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In other words, these institutional developments and expansion happened in Chile s academic epicentre. My interviewee, a nonacademic person, understood well something that most academics seem to have forgotten: Yet, facts become meaningful only thanks to theory. What may this old picture tell us political scientists and other intellectuals if theoretically interrogated? What is it saying about us? What does the fact that there could be PS under a dictatorship say about the discipline, liberalism and politics? A clarification should be made from the outset.

I do not claim that all the authors who published during this period had authoritarian values in fact many of them did not , nor that each analyzed piece fits all of the characteristics attributed to APS. What I do here, instead, is an empirically grounded interpretative reconstruction Geertz, or problematizing re-description Shapiro, of a set of ideas and views that were prominent within our discipline in the period under analysis.

Both aggregated data and specific illustrative cases are provided as I focus on the democratic question how was democracy discussed by APS? At the end of the chapter I come back to the very notion of APS. The transition was indeed a salient topic in the agenda of both journals and their home institutions, and it was addressed both domestically and internationally.

In some cases, this concern crystalizes in a concrete conceptual category, institutionalized transition IT Benavente Urbina, ; Benavente Urbina, ; Cuevas Farren, a; Cuevas Farren, b; Cuevas Farren, ; Gajardo Lagomarsino, b; Carmona, , which denotes the control that the military government needs to exercise over the process of regime change. Therefore, his voice is particularly relevant. In different occasions he states that the development of PS is his main aim and that the discipline is called to make a crucial contribution to the institutional development of Chile Cuevas Farren, b, p.

Cuevas Farren s discourse shifts over time from a hardcore authoritarian tone to a liberal democratic or at least quasi-democratic framework. What kind of democracy should Chile become through IT? And why is IT an under-control transition necessary at all? APS defines this democracy through a number of components that I explore in the following pages. The traumatic experience of Unidad Popular s government and the Cold War framework determine an important part of these elements: In this view, democracy and communism are incompatible.

The problem is that communism mobilizes the means offered by democracy to destroy it from the inside. Indeed, the Soviet Union and the US have an intense presence in the conversation: Other RCP articles that target Carter s administration because of its pro-human rights policies and discourse in South America and Africa are, respectively, Wiarda and Kunert Finally, the figure of Howard T. Pittman , introduced as an American Ex- Colonel who holds a PhD in social sciences, is revealing of the interpenetration between academia, power and international politics.

Theberge was a guest speaker as well as David Singer Singer, , a Michigan University professor whose complex and mathematically formalized contribution explores the possibility of identifying cycles of war. Anti-communism and complex science shared the stage. His academic career is impressive. In contrast to the relative silence and indifference that would predominate in the later years, APS produced articles, papers, theses and books that dealt with Marxism as an intellectual enemy.

Given that there are no articles that embrace any form of Marxism or neo-marxism and that many of the pieces explore topics unrelated to any ideological debate, these are very high numbers. Yet aggregated data cannot compete with Anthony Downs model Wilhelmy, The topic of the piece decidedly belongs to the mainstream repertoire of our discipline. Therefore, the only mention of Marxism-Leninism in a footnote reveals to what extent its presence was conspicuous in APS conceptual universe. While the engagement with classical liberal authors such as Thomas Hobbes Miranda, ; Miranda, ; Godoy, , Immanuel Kant Miranda, , Adam Smith Mertz, and Tocqueville Godoy, has an empathetic tone, Marx s views are systematically dismissed.

APS insisted on the power of ideas and ideology.

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Marxism had concrete political incarnations and implications, and therefore, the academic battle was a political one. This results in an interesting form of political analysis that cares about the cultural dimension of politics and academia itself. A form of tutelage is thus needed in order to make sure that democracy does not destroy itself. In this logic, the political act of limiting the powers of democracy is a genuinely democratic procedure. Ribera Neumann , p. In the same vein, a article argues that the democratic system allows an unrestrictive pluralism and thus propitiates its own destruction.

These are the reasons why the legislators determined some basic limits to political pluralism. In this narrative, the military government is apolitical and non-partisan. It has obediently followed the mandate given by diverse social groups and sectors of transcending particular interests and putting the Chilean nation first. The violent overthrow of President Salvador Allende that ended his life is in numerous occasions conveniently called a pronouncement, while the limitation to the majority rule is discussed as academic considerations about the trade-off between pluralism and order a language that is not foreign to mainstream PS and contemporary liberalism.

Thus, the way of understanding the experience of Unidad Popular and the coup frames the engagement with the transition and the new democracy. A strong nationalist language is linked to a sort of right-wing international project. Both cases reveal the coordination between external and internal anti-democratic projects and thus the need for protecting democracy. They are always ready to imitate foreign ideas, attracted by a strange seduction for violence and blood and that is why they cannot understand Chile, its past, and its vocation for integration.

They give their backs to History and reality, so their country has ended up looking at them with disdain, as strangers Benavente Urbina, , p.

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Here, Marxism and Communism are alien-and-alienating insidious enemies that undermine the strength of the Chilean nation. In this logic, it was the military that defeated the enemies of Chile. Democracy should not betray its saviours. Thus, the protection of democracy by the military was also about protecting the military.

The fear of judicial retaliation seems to be an important component of how APS frames the transition. In this regard it is desirable that in the immediate future the military-civilian relationship develops in a friendly and harmonious manner according to the framework that follows from the new institutional political framework Cuevas Farren, a, p. I want to highlight a very important point. The argument goes as follows: The policy implication was to strengthen the center by applying the electoral binomial system combined with the political presence of the military.

Clearly, polyarchy prevailed in RCP and this speaks of a sharp and important difference between the two journals. And yet, besides the fact that aggregated data cannot represent well the intensity of a discourse, that almost one in five articles The authoritarian framing of democracy is present in both journals. By the s, protected democracy is gone from Chilean PS.

In the second half of the 80s, many articles elaborated on the transition. Indeed, an entire seminar supported by the conservative German Hanns Seidel Foundation was dedicated to the fundamentals of democracy at the institutional, geographical-territorial, economic and even spiritual level. The notion of a protected democracy However, APS did allow for some dissent.

Protected democracy was indeed contested in these spaces. We already saw that the discourse on protected democracy is not at all dominant on its pages and, indeed, many of its articles speak the standard and supposedly objective academic idiom. Yet I want to argue that, from an interpretative point of view, there is a strong case for locating many RCP discourses within the space of APS. The RCP spectrum starts with Cuevas Farren a , who supports the coup and the military regime, and ends with Myers , who addresses in a rather obscure but critical way forced disappearances.

Reading silences is always a challenge Butalia, ; Dauphinee, ; Spivak, The problem with aggregated data and numbers is precisely that the subtlety of discourses, powerful details and relevant silences get lost. Let me explain what I concretely mean by significant silences with a few examples. One could not guess that these texts were written in the midst of a dictatorship. RCP s International Relations orientation allows for this kind of disconnection with the local political context.

Interestingly, the article does not refer to Chile but to Argentina. Myers conceptualizes them as a travesty of death and murder p.


Its updated bibliography, as well as its narrative, belongs to mainstream Anglo-Saxon PS. The piece mentions the fall of Allende s government , p.

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Tuteleers argues that checks and balances and the separation of state powers is one of the main guarantees offered by the democratic system to men in order to defend themselves against an arbitrary government and, therefore, to be able to live in freedom p. In this piece, written by a Chilean scholar, the situation in Chile is again ignored.

Furthermore, the quintessentially democratic components of democracy such as universal suffrage and political equality are not mentioned. The presence of a very professional form of geopolitical analysis, which extends the silence about the democratic issue, is also remarkable: There are many others of this kind, such as Meneses The framework is clearly academic. Cleary, the two institutions under study are different.

However, he was also involved in human rights controversies. On its pages Uruguayan scholar Gros Espiell argues early on for the restoration of the rule of law and pluralism in Uruguay while Pezoa Bissieres explores O Donnel s oeuvre in analytical and academic terms. Even more interestingly, a few pages away from Tambs and Aker , which engages with the situation in El Salvador from an extreme right-wing perspective, there is a book review of Edward Said s Orientalism. Applying the logic and argument of Orientalism to Latin American Studies, the author argues that sometimes American scholars easily become the academic authority on a country or region after spending a few weeks in the place.

Their perspective is frequently simplistic and superficial. Zipper also refers to academic dependency and to how many Latin American scholars learn about their own reality at institutions in Europe or the US. As a result, they end up reproducing problematic accounts of their own political and social reality I share this view; see Chapter 5. The tone of the author is careful and he does clarify that this is a general tendency with many exceptions. This is the kind of relevant, self-reflective epistemological conversation about the geopolitics of academia and knowledge production that mainstream PS seems reluctant to have today!

The title of his paper was translated in a way that affects the meaning: Why the guardians fail Dahl, The piece is available at The article collects two interventions with no disagreement on a crucial point: Urenda Zegers clarifies that he is particularly referring to private ownership over the means of production p. The author defends the Christian and Western democratic system where this right guarantees the dispersion of power within society.

The intervention closes with references to Tocqueville and Kant. His argument is framed in terms of possessive individualism. The link between the natural right of private property and democracy is freedom. Among the legal and constitutional provisions that are necessary for the protection of private property and democracy the author mentions the subsidiary state. In other words, the welfare state undermines democracy. There should also be cultural consensus about the necessity of a private property regime and an ethical framework for the exercise of such a right. The author warns the reader that future governments should not make the same mistakes of Unidad Popular if Chilean society is going to avoid the collapse of its new democracy.

The two previous examples are crystal clear: In this schema, the state s limited role in the country s economy is a prerequisite for freedom Cuevas Farren, a; Nishiyama, ; Pazos, This conflation of democracy and neoliberal capitalism is a fundamental conceptual move with radical material implications. The introduction to the seminar was meaningfully titled The subsidiary principle and the Chilean political regime Cuevas Farren, The opposition between the subsidiary state and an absorbent state 17 was discussed in political terms. The subsidiary state corresponded to a modern, efficient and free institutional framework.

Neoliberalism was the best development strategy. His presence in the seminar speaks of the priority given by the government to the principle of subsidiarity. Furthermore, a member of the Constitutional Organic Laws Study Commission appointed by the Pinochet government was invited to speak about the technicalities of the law, and of course, the capitalists voice was also invited to the table. Fortunately, knowledge about the relationship between personal freedom and private property has recently spread [ ] In the new scheme that has emerged after , freedom has become the symbol and aim of the country s new institutional arrangements.

Freedom is guaranteed by private property, free economic initiative and by the full adoption of the concept of the subsidiary state. An abundance of social market economy and neoconservative thinkers nurture the government officials who are creating a new Constitution in order to put the State into man s service Bruna Contreras, , p. Note the explicit linkage between knowledge production an abundance of social market economy and neoconservative thinkers and Pinochet s government. His final thoughts are framed in terms of Chile s belonging to Western culture and ethics.

In this light, the Pinochet regime s main aim is to APS conceptualizes development and freedom in strictly possessive individualist and liberal terms, excluding the egalitarian dimension of democracy. This is not a low number taking into account that a PS journals do not have economic reforms at the center of the conversation and b only pieces that in very explicit terms support neoliberalism were computed under this category see Graphs 9 and The neoliberal component of APS was embedded in an international mostly British and American project that successfully reshaped power relations during the 70s and 80s.

This international dimension affected not only Chile, but was in fact a product of US hegemony in the region. Bruna Contreras was not the only one to assert that international neoconservative academia nurtured the military government. Many APS authors argued that ideas shaped policy and that concepts and theories were powerful political weapons at the national and international level.

The following quote capitalizes on a well-known US scholar, Samuel Huntington, to defend the neoconservative agenda and justify neoliberalism: The democratic system should allow and foment individual economic progress, not only for economic reasons but also, as Samuel Huntington has shown, for political ones: This dispersion creates alternatives to the power of the State. Today, perspectives have changed and this allows having hope about the future Gajardo Lagomarsino, b, p. In other words, democracy cannot decide about everything: It is revealing that the contours chosen to delineate the limits to democratic power are not the notion of human rights the demos cannot decide to violate fundamental rights but the sacred principle of private property democracy shall respect capitalism.

The change of perspective alluded to by the quote means that Pinochet s regime and its intellectual and social allies are winning the battle not only in the institutional realm but especially in the cultural terrain. In other words, for them, Chilean culture has changed for the better neoliberalism has been successfully imposed. Many Chilean critical intellectuals would agree with Gajardo Lagomarsino in that the subordination of politics to the market economy is one of the most remarkable achievements of Pinochet s regime that has persisted after the transition.

In this regard, there is overlap between APS, Gramscian and Foucauldian approaches to power and politics. Protected democracy is indeed also a cultural and discursive project. In other words, the meaning of democracy should not be stretched to the point that it includes an entire way of life and should not be extended to other realms such as the family and the institutions for education. In this sense, democracy is not a cultural project. However, the argument is precisely that fundamental values that transcend and sustain democracy are taught in non-democratic institutions that should be kept that way.

It is interesting that the first thing that a piece on defending democracy does is assert the centrality of non- The ontological density of both the family and the Church transcend any form of government, including the democratic one. In this regard, they are more fundamental because they incarnate Western civilization, Christianity and humanism. The author explores the role of the university along with the importance of keeping the purity of political language to capture the truth.

In these interventions there is a clear awareness about the role of journalism in particular, and culture in general, in power struggles. Hamilton and Eluchans engaged in a debate about the regulation of television. They disagreed on how much freedom the mass media should enjoy.

The clashes between the seminar participants show the complexity of APS. As I discuss elsewhere, this neoconservative formation allowed space for dissent, which was a smart way of navigating the transition Ravecca, The clashes in these seminars indicate that we need to understand APS as a space rather than a monolithic discourse.

These debates may well be considered more interesting than those propitiated by liberal PS later, because they include power and culture in the conversation. They go far beyond a narrowly conceptualized notion of politics. According to APS, the international left operated in the cultural and academic realm; therefore, the reaction should also be cultural and academic. In an international conference on Neoconservative Thinking organized by IPS-CHU see Figure 7 , the editor-in-chief of the most circulated newspaper in Chile, El Mercurio, quoted Julien Freund referring to a talk that he gave in the same room 5 years before, see Figure 8 , Bobbio, Schmitt and Gramsci who represented a cultural project of destruction of Christian and Western Memory of activities, Some of the repeated theoretical references speak a lot about APS ideology: APS operated in an internationalized ideological framework where economic liberalism and cultural and political conservatism intersected and reinforced each other.

Consequently, the enemies of capitalism and Western civilization were discussed in both political and cultural terms. While Marx s presence within APS conversations was consistent, Nietzsche and Freud, along with some spiritual deviations such as Liberation Theology, were also identified as corrosive voices of the international cultural left that undermined the fundamentals of Western society from the inside. The same logic of protected democracy s international awareness and internal policing was applied to culture and society.

In this view, Marxism, psychoanalysis, relativism, nihilism, among others, had formed a common cultural offensive: The common sense depicts the Chilean dictatorship as a regime isolated from the international intellectual arena. However, APS was highly internationalized. I was able to trace the academic itinerary of most authors published in the period. Furthermore, both journals, along with the Memories of Activities and many other historical records show extensive academic connections with Latin America, Europe, the United States and, curiously, South Africa.

American conservative intellectual Paul Gottfried was one of its many international guests. He participated in the seminar on Neoconservative Thinking which also had speakers from England, Portugal, Italy, Spain and France. In his talk, Gottfried argued that American culture and the arts had been captured by the left.

He asked if it was possible to push a leftist, and sometimes nihilist, culture to support conservative writers, artists and academics, thus breaking with the leftist rule over knowledge and the arts Gottfried, , p. Interestingly, the piece refers to the need for conservative poetry and theatre, and talks about power in ways that neo-marxists and post-structuralists would agree with.

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Protected democracy is a local expression of the clash between two incompatible global projects. At a world scale, it is Western civilization itself that has to be defended. The numbers in this case are strikingly similar: Sometimes the argument meshes anti-communist with civilizational arguments and Christian views. They invariably do so by framing Christianity in anti-marxist and frequently neoliberal terms.

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It is indeed fascinating to see how APS assembled Catholic and pro-market discourses, given the emphasis of Catholicism on the spiritually purifying powers of poverty. The issue closes with the transcription of a reflection by the Pope. Moreno also refers to this visit in RCP but in more theological and academic terms. His talk combined a Catholic framework with pro-capitalist advocacy Adam Smith and the Gospel. One could assume that the institutional location of the journal within a Catholic university could be a factor explaining this remarkable presence of religion in a PS publication.

As a committed far-right figure, he supported the dictatorship. In June , Widow was harassed by human rights activists after he attended a documentary exhibition and tribute ceremony for Augusto Pinochet. Fascist websites described the attack as a manifestation of the Demo-Marxist Hatred. The professor concludes by saying that in our times, the main social and cultural discourses exclude the Truth, which means to exclude God. This challenges the commonsensical idea that what happened during those years was not really academic, as some of my interviewees and many colleagues argue in different spaces.

It is well-known that law and lawyers had an important role in incompletely consolidated PS academies in Latin America. The difference between the two journals in this regard is striking: It is quite interesting that it was 64 Especially in the Latin American context where, on the one hand, the PhD requirement for professors has been imposed only recently and, on the other hand, the expectations around the BA degrees are still higher than in North America.

On the one hand, there is what might be called a scientific will for the study of politics, expressed in the concern around methods and methodology, the On the other hand, this same kind of PS was functional to an authoritarian regime and it was invested in the protection of Pinochet s legacy i. Figure 9 analyzes IPS-CU s Notebooks numbers , advertised by RCP in The titles corresponding to an authoritarian script were highlighted with orange, while those consistent with PS standard language as we know it, were marked with blue.

Both figures show the apparent contradiction mentioned above. In this period, Chilean PS talks and promotes democracy and liberalism while being authoritarian. Thus, in APS discourse, democracy and liberalism seem to peacefully coexist with authoritarianism or, in other words, the latter seem to operate as the framework for liberal democracy.

These findings open up all sorts of empirical, theoretical and political questions Certainly, if PS could actually embody the knowledge of an authoritarian regime as it did, it seems imperative to reframe the notion that our discipline is an intrinsically democratic knowledge. Or perhaps, we, political scientists need to be more suspicions about those power relations that make of liberal democracy the ideological vocabulary that sanctifies PS. It might be the time to start thinking on PS power relations within democracy. The presence of the regime and the right-wing project that it incarnated, then, was performed also by PS.

This regime killed and thought at the same time, 65 and this, from the point of view of critical theory, especially that of the power and knowledge literature Foucault, ; Gramsci, , may help to explain the capacity of such a regime of reshaping Chilean politics, culture and political economy. Sometimes killing and thinking were done by the same people. The article is based on his MA thesis. We have to read the silence s , again.

Meneses voice is highly professional and academic. Even though some of his pieces are framed in Cold War terms, in only one of them does he refer to Marxism. And even then, he does so in a rather neutral way. But he also holds a PhD from Oxford University That tortured and alleged torturer write in the same journal constitutes a crude manifestation of the interpenetration between academia and political context For more detailed information about this case see Verdugo The banality of Institutionalization I would like to propose the category of Authoritarian Political Science.

APS was a space inhabited by academics, military members, businessmen and religious authorities. Chilean, European, North American and even Russian dissidents were its protagonists. Chilean APS was political science: APS promoted a democracy protected from communism and Marxism that in its turn should protect the market economy.

At the socio-cultural level, it embraced the neoconservative agenda, building from the East-West cleavage and Christian values. This institutional and discursive space was radically implicated in concrete power dynamics and mechanisms such as the Constitution, the crafting of the binominal electoral system and a well-known set of neoliberal reforms. The analyzed journals are not APS but sites where this set of discourses circulated. APS mobilized the language of democracy and liberalism within an authoritarian project.

It shares with many liberal thinkers and discourses the emphasis on stability and order as well as the naturalization of the market economy i. Such an emphasis did not go away after the transition and in fact it became part of the common sense of the political system and academia in Chile and beyond. Granted, power does not disappear from knowledge when democracy arrives.

The exploration of the institutionalization of PS becomes purposeless or even worse banal without the analysis of the content and the socio-political role of the discipline. Knowledge is structurally implicated in power relations. Therefore, exploring academic discourses is just another way of studying politics. By expanding the awareness of the impact that context has had on our science, this kind of epistemological exercise of self-clarification helps to prevent our academic practice from becoming a mere reflection of the dominant powers of our times, whether they be authoritarian or liberal-democratic.

Very long silence PR- The ideological changes have been so profound U For the record, I am very interested in your research; it is really useful for me for self-analysis. Because one lives and the wave just takes you In a panel on the development of Political Science PS in Uruguay, a member of the audience asked an uneasy question: I am grateful for my exposure to their deep knowledge of Uruguayan history. Alan Sears helped me to refine my engagement with liberalism as a political philosophy and ideology.

Amidst the crafting of my reflections on trauma, Barbara Soren rightly suggested exploring the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum website as well as studying some of the vast scholarly literature on the Holocaust. The multiple conversations sponsored by the Research Group on the History of Political Science in Latin America were encouraging and fruitful. As in the rest of this thesis, I of course did both, the definite classification and the final data-analysis, so the full responsibility for this chapter and its potential deficiencies are mine see footnote From now onwards the interviewees are going to be named using codes.

CH corresponds to Chileans and U to Uruguayans. He was also a leading communist ideologue in the South American context. In other words, they do not focus on power, which is paradoxical given that our science has the word political in its name. The Politics of Political Science PPS is an endeavor of critical theory that not only accepts, but also extends and radicalizes such a challenge. Here, I would like to explore the following questions: What do the PPS look like in Uruguay? How can we write a political history of the discipline in this particular case?

What are the similarities and the contrasts with the fascinating Chilean experience? How can we account for them? Is there a meaningful story to tell about power-and-knowledge in the realm of PS in this small country mostly ignored by global academia? Given that there was no Authoritarian Political Science APS in Uruguay, I decided to develop a broader and longer exploration of the discipline rather than focus on a specific phenomenon.

Indeed, this chapter offers a problematizing re-description Shapiro, of PS history from the point of view of knowledge-power dynamics Foucault, ; Foucault, ; Foucault, ; Foucault, a; Foucault, b; Foucault, ; Foucault, ; Foucault, ; Gramsci, ; Marcuse It proceeds by identifying the conceptual and institutional components that, in my interpretation Geertz, , constitute the Uruguayan PS discourse Foucault, The focus of problematization is, again, the way democracy is talked about.

Contextual and structural factors are companions of the discourse analysis I am interested in the meaning and the political economy of the discipline. The journey will stop at the various intersections between power and knowledge that reveal 70 Panel on The Study of Public Policy in Uruguay: I will suggest an interpretation here. Uruguay is not dangerous or strategically relevant from the point of view of mainstream or conservative academia. Additionally, it seems not exotic or revolutionary enough to catch the attention of progressive or critical eyes.


Uruguay is unsexy because it shows boring sameness: Uruguay is hard to romanticize or to use to satisfy desires of transcendence of any kind. This chapter, however, further expands and complicates the meditation on power and knowledge, changing the furniture and the temperature of PPS room. In addition, 25 in-depth interviews were conducted. These conversations did more than just provide information. They took a significant step to grasp the role of lived experience and subjectivity in intellectual transformations, thus deepening and furthering self-reflection.

The main argument is that Uruguayan PS has been acritical with respect to political parties and the elites. The issue is then why? To answer this question, this chapter explores the conditions and circumstances that account for the forging of a conformist PS. Our discipline, I claim, has participated in the post-dictatorship narratives and mechanisms of power. More than an object of inquiry, democracy has been the locus and the idiom of the discipline about which it cannot have a critical reflection.

The chapter unfolds in nine sections. The first section locates the itinerary of PS within the history of social sciences in Uruguay. It specifically deals with the lateness of the discipline s development, a feature that is crucial to understanding PPS. Section 2 shows that in contrast with Pinochet s regime, the Uruguayan dictatorship did not mobilize the social sciences. Quite the contrary, the regime dismantled and displaced such disciplines from the system of public education. This reveals sharp contrasts between these two regimes ways of exercising power.

The traditional interpretation is that the PRCs were sites of peaceful resistance that kept the social sciences alive. Here, I argue that they also embodied a temporary shift towards a neoliberal governmentality of academia and a permanent ideological mutation towards radical asepsis, which has had significant political and intellectual effects. Thus, thinking was kept alive in a particular way that had political implications.

The following sections offer a deeper exploration of PS democratic discourse. Sections 4, 5, 6, 7 and 8 analyze the conceptual operations that shaped such an identity. Three components of that process are particularly scrutinized: Section 8 offers another point of entry to the relationship between PS and context, showing sharp contrasts between Chile and Uruguay. Most saliently, Uruguayan PS is liberal but did not promote neoliberal reforms, and unlike Chilean PS, it is also secular, reflecting the ethos of the country.

The last section 9 theorizes the findings. On the other hand, how easy it is to repeat the names of those amongst us who have written to bear witness. The novelist bears witness like the apostle. Like Paul trying to escape, the writer is confronted with the pathetic reality of the world that surrounds him — the stark reality of our countries that overwhelms and blinds us and, throwing us to our knees, forces us to shout out: Here is Horacio Quiroga who frees us from the nightmare of the tropics, a nightmare that is as peculiar to him as his style is American.

Our books do not search for a sensationalist or horrifying effect in order to secure a place for us in the republic of letters. We are human beings linked by blood, geography and life to those hundreds, thousands, millions of Latin Americans that suffer misery in our opulent and rich American continent.

Our novels attempt to mobilise across the world the moral forces that have to help us defend those people. The mestizo process was already advanced in our literature and in rediscovering America it lent a human dimension to the grandiose nature of the continent. But this is a nature neither for the gods as in the texts of the Indians, nor a nature for heroes as in the writings of the romantics, but a nature for men and women in which the human problems will be addressed again with vigour and audacity.

As true Latin Americans the beauty of expression excites us and — for this reason — each one of our novels is a verbal feat. Alchemy is at work. It is no easy task to understand in the executed work all the effort and determination invested in the materials used — the words. Yes, I say words — but by what laws and rules they have been transformed! They have been set as the pulse of worlds in formation.

They ring like wood, like metals. In the adventure of our language the first aspect that demands attention is onomatopoeia. How many echoes — composed or disintegrated — of our landscape, our nature are to be found in our words, our sentences. The novelist embarks on a verbal adventure, an instinctive use of words.

One is guided along by sounds. One listens, listens to the characters. Our best novels do not seem to have been written but spoken. There is verbal dynamics in the poetry enclosed in the very word itself and that is revealed first as sound and afterwards as concept.

This is why the great Spanish American novels are vibrantly musical in the convulsion of the birth of all the things that are born with them. The adventure continues in the confluence of the languages. Amongst the languages spoken by the people, in which the Indian languages are represented, there is an admixture of the European and Oriental languages brought by the immigrants to America. Another language is going to rain its sparkle over sounds and words. The language of images. Our novels seem to be written not only with words but with images. Quite a few people when reading our novels see them cinematically.

And this is not because they pursue a dramatic statement of independence but because our novelists are engaged in universalising the voice of their peoples with a language rich in sounds, rich in fable and rich in images. This is not a language artificially created to provide scope for the play of the imagination or so-called poetic prose; it is a vivid language that preserves in its popular speech all the lyricism, the imagination, the grace, the high-spiritidness that characterise the language of the Latin American novel.

The poetic language which nourishes our novelistic literature is more or less its breath of life. Novels with lungs of poetry, lungs of foliage, lungs of rich vegetation. I believe that what most attracts non-American readers is what our novels have achieved by means of a colourful, brilliant language without falling into the merely picturesque, the spell of onomatopoeia cast by representing the music of the countryside and sometimes the sounds of the indigenous languages, the ancestral smack of those languages that flourish unconsciously in the prose that is used.

There is also the importance of the word as absolute entity, as symbol. Our prose is distinguished from Castilian syntax because the word — in our novels — has a value of its own, just as it had in the indigenous languages. Word, concept, sound; a rich fascinating transposition. Nobody can understand our literature, our poetry if the power of enchantment is removed from the word.

Word and language enable the reader to participate in the life of our novelistic creations. Unsettling, disturbing, forcing the attention of the reader who — forgetting his daily life — will enter into the situations and personalities of a novel tradition that retains intact its humanistic values.

Nothing is used to detract from mankind but rather to perfect it and this is perhaps what wins over and unsettles the reader, that which transforms our novel into a vehicle of ideas, an interpreter of peoples using as instrument a language with a literary dimension, with imponderable magical value and profound human projection.

Your email address will not be published. October 19, Place of birth: Guatemala City, Guatemala Died: June 9, Place of death: Guatemalan Notable award s: Nobel Prize in Literature Biography: Oriente, Emulo Lipolidon, fantomima — Guatemala City: Americana, Sonetos — Guatemala City: Americana, Alclasan, fantomima — Guatemala City: Americana, Con el rehen en los diente: Canto a Francia — Guatemala City: Sien de alondra — Buenos Aires: Argos, Hombres de maiz — Buenos Aires: Losada, Viento fuerte — Buenos Aires: Botella al Mar, Alto es el Sur: Canto a la Argentina — La Plata, Argentina: Canto al Libertador — San Salvador: Ministerio de Cultura, Soluna: Comedia prodigiosa en dos jornadas y un final — Buenos Aires: Losange, Obras escogidas — Madrid: Losada, La audiencia de los confines — Buenos Aires: Ariadna, Los ojos de los enterrados — Buenos Aires: Losada, El alhajadito — Buenos Aires: Goyanarte, Mulata de tal — Buenos Aires: Losada, Rumania, su nueva imagen — Xalapa, Mexico: Universidad Veracruzana, Teatro: Losada, Clarivigilia primaveral — Buenos Aires: Siglo Veintiuno, Latinoamerica y otros ensayos — Madrid: Guadiana, Obras completas — Madrid: Lumen, Maladron — Buenos Aires: Losada, Tres de cuatro soles — Madrid: Monte Avila, Viernes de dolores — Buenos Aires: Losada, Mi mejor obra: Losada, Paris Cultura Hispanica, El arbol de la cruz — Nanterre: Artemis Edinter, Cuentos y leyendas — Ed.

Allca, Translations into English: The Mulatta and Mr. Latin American Literary Review, Literature a selection: Press, Llarena, Alicia, Realismo magico y lo real maravilloso: El Senor Presidente Photo Gallery: Camilo Jose Cela Jean-Marie Gustave Le Clezio Foreign Relations of the United States, —, Cuba. A Memoir of Che Guevara. Doubleday and Company , Godines , Prudencio , Jr. Guerra Leal , Mario. Editorial Diana , Guevara Niebla , Gilberto.

La democracia en la calle: Siglo Veintiuno Editores , Largo camino a la democracia. Cal y Arena , Gustavo de Anda , Government Printing Office , Communist Activities in Latin America, El fuego de la esperanza.

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Leu , Hans-Joachim , and Vivas , Freddy , eds. Universidad Central de Venezuela , My Hidden Life as a Revolutionary in Cuba. Bantam Books , Lombardo Toledano , Vicente. Dos pueblos unidos en la historia. Manrara , Luis V. A Declaration of War. The Truth About Cuba Committee , My Life as a Secret Agent for Castro. Encounter Books , The Revolution in Cuba. McGraw-Hill Book Company , Morrison , Delesseps S. An Adventure in Hemisphere Diplomacy. Simon and Schuster , Organization of American States , Editorial Rino , Editorial Era , Fuerte es el silencio.

Ediciones Era , Roig , Pedro L. Como se infiltra el G2. Duplex Paper Products of Miami , Salinas Price , Hugo. Imprenta Laura , Senate Committee on the Judiciary. Performance of the Intelligence Agencies. Communist Threat to the United States through the Caribbean.

Editorial Grijalbo , Tamayo , Jorge L. Obras de Jorge L. Court of Appeals, First Circuit De Tuxpan a La Plata. Los archivos de la violencia. Aguilar Ayerra , Carolina. Editorial de la Mujer , Alegre , Robert F. Railroad Radicals in Cold War Mexico: Gender, Class, and Memory. University of Nebraska Press , Alexander , Robert J. Trotskyism in Latin America. Hoover Institution Press , Anderson , Jon Lee.

Grove Press , Cambridge University Press , Avalos , Daniel Jacinto. La guerrilla del Che y Masetti en Salta — Accessed March 13, Oxford University Press , Barbosa Cano , Fabio. Becker Lorca , Arnulf. A Global Intellectual History, — Foreign Policy in a New State. University of Texas Press , Bethell , Leslie , and Roxborough , Ian. Blasier , Cole , and Mesa-Lago , Carmelo , eds.

Cuba in the World. University of Pittsburgh Press , Blight , James G. Sad and Luminous Days: Rowman and Littlefield , Boyer , Christopher R. Stanford University Press , The Making of Modern Mexico. Prentice Hall , The Specter of Neutralism: Columbia University Press , Harvard University Press , In the Shadow of the Giant: University of Alabama Press , Instituto de Investigaciones Dr.

Youth Radicalism and Urban Guerrillas in Guadalajara. Routledge , b. The Unknown Mexican Dirty War. Camp , Roderic A. Intellectuals and the State in Twentieth Century Mexico. Gender, Power, and Terror in Mexico. University of New Mexico Press , Marxism and Communism in Twentieth-Century Mexico. Vintage Books , How Mexican Presidents Were Chosen. The New Press , Violence and Justice in the Aftermath of the Cuban Revolution.

Duke University Press , La UNAM en Childs , Matt D. The Foreign Policy of Lyndon B. The United States and the World, — Edinburgh University Press , Editorial Joaquin Mortiz , Foreign Policy from Kennedy to Johnson. Couturier , Edith B. Johns Hopkins University Press , A Case for Mutual Non-Intervention. Craig , Campbell , and Logevall , Fredrik. The Politics of Insecurity. Belknap Press of Harvard University Press , El anticomunismo en Puebla.

Davis , Diane E. Mexico City in the Twentieth Century. Temple University Press , De Garay , Graciela , ed. El Colegio de Jalisco , La ultraderecha en el poder. To Make a World Safe for Revolution: Comparing the Foreign Policies of Cuba and Mexico. Dosal , Paul J. Guerrilla Soldier, Commander, and Strategist, — Pennsylvania State University Press , Using the Archives to Exhume the Past.

Cold War Civil Rights: Race and the Image of American Democracy. Princeton University Press , Dumois , Conchita , and Molina , Gabriel. The Soviet Union and Cuba: Dwyer , John J.