According to surviving eyewitnesses, the terrorists walked among those who were lying down, kicked them and shot them in the head if there was any sign of life. They reloaded their weapons several times and laughed while shooting at people who tried to run for the exit while they were reloading.
A witness who escaped told a journalist that the gunmen had mentioned Syria. Three groups, comprising three men each, executed the attacks. Fabien Clain released an audio recording the day before the attacks in which he personally claimed responsibility for the attacks. Clain is known to intelligence services as a veteran jihadist belonging to ISIL, and of French nationality.
Syrian and Egyptian passports were found near the bodies of two of the perpetrators at two attack sites,  but Egyptian authorities said the passport belonged to a victim, Aleed Abdel-Razzak, and not one of the perpetrators. Most of the Paris attackers were French and Belgian citizens who crossed borders without difficulty, albeit registered as terrorism suspects. Jean-Charles Brisard , a French expert on terrorism, called this a change of paradigm, in that returning European citizens were themselves the attackers.
Police described Salah, a year-old Belgian citizen, as dangerous, and warned the public not to approach him. On 14 November, a car was stopped at the Belgium—France border and its three occupants were questioned then released. Three more people were arrested in Molenbeek. On 15—16 November, French tactical police units raided over locations in France, arresting 23 people and seizing weapons.
On 17 November, police followed a female cousin of the attacker and ringleader, Abdelhamid Abaaoud, to a block of flats in Saint-Denis where they saw Abaaoud with her. On 23 November, an explosive belt was found in a litter bin in the Paris suburb of Montrouge. It may have been discarded by Salah Abdeslam, whose phone records showed that he was in Montrouge on the night of the attacks.
On 24 November, five people in Belgium had been charged on suspicion of their involvement in the Paris attacks, and Belgian prosecutors issued an arrest warrant for Mohamed Abrini, a year-old suspected accomplice of Salah Abdeslam. On 9 December, two ISIL militants accompanying two of the Paris attackers into Europe, all masquerading as migrants, were arrested in Greece weeks before the attacks.
Clain is a French national who served 5 years from to in a French prison for recruiting fighters to go to Syria for jihad. Clain has been linked to other executed and planned terror attacks and is seen as a leader of known terrorists. In September , the prosecuting judge filed for Bendaoud's trial for "concealment of terrorist criminals", a charge with a maximum penalty of six years. Michael Leiter , former director of the United States National Counterterrorism Center , said the attacks demonstrated a sophistication not seen in a city attack since the Mumbai attacks and that it would change how the West regards the threat.
The attackers killed victims and injured between and ,   with 80 to 99 taken to hospital in serious condition. The hashtag portesouvertes "open doors" was used by Parisians to offer shelter to those afraid to travel home after the attacks. Muslim organisations in France, such as the Union of Islamic Organisations of France , strongly condemned the attacks in Paris.
A street cleaner told France 24 that the city had removed six truckloads of wilted flowers and several kilograms of candles from memorials placed around this and the other shooting scenes: President Hollande issued a statement asking the French people to remain strong in the face of the attacks.
These proposals included an extension of the state of emergency for three months, changes to the French constitution , one of which would enable France to protect itself from dual citizens who might pose a risk, and an increase in military attacks against ISIL. On 4 December , the French government published a guide in form of a cartoon on how to survive a terrorist attack.
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The guide is to be posted in public places and be available online. In August minister of the interior Bernard Cazeneuve stated that about 20 radicalised mosques and further than some 80 hate preachers had been expelled from France since French authorities regularly gave detailed information to US authorities on the whereabouts of high-ranking IS members in the Syria-Iraq zone to be tracked and killed. This cooperation was led to American air strinkes being able to kill the planners of the 13 November attacks.
United States authorities cooperate as they consider that if terrorist attacks hadn't happened in France, they would have happened in the US instead. Applications to join the French Army , which were around — per day in , rose to 1, in the week following the attacks, higher than the rise to after the Charlie Hebdo shooting in January. All major political parties, including Hollande's governing Socialist Party , Marine Le Pen 's National Front , and Nicolas Sarkozy 's Republicans temporarily suspended their election campaigns for the upcoming French regional elections.
On 18 November, Hollande reaffirmed France's commitment to accept 30, Syrian refugees over the next two years. His announcement drew a standing ovation from a gathering of French mayors. However, in the election campaign for the regional elections of France, to begin on 6 December , Marine Le Pen, leader of the far-right Front National party who is vying to be president of the Nord-Pas de Calais area, was recommending hardline security measures. She was getting a great deal of media attention with her strong anti-immigrant stance and may have been helping to sway public opinion across France.
Since the elections would start only weeks after the Paris attacks, she was thought to be getting dividends from the timing, when the fear of terrorism was still very strong. Dismissing suggestions that open borders led to the attacks, Juncker said he believed that the attacks should be met with a stronger display of liberal values, including internal open borders. The United Kingdom has stated its intent to help France with operations in Syria,  while some countries intend to aid France by taking over activities in Africa. Germany announced sending troops to Mali and military trainers to Kurdish forces in Iraq, and has on 4 December voted in favour of deploying aircraft and a frigate in an effort to aid the French forces over Syria.
The attacks prompted European officials to re-evaluate their stance on EU policy toward migrants, especially in light of the ongoing European migrant crisis. Shortly after the attacks, intelligence staff in multiple countries began to review electronic surveillance recorded before the attacks. One source said the French National Police met with German police and intelligence services a month before the attack to discuss suspicions that terrorists were staking out possible targets in France. The exact targets were not known at that time. Police in Germany stopped a car on 5 November, arrested its driver, and confiscated weapons that may have been connected to the Paris attacks.
Some of the attackers were known to law enforcement officials prior to the attacks, and at least some of the attackers had residences in the Molenbeek area of Brussels, which is noted for its links to extremist activities. The number of Europeans who have links to Syria makes it difficult for security services to keep track of them all. On 26 December , "Belgian newspaper De Morgen reported that a police oversight body, known as Committee P," is investigating why prior warnings from a school about the radicalisation of one of the attackers, Bilal Hadfi, were not reported to Belgian law enforcement.
All state schools and universities in Paris remained closed the next day. On 13 November, President Hollande declared the state of emergency.
On 20 November, the Senate in France agreed to extend the current state of emergency by three months; this measure gave police extra powers of detention and arrest intended to increase security, at the expense of some personal liberties. A next time, the state of emergency was extended until the end of July Belgium immediately on 13 November tightened security along its border with France and increased security checks for people arriving from France.
Starting on 21 November , the government of Belgium imposed a security lockdown on Brussels , including the closure of shops, schools, public transportation, due to information about potential terrorist attacks in the wake of the series of coordinated attacks in Paris. As a result of warnings of a serious and imminent threat, the terror alert level was raised to the highest level four across the Brussels metropolitan area, and people were advised not to congregate publicly, effectively putting the city under lockdown.
Cities in the United States took security precautions, especially at sites where large crowds were expected, as well as sports events, concerts, the French embassy and other French government sites. Bratton , the New York City Police Commissioner , said the Paris attacks have changed the way law enforcement deals with security. Many heads of state and heads of government, as well as the United Nations, offered messages of condolence and solidarity in the wake of the attacks. House of Representatives has passed a bill that made it more difficult for Syrian and Iraqi refugees to enter the United States.
Muslim heads of state, scholars, imams , leaders and groups condemned the attacks, many before ISIL claimed responsibility. Syrian president Bashar al-Assad condemned the terror attacks in Paris, but added that France's support for Syrian rebel groups had contributed to the spread of terrorism. Ahrar ash-Sham and Jaysh al-Islam , the major mainstream Islamist rebels against the Syrian regime, both condemned the attacks. A few days after the attacks, on 17 November, a football friendly set to be played at HDI-Arena in Hannover between Germany who had just been present at the Stade de France during the Paris attacks and the Netherlands was cancelled and thousands of football fans evacuated from the arena following a bomb threat.
According to a French intelligence dossier, five bombings had been prepared to be detonated at or around the stadium by a named five-member terror cell in a series of coordinated bomb attacks.
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At the same time also in Hannover, the TUI Arena was evacuated before a concert by the band Soehne Mannheims , and a train station was closed off after a suspicious device was found. On 15 March , Belgian police carried out a raid on a house in the suburb of Forest in Brussels. A police statement said that the raid was related to the Paris attacks. On 18 March , there were further raids in the Molenbeek area of Brussels. One of the people who was present in the Bataclan theatre on 13 November during the terrorist attacks was a French artist who works under the pseudonym Fred Dewilde.
In October he published a graphic novel about his firsthand experience of these tragic events, named Mon Bataclan. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Brussels ISIL terror cell. Reactions to the November Paris attacks.
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However, video recordings of the match suggest that the gap between the first and the second explosion was much shorter because the first explosion is heard at Retrieved 27 November More than killed in gunfire and blasts, French media say". Retrieved 14 November Retrieved 21 November Retrieved 15 November Retrieved 17 November Everything we know on Wednesday evening".
Retrieved 19 November Archived from the original on 14 November Islamic State says killings were response to Syria strikes". The group says the killings were in response to airstrikes against its militants in Syria, adding France would remain a "key target".
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The Wall Street Journal. Islamic State claimed responsibility for the attacks on a social media account, but didn't provide specific information that would allow the claim to be verified. It said that the attacks were retaliation for French airstrikes against the group in Syria and Iraq. Retrieved 21 January What we know so far". Marcus 19 November Retrieved 20 November Hollande blames Islamic State for 'act of war ' ". The New York Times. Who were the attackers?
Retrieved 27 April Retrieved 22 March EU in emergency talks on border crackdown".
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Retrieved 22 November The French prime minister, Manuel Valls, said some of the killers had taken advantage of Europe's migrant crisis to "slip in" unnoticed. Los Angeles Times, in the Sacramento Bee. As waves of refugees from Syria converged on Europe this summer, law enforcement authorities feared this scenario: That terrorist operatives would slip in among the multitudes [ At least three of the seven known attackers and the suspected ringleader, Abdelhamid Abaaoud [ Retrieved 16 November Americans overpower gunman on Paris express".
Archived from the original on 14 July Bataclan an Islamist target due to Jewish owners". The Times of Israel. Russian airliner crashes in Egypt's Sinai peninsula". Retrieved 31 October Retrieved 2 November Retrieved 12 November Retrieved 13 November Retrieved 9 September Le Point in French. Casualties in city centre and explosion at the Stade de France".
Retrieved 18 November French police clamped down on Saturday on thousands of yellow-vested protesters in Paris, firing tear gas and water cannon at projectile-hurling demonstrators angry at Emmanuel Macron and France's high taxes. At least 55 people were injured in protests across the country.
Paris The latest news and comment on Paris. Gilets jaunes protesters take to the streets of Paris for fifth weekend. Gilets jaunes resume protests, clash with Paris riot police - video. Paris braces for fifth weekend of protests by gilets jaunes. Demonstrations to continue despite demands to call off action after Strasbourg attack.
Europe now Andrzej Krauze on the gilets jaunes protests — cartoon. Protests against Emmanuel Macron have brought Paris to a standstill. The gilets jaunes have cowed Macron. Despite winning major concessions from the president, the rebels now eye a bigger cause — to bring down the government. Macron to appeal to French in wake of latest violent protests. Police flood into Paris to contain gilets jaunes. Security forces put 8, on the streets of the capital to quell fears of rioting. Riot police use teargas and water cannon in clashes with gilets jaunes in Paris — video report.