riches; they have stolen them and deceitfully put them among their own possessions NET Bible. Because sin grieves and quenches the Spirit Eph. This illustrates the truth declared in John In Christ we have the capacity to live victoriously for the Lord regardless of what we face, but the ability to do so always depends on fellowship with the Savior in the power of the Spirit; we need to walk in the light 1 John 1: This is in essence a call for restoration to fellowship and faith in the power of God.
Peter was not to allow his failure and denials to neutralize him or keep him from being a leader and ministering to others. In view of what follows, the examination and discharge of discipline on Achan and his family, Joshua undoubtedly communicated this same command to the people. He was to call their attention to the cause of their defeat. Someone had taken things that were under the ban which had caused God to withhold His power. As the Lord had emphasized to Joshua, so he was to call their attention to both the cause and the consequences of the sin.
This also called for them to consecrate themselves, that is to prepare themselves for the activities that would take place on the next day. They were to set the day apart for this activity and to prepare their hearts perhaps by prayer and worship for what God would have to do. In verse 14 specific instructions were given for purging out this sin from their midst.
First, there was to be examination of the people tribe by tribe, family by family, and finally, man by man. Note how the men were the ones held responsible for their families. The examination would reveal the guilty party. Verse 15 describes the punishment that was to be carried out on the guilty party with the reason given for the severity of the punishment. Do not hide it from me. Four times we read in Joshua that he rose early in the morning to take care of important business.
Joshua was no procrastinator. Then, in verses 16 through 18 the process of discovery is described beginning with all Israel until it was narrowed down by tribes to the tribe of Judah, then by families or clans to the Zerathites, then to the family of Zimri, and from that family to Achan. Why did Joshua follow this procedure and how was he able to narrow the search to Achan?
A key question is what was the Urim and the Thummim? They appear in Scripture without explanation, but the following may help us though several theories have been given as to their meaning. These were used as lots, and the high priest decided accordingly as one or the other was drawn out. Kalisch on Exodus He looks on the name as one to be explained by an hendiadys light and perfection—perfect illumination and believes the high priest, by concentrating his thoughts on the attributes they represented, to have divested himself of all selfishness and prejudice and so to have passed into a true prophetic state.
The process of consulting Jehovah by Urim and Thummim is not given in Scripture. The point is they were a means of seeking divine guidance and answers to questions and crises beyond human perception through the ministry of the priest. Perhaps this view is indicated by the fact that Urim … begins with the first letter of the Hebrew alphabet, and Thummim … with the last letter. Every decision of the Urim was from the Lord Prov. This is a reference to the special ephod to be worn by the high priests. This included the breastplate or pouch which contained the Urim and Thummim, the divinely ordained means of communication with God and to make decisions all of which was somehow related to casting lots.
God gave divine direction and Achan was discovered by supernatural means. He did not come forth voluntarily to confess or repent and throw himself on the mercy of God. His failure to do so stands in contrast with the attitude of the prodigal son and the publican in the New Testament. As 1 Corinthians 10 reminds us, what happened to Achan is recorded for our warning and instruction to remind us of one of the processes to sin.
He saw, he coveted, and he took. It was the same with Eve Gen. He hated the sin, but loved the sinner. It was not an act of repentance or godly sorrow that leads to repentance 2 Cor. The purpose of confession is to reestablish fellowship and turn our lives over to God because we want to walk with Him under His control, going in His direction Amos 3: The fact Achan hid the plunder shows he clearly knew he was doing wrong. So, why did he go ahead and do it?
Well, why did Eve sin and fall for the deceptions of the serpent? In answer to this, we might first take note of what Achan took. He took gold and silver which suggests materialism, trusting in riches for our security and happiness. But he also took a beautiful robe which came from Babylon. This not only points to materialism, but the desire to be fashionable and gain the approbation of men, seeking our sense of significance from the praise or applause of others. These desires lust patterns illustrate the various lust patterns we all face and which, if not dealt with in faith, can dominate our lives.
They include things like desire for position, power, prestige, pleasure, possessions, praise or applause, and recognition, but they are nothing more than human solutions or protective strategies we use to find security, significance, and satisfaction apart from God. Jeremiah calls them broken cisterns. These lust patterns have their source in: Achan, as with Eve, was dissatisfied, impatient, and self-reliant. He was believing, trusting and using his own protective strategies to get what he wanted out of life.
Ironically, God was in the process of taking all of Israel into the land where each man would have his own land, house, and abundant blessings. But dissatisfaction caused by failure to find his happiness in the Lord produced impatience which caused him to covet and run ahead with his own solutions.
The first near-complete recording of the whole work with the cuts then customary [n 10] was conducted by Sir Thomas Beecham in It represented an effort by Beecham to "provide an interpretation which, in his opinion, was nearer the composer's intentions", with smaller forces and faster tempi than had become traditional. In the first recording based on Handel's original scoring was conducted by Hermann Scherchen for Nixa , [n 11] quickly followed by a version, judged scholarly at the time, under Sir Adrian Boult for Decca.
They inaugurated a new tradition of brisk, small scale performances, with vocal embellishments by the solo singers. By the end of the s the quest for authenticity had extended to the use of period instruments and historically correct styles of playing them. The first of such versions were conducted by the early music specialists Christopher Hogwood and John Eliot Gardiner The latter employs a chorus of 24 singers and an orchestra of 31 players; Handel is known to have used a chorus of 19 and an orchestra of Several reconstructions of early performances have been recorded: The first published score of , together with Handel's documented adaptations and recompositions of various movements, has been the basis for many performing versions since the composer's lifetime.
Modern performances which seek authenticity tend to be based on one of three 20th-century performing editions. In addition to Mozart's well-known reorchestration, arrangements for larger orchestral forces exist by Goossens and Andrew Davis ; both have been recorded at least once, on the RCA  and Chandos  labels respectively.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Structure of Handel's Messiah. Part I Scene 1: Isaiah's prophecy of salvation 1. Comfort ye my people tenor 3. Ev'ry valley shall be exalted air for tenor 4. And the glory of the Lord anthem chorus Scene 2: The coming judgment 5. Thus saith the Lord of hosts accompanied recitative for bass 6.
But who may abide the day of His coming soprano, alto or bass 7. And he shall purify the sons of Levi chorus Scene 3: The prophecy of Christ's birth 8. Behold, a virgin shall conceive alto 9. O thou that tellest good tidings to Zion air for alto and chorus For behold, darkness shall cover the earth bass The people that walked in darkness have seen a great light bass For unto us a child is born duet chorus Scene 4: The annunciation to the shepherds There were shepherds abiding in the fields secco recitative for soprano 14b. And lo, the angel of the Lord accompanied recitative for soprano And the angel said unto them secco recitative for soprano And suddenly there was with the angel accompanied recitative for soprano Glory to God in the highest chorus Scene 5: Christ's healing and redemption Rejoice greatly, O daughter of Zion soprano Then shall the eyes of the blind be opened secco recitative for soprano or alto His yoke is easy duet chorus Part II Scene 1: Behold the Lamb of God chorus He was despised and rejected of men alto Surely he hath borne our griefs and carried our sorrows chorus And with his stripes we are healed fugue chorus All we like sheep have gone astray duet chorus All they that see him laugh him to scorn secco recitative for tenor He trusted in God that he would deliver him fugue chorus Thy rebuke hath broken his heart tenor or soprano Behold and see if there be any sorrow tenor or soprano Scene 2: Christ's Death and Resurrection He was cut off tenor or soprano But thou didst not leave his soul in hell tenor or soprano Scene 3: Lift up your heads, O ye gates chorus Scene 4: Christ's reception in Heaven Unto which of the angels tenor Let all the angels of God worship Him chorus Scene 5: The beginnings of Gospel preaching Thou art gone up on high soprano, alto, or bass The Lord gave the word chorus How beautiful are the feet soprano, alto, or chorus Their sound is gone out tenor or chorus Scene 6: The world's rejection of the Gospel Why do the nations so furiously rage together bass Let us break their bonds asunder chorus He that dwelleth in heaven tenor Scene 7: God's ultimate victory Thou shalt break them with a rod of iron tenor The promise of eternal life I know that my Redeemer liveth soprano Since by man came death chorus Scene 2: The Day of Judgment Behold, I tell you a mystery bass The trumpet shall sound bass Scene 3: The final conquest of sin Then shall be brought to pass alto O death, where is thy sting alto and tenor But thanks be to God chorus If God be for us, who can be against us soprano Scene 4: The acclamation of the Messiah Worthy is the Lamb chorus Amen chorus.
Comfort ye my people. The article is absent from the proper title. Ebenezer Prout pointed out that the edition was published as "F. Mozarts Bearbeitung" — "nach" meaning after rather than in Mozart's arrangement. Prout noted that a Mozart edition of another Handel work, Alexander's Feast published in accordance with Mozart's manuscript, was printed as "mit neuer Bearbeitung von W.
Mozart" "with new arrangement by W. Both recordings have appeared on other labels in both LP and CD formats. A copyright-free transfer of the version digitized from original vinyl discs by Nixa Records is available on YouTube: Sadie, Stanley ; Tyrrell, John , eds. Retrieved 20 July Retrieved 15 June Archived from the original on 8 September Retrieved 5 November Retrieved 16 June Retrieved 18 May Irish Arts Review — Gloucester, Three Choirs Festival, 30 July Retrieved 20 May Archived from the original on 13 February The Daily Universal Register.
Journal of the Royal Musical Association. Preface to the New Edition, I". Retrieved 11 June Proceedings of the Musical Association, 30th Session — The New York Times. The Register Adelaide, S. Retrieved 22 May A Theater's Big Experiment". The Really Big Chorus. Retrieved 24 May Richard Hickox, Collegium Music Archived from the original PDF on 21 March Messiah arranged by Mozart ".
Retrieved 3 July Retrieved 19 May A History of Jerusalem. Beecham, Sir Thomas Messiah — An Essay. CD Burrows, Donald Grout, Donald ; Palisca, Claude V. A History of Western Music 3rd ed. The Decca Recording Company Ltd. The story of Handel's "Messiah". The Lives and Times of the Great Composers. The Indebtedness of Handel to Works by other Composers. A Study in Interpretation. Water Music Music for the Royal Fireworks. Retrieved from " https: Pages containing links to subscription-only content CS1: Views Read Edit View history.