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Deutscher Sparkassen- und Giroverband e. Magmatic Ventures Clemens Henle Poststr. The round table should also monitor the development in the following areas: Inventory of State aid instruments Annex 3: Glossary - Subject Names. AVT Aufbau- und Verbindungstechn. Bautenschutz Bautenschutztechnik Bekleidungstechnik Berechn. Betriebliche Kostenrechnung Betriebsfestigkeit Betriebskostenr. Betriebsorganisation Betriebsplanung und Org. Betriebspsychologie Betriebspsychologie 1 Betriebspsychologie 2 Betriebssoziologie Betriebssysteme Betriebssysteme 1 Betriebssysteme 2 Betriebsw. Arbeitsvorb Bilanz und Steuern Bildverarb.

Aktoren und Sensoren El. Maschinen und Anlagen Elektr. Elektronik 1 Energiemaschinen Energiesysteme Energietechnik und techn. Englisch English for Mechanical Engin. Bauteile Fertigung und Werkzeugmasch. Fertigung warmfester Bauteile Fertigungs- und Automat. Mechanik 2 Konstruieren mit Kunststoffen Konstrukt.

Signalverarbeitung Labor Digitale Signalverarb. Aktoren und Sensoren Labor Elektr. Elektrotechnik 1 Labor Grundl. Elektrotechnik 2 Labor Grundl. Realit Labor Nachrichtentechnik Labor Objektorient. Optoelektronik Optoelektronik 1 Optoelektronik 2 Organ. Physik Physik 1 Physik 1,2 Physik 2 Physik der elektr. Sensoren Physik der elektr. Operations Research Planung u. Rechnertechnik Rechnertechnik 1 Rechnertechnik 2 Recht Recht in d. Seminar Business and Engineer.

Thermische Energietechnik Thermische Masch. Stg WPF Anwendungsfach and. St WPF Fremdsprache and. WPF Gruppe A aus and. WPF Gruppe B aus and. Hydraulics and Pneumatics Lab: Strength of Materials Lab: Actuators and Sensors Lab: CAD of Microelectronics Lab: Digital Measuring and Testing Lab: Digital Control Systems Lab: Digital Signal Processing Lab: Digital Circuits 1 Lab: Digital Circuits 2 Lab: Electrical Actuators and Sensors Lab: Electric Control Systems Lab: Electrical Measurement of Mechanical Values Lab: Electrical Measurement Techniques Lab: Electrical Measurement Techniques 1 Lab: Electrical Measurement Techniques 2 Lab: Electrical Measurement Techniques 3 Lab: Electronic Construction Elements Lab: Electronics and Digital Circuits Lab: Electrical Engineering 1 Lab: Electrical Engineering 2 Lab: Dynamics of Moving Vehicles Lab: Production Measurement Techniques Lab: Manufacturing Technology 1 Lab: Manufacturing Technology 2 Lab: Joining and Welding Technology Lab: Gas and Water Technology Lab: Graphical User Interfaces Lab: Introduction to Electrical Engineering Lab: Introduction to Electrical Engineering 1 Lab: Introduction to Electrical Engineering 2 Lab: Introduction to Communications Engineering Lab: Fundamentals of Packaging Lab: Semiconductor Circuits 1 Lab: Semiconductor Circuits 2 Lab: High Frequency Technology Lab: Data Compression and Cryptology Lab: Instrumental Analysis and Environmental Analysis Lab: Car Body Measurement and Testing Lab: Data Communications Systems 1 Lab: Communications Technology 2 Lab: Power and Work Machines Lab: Motor Vehicles 2 Lab: Ventilation and Air Conditioning Lab: Machine Measurement Techniques Lab: Measuring and Testing Lab: Instrumentation and Measurement Techniques Lab: Instrumentation and Measurement Techniques 1 Lab: Instrumentation and Measurement Techniques 2 Lab: Measurement Techniques in Manufacturing Lab: Methods of Artificial Intelligence Lab: Methods of Signal Processing Lab: Fundamentals of Microprocessors Lab: Multimedia and Virtual Reality Lab: Object Oriented Modelling Lab: Applications Technology Coatings Lab: Building and Corrosion Protection Lab: Materials Testing Plastics Lab: Problems in Packaging Lab: Product Design Colors Lab: Production and Operations Management Lab: Programming Languages 3 Lab: Realtime Data Processing 1 Lab: Realtime Data Processing 2 Lab: Realtime Data Processing Lab: Processes in Packaging Lab: Quality and Costing Lab: Quality and Cost Management Lab: Computer-Aided Measurement Techniques Lab: Computer Architecture 1 Lab: Computer Architecture 2 Lab: Law for Chemists Lab: Control Systems Closed Loop Lab: Control Systems Closed Loop 1 "Lab: Control Systems Closed Loop 1,2" Lab: Control Systems Closed Loop 2 Lab: Signals and Systems Lab: Signals and Systems 1 Lab: Signals and Systems 2 Lab: Languages and Automata Lab: Control Systems 1 Lab: System Dynamics 1 Lab: System Dynamics 2 Lab: Systems Programming and Operating Systems 2 Lab: Systems Programming and Operating Systems 1 Lab: Applied Optics 2 Lab: Technology of Microelectronics Lab: Telecommunication Systems and Computer Networks Lab: Pressing and Forming 1 Lab: Pressing and Forming Technology Lab: Combustion Engines 1,2" Lab: Thermodynamics and Heating Systems Lab: Water and Gas Chemistry Lab: Water and Gas Technology Lab: Materials Science and Materials Chemistry 1 Lab: Materials Science and Chemistry of Materials 1 Lab: Materials Science and Materials Chemistry 2 Lab: Materials Science and Chemistry of Materials 2 Lab: Materials Testing 1 Lab: Materials Testing 2 Lab: Materials Testing 3 Lab: Materials Science 1 Lab: Materials Science 2 Lab: Machine Tools and Control Systems Lab: Coatings Application Technology Lab: Buildings and Corrosion Lab: Process Technology Coatings Lab: Control Systems Closed Loop with Lab: Materials Science Metals Lab: Translation - English not mandatory waste settlement fiscal charge, tax, levy, duty tax code delegate redress descendant, scion redemption delegation selling co-operative-society brit.

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Glossary - Project Management. Translation in criminal proceedings General field: Source text - German 1. Eine Einigung auf gemeinsame Mindestnormen bei diesen Verfahrensrechten erleichtert die Anwendung des Grundsatzes der gegenseitigen Anerkennung. Mai gebilligt wurde. Folgende Optionen standen zur Debatte: Jede Person hat das Recht auf Freiheit und Sicherheit.

Jede angeklagte Person hat mindestens folgende Rechte: Artikel 1 - Geltungsbereich Artikel 2 — Recht auf Verdolmetschung Artikel 6 - Regressionsverbot Durch diesen Artikel soll sichergestellt werden, dass durch die Festlegung gemeinsamer Mindestanforderungen im Einklang mit diesem Rahmenbeschluss bestimmte Mitgliedstaaten nicht zur Absenkung ihrer Standards gezwungen werden und dass die Standards der EMRK beibehalten werden.

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Artikel 7 — Umsetzung Dieser Artikel verpflichtet die Mitgliedstaaten, den Rahmenbeschluss bis zum xx. Artikel 8 - Berichterstattung Artikel 9 - Inkrafttreten Oktober den Grundsatz der gegenseitigen Anerkennung zum Eckstein der justiziellen Zusammenarbeit innerhalb der Union sowohl in Zivil- als auch in Strafsachen. Die Bestimmungen dieses Rahmenbeschluss erleichtern die praktische Anwendung dieses Rechts. Sie sollten eine etwaige Benachteiligung erkennen und entsprechende Schritte einleiten, um die Rechte der betreffenden Person zu wahren.

Artikel 1 Geltungsbereich 1. Artikel 2 Recht auf Verdolmetschung 1. C 12 vom November , Serie A Nr.. Er kommt zum Ergebnis, dass das in Art. Dezember , Serie A Nr. No such evidence appears from the documents in the file or the statements of the witnesses heard on 23 April Die Aktenlage und die am September — Nr. The right […]to the free assistance of an interpreter applies not only to oral statements made at the trial hearing but also to documentary material and the pre-trial proceedings. Paragraph 3 e art. The interpretation assistance provided should be such as to enable the defendant to have knowledge of the case against him and to defend himself, notably by being able to put before the court his version of the events.

In view of the need for the right guaranteed by paragraph 3 e art. Artikel 6 Absatz 3 lit. Damit das in Artikel 6 Absatz 3 lit. Translation - English 1. This proposal for a Council Framework Decision aims to set common minimum standards as regards the right to interpretation and translation in criminal proceedings throughout the European Union.

The proposal is envisaged as a first step in a series of measures designed to replace the Commission's proposal for a Council Framework Decision on certain procedural rights in criminal proceedings throughout the European Union - COM , Agreement could not be reached on that proposal, despite 3 years' discussions in the Council Working Group, and it was effectively abandoned in June , after a fruitless discussion in the Justice Council.

Adopting a step-by-step approach is now seen as a generally acceptable way to proceed; it will also gradually help build confidence and contribute to enhancing mutual trust. This proposal should therefore be considered as part of a comprehensive package of legislation which will seek to provide a minimum set of procedural rights in criminal proceedings in the European Union. Rights covered in the proposal were, besides the right to free interpretation and translation, the right to legal advice, the right to information about rights Letter of Rights , the right to specific attention for vulnerable defendants, the right to communicate with consular authorities and the right to communicate with the family.

For this proposal, the Commission has decided to concentrate on the right to interpretation and translation as it was the least controversial right in the discussions of the proposal and there was information and research available on this right. This proposal seeks to improve the rights of suspects who do not understand and speak the language of the proceedings.

New PDF release: 1000 Geschäftsideen: Band 1 (German Edition)

Having common minimum standards in relation to these rights should facilitate the application of the principle of mutual recognition. As regards the legal basis, the proposal is based on Article 31 1 of the Treaty on European Union.


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Article 31 1 c envisages that the EU may develop "common action" so as to ensure compatibility in rules where necessary to improve cooperation. For judicial cooperation, in particular mutual recognition, it is necessary to have mutual trust. A certain degree of compatibility is necessary to improve mutual trust and hence, co-operation.

The right to interpretation and translation, which stems from the European Convention on Human Rights ECHR , is fundamental for a person facing a criminal charge who does not understand the language of the proceedings so that the suspect knows the charges against him and understands the procedure. The suspect must be in a position to understand of what he is accused. Translations should be provided of essential procedural documents. In accordance with the ECHR, interpretation and translation must be provided free of charge.

The Board's recommendations and how these were accommodated can be found at paragraph 25 of the Impact Assessment http: The options set out were as follows: The current situation whereby Member States are expected to comply with their ECHR obligations could be expected to continue as now with the perceived imbalance between prosecution and the accused which has hitherto hampered mutual recognition.

This would have negligible economic consequences. This option would lead to better awareness of ECHR standards by disseminating and recommending practices which help compliance. It would not achieve further approximation of legal standards. The economic impact would be twofold, first the cost of putting services in place to ensure rights are respected, and second, the gain in reduced costs of appeals. It would need careful consideration so that any potential issue of discrimination between categories of suspects involved in cross-border versus domestic proceedings is addressed appropriately.

As with the previous option, the economic impact would be twofold, first the cost of putting services in place to ensure rights are respected, and second, the gain in reduced costs of appeals, but to a lesser extent than above since it is less ambitious in scope.

The Impact Assessment identified the combination of options b and e as the preferred approach maximising synergies between legislative and non-legislative action. Therefore this Framework Decision should be followed up by a document on best practice. The Presidency Conclusions of the Tampere European Council[1] stated that mutual recognition should become the cornerstone of judicial cooperation, but makes the point that mutual recognition " These parameters include mechanisms for safeguarding the rights of suspects parameter 3 and the definition of common minimum standards necessary to facilitate application of the principle of mutual recognition parameter 4.

This proposal for a Framework Decision represents an embodiment of the stated aim of enhancing the protection of individual rights. No one shall be deprived of his liberty save in the following cases and in accordance with a procedure prescribed by law: The European Court of Human Rights ECtHR has held on Article 6 ECHR that the accused has the right to interpretation free of charge, even in the event of his conviction, that he has a right to receive the documents setting out the charge in a language that he understands, that the interpretation must be sufficient to allow the person charged to understand the proceedings and that the interpreter must be competent.

Austria[6] , it was established that the interpretation provided should be of a high enough standard to enable the defendant to have knowledge of the case against him and to defend himself. The right applies to documentary material and the pre-trial proceedings. The ECtHR held that the standard of interpretation must be "adequate" and that details of the charge must be given to the person in a language that he understands Brozicek v. It is for the judicial authorities to prove that the defendant speaks the language of the court adequately and not for the defendant to prove he does not[8].

The interpreter must be competent and the judge must safeguard the fairness of the proceedings Cuscani v. The Reflection Forum on Multilingualism and Interpreter Training[10] produced a report with recommendations on the quality of interpretation and translation. This Report was the fruit of meetings of the Reflection Forum convened by the Commission's Directorate-General for Interpretation during to identify whether there is a need for action and if so, what action could be taken.

The Forum concluded that there was a need and set out Recommendations as to how to improve the provision of competent and qualified interpreters in criminal proceedings. The Recommendations included having a Curriculum in Legal Interpreting and a system of accreditation, certification and registration for legal interpreters. Article 1 - Scope of application The scope covers all persons suspected in respect of a criminal offence until final conviction including any appeal. Here, the term "suspect" is used to cover such persons. This is intended as an autonomous term, irrespective of the designation of such persons in national proceedings.

Since the case-law of the ECtHR has clarified that persons being questioned in relation to offences, whether or not formally charged, should be covered by Article 6 ECHR, persons arrested or detained in connection with a criminal charge also come within the ambit of this provision. These rights start to apply from the time when the person is informed that he is suspected of having committed an offence e. The Article clarifies that the proposal also applies to European Arrest Warrant cases.

It is an important point that European Arrest Warrant cases are covered since the Framework Decision concerning the European Arrest Warrant only addresses these rights in general terms. Article 2 - The right to interpretation This Article lays down the basic principle that interpretation should be provided during the investigative and judicial phases of the proceedings, i. The right is also extended to legal advice given to the suspect if his lawyer speaks a language that he does not understand. Article 3 - The right to translation of essential documents The suspect has the right to translation of essential documents in order to safeguard the fairness of the proceedings.

Austria[11] , the ECtHR stated that the right to interpretation applied to "documentary material" and that the accused should have sufficient knowledge of the case against him to enable him to defend himself[12]. The essential documents for the criminal proceedings should therefore include the charge sheet or indictment and any relevant documentary material such as key witness statements needed in order to understand "in detail, the nature and cause of the accusation against him" in accordance with Article 6 3 a of the ECHR.

Translation should also be provided of any detention order or order depriving the person of his liberty and the judgment, which is necessary for the person to exercise his right of appeal ECHR Protocol 7, Article 2. In respect of proceedings for the execution of a European Arrest Warrant, the European Arrest Warrant should be translated. Article 4 - Member States to meet the costs of interpretation and translation This Article provides that the costs of interpretation and translation are to be met by the Member State. Article 5 - Quality of the interpretation and translation This Article sets out the basic requirement to safeguard the quality of interpretation and translation.

Recommendations in this respect can be found in the Report of the Reflection Forum on Multilingualism and Interpreter Training[14]. Article 6 - Non-regression clause The purpose of this Article is to ensure that setting common minimum standards in accordance with this Framework Decision does not have the effect of lowering standards in certain Member States and that the standards set in the ECHR are maintained. Member States remain entirely at liberty to set standards higher than those agreed in this Framework Decision. Article 7 — Implementation Article 8 — Report XX months after implementation, the Commission must submit a report to the European Parliament and to the Council, assessing the extent to which the Member States have taken the necessary measures in order to comply with this Framework Decision, accompanied, if necessary, by legislative proposals.

Article 9 - Entry into force This Article provides that the Framework Decision will enter into force on the twentieth day following that of its publication in the Official Journal of the European Union. The objective of the proposal cannot be sufficiently achieved by Member States alone, since the aim of the proposal is to promote trust between them and it is therefore important to agree on a common minimum standard that applies throughout the whole of the European Union.

The proposal will approximate Member States' substantive procedural rules in respect of interpretation and translation in criminal proceedings in order to build mutual trust.


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  • The proposal therefore complies with the subsidiarity principle. The proposal complies with the proportionality principle in that it does not go beyond the minimum required in order to achieve the stated objective at European level and what is necessary for that purpose. According to the conclusions of the European Council in Tampere of 15 and 16 October , and in particular point 33 thereof, the principle of mutual recognition should become the cornerstone of judicial cooperation in both civil and criminal matters within the European Union.

    The introduction to the programme of measures states that mutual recognition is "designed to strengthen cooperation between Member States but also to enhance the protection of individual rights". The extent of the mutual recognition exercise is very much dependent on a number of parameters, which include "mechanisms for safeguarding the rights of […] suspects"[16] and common minimum standards necessary to facilitate the application of the principle of mutual recognition.

    Common minimum standards should lead to increased confidence in the criminal justice systems of all Member States which in turn should lead to more efficient judicial cooperation in a climate of mutual trust. In order to enhance the necessary confidence among Member States, this Framework Decision provides for basic common standards with regard to interpretation and translation in criminal proceedings in the European Union which reflect the traditions of the Member States in applying the relevant provisions of the ECHR.

    The provisions of this Framework Decision facilitate the application of those rights in practice. This assistance should be extended, if necessary, to relations between the suspect and his defence counsel. The prosecution, law enforcement and judicial authorities should therefore ensure that suspects in a potentially weak position are able to exercise effectively their rights. Those authorities should be aware of any potential vulnerability and take appropriate steps to ensure these rights. This should always be the case where a suspect is a minor or suffers from disabilities which impair his active participation in proceedings.

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    In particular, this Framework Decision seeks to promote the right to liberty, the right to a fair trial and the rights of the defence. Article 1 Scope 1. This Framework Decision lays down rules concerning the rights to interpretation and translation in criminal proceedings and proceedings for the execution of a European Arrest Warrant. Article 2 The right to interpretation 1.

    Member States shall ensure that a suspect who does not understand and speak the language of the criminal proceedings concerned is provided with interpretation, in order to safeguard the fairness of the criminal proceedings. Interpretation shall be provided during those proceedings before investigative and judicial authorities, including during police questioning, during all necessary meetings between the suspect and his lawyer, during all court hearings and during any necessary interim hearings.

    Member States shall ensure that, where necessary, legal advice received throughout the criminal proceedings is interpreted for the suspect. Member States shall ensure that a procedure is in place to ascertain whether the suspect understands and speaks the language of the criminal proceedings.

    Member States shall ensure that there is a right of appeal against a decision finding that there is no need for interpretation. The right to interpretation includes assistance of persons with hearing or speech impediments. With regard to proceedings for the execution of a European Arrest Warrant, Member States shall ensure that any person subject to such proceedings who does not understand and speak the language of the proceedings shall be provided with interpretation during those proceedings. Article 3 The right to translation of essential documents 1. Member States shall ensure that a suspect who does not understand the language of the criminal proceedings concerned is provided with translations of all essential documents in order to safeguard the fairness of the criminal proceedings.

    Member States shall ensure that there is a right of appeal against a decision to refuse translation of any documents referred to in paragraph 2. With regard to proceedings for the execution of a European Arrest Warrant, Member States shall ensure that any person subject to such proceedings who does not understand the language in which the European Arrest Warrant is drawn up, shall be provided with a translation of the said document.

    Article 4 Member States to meet the costs of interpretation and translation Member States shall cover the costs of interpretation and translation resulting from the application of Articles 2 and 3. Article 5 Quality of the interpretation and translation 1. Interpretation and translation shall be provided in such a way as to ensure that the suspect is fully able to exercise his rights. Article 6 Non-regression clause Nothing in this Framework Decision shall be construed as limiting or derogating from any of the rights and procedural safeguards that may be ensured under the European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms or the laws of any Member States which provide a higher level of protection.

    Article 7 Implementation Member States shall take the necessary measures to comply with the provisions of this Framework Decision by …….. By the same date Member States shall transmit to the Council and to the Commission the text of the provisions transposing into their national law the obligations imposed on them under this Framework Decision.

    Article 8 Report The Commission shall, by ………. Article 9 Entry into force This Framework Decision shall enter into force on the twentieth day following that of its publication in the Official Journal of the European Union. The Court concludes that the right protected by Article 6 para. Emission of gaseous and particulate pollutants from compression ignition engines General field: L 36 vom 9. L 44 vom L vom L 77 vom Der Vorschlag folgt deshalb einem Konzept, bei dem zwei Rechtsakte auf verschiedenen Ebenen, aber gleichzeitig erlassen werden: L 42 vom Die beiden ersten Stufen der Emissionsgrenzwerte, allgemein als "Euro 3" und "Euro 4" bezeichnet, gelten ab Oktober bzw.

    Die derzeitige Produktion liegt bei 25 Fahrzeugen pro Jahr. Ob die meisten Motorenhersteller ihre Technik an Euro 4 ausrichten werden, ist noch offen, und die Frage des Schwefelgehalts im Dieselkraftstoff spielt dabei eine wesentliche Rolle. Je nach Fahrzeugklasse ist folgende Einsatzdauer vorgesehen: Oktober in Kraft.

    Solche Fahrzeuge sammeln Kilometer sehr viel langsamer. Eine Dauerhaltbarkeit sanforderung von sieben Jahren scheint dagegen in diesem Fall durchaus angemessen. Fahrzeuge mit geringer Kilometerleistung sollten daher unter das Kriterium " km oder sieben Jahre, je nach dem, was zuerst eintritt" fallen. Es ist wichtig, dass beide Richtlinien zum selben Zeitpunkt in den Mitgliedstaaten umgesetzt werden. Daher gelten die OBD-Anforderungen ab 1. Der technische Vorschlag wird die Anforderungen dieses politischen Vorschlags umsetzen, indem er Folgendes festlegt: Diese neue Rahmenrichtlinie wird derzeit von den Kommissions dienststellen erarbeitet vgl.

    Der Nachweis der Dauerhaltbarkeit durch den Hersteller wird wie folgt geregelt: Diese Einfahrzeit kann auf Verlangen des Herstellers bis zu Stunden betragen. L 76 vom 6. Es gibt jedoch einige Probleme. Emissions-related diagnostics services", Dezember B in ihrem Schwefelgehalt. Oktober geltenden sehr niedrigen Grenzwerte reicht die Genauigkeit und Reproduzierbarkeit der bisherigen gravimetrischen Verfahren nicht aus.

    C vom The Communication from the Commission to the Council, the European Parliament, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions having the title "updating and simplifying the Community acquis" [4] identifies, as a priority area for simplification of Community legislation, the type-approval system for motor vehicles. Split-level approach Traditionally, proposals for Directives in the field of motor vehicle construction and type-approval, in accordance with Article of the Treaty, laid down not only the fundamental provisions, but also specified the technical specifications applicable to motor vehicles in a great deal of detail.

    As a result the European Parliament and the Council had to study more voluminous and technically more complex pieces of draft legislation than if the technical details had otherwise been omitted. This proposal is structured in a different way compared to existing Directives covering the type-approval of motor vehicles. It constitutes an effort to improve the efficiency of the decision-making process and simplify the proposed legislation, so that the European Parliament and the Council can focus more on the political direction and content whilst leaving the Commission with the task of adopting the appropriate requirements that would implement such political direction and content.

    To this end, a "split-level approach" has been followed in this proposal, where the proposal and adoption of legislation will be made according to two different, but parallel, routes: The present proposal refers, in Article 6, to the procedure provided in Article 13 of the framework Directive for the adoption by the Commission of implementing measures as well as the adaptation to technical progress of existing ones.

    Accordingly, it should be noted that for the purposes of this and future proposals, any requirement which the Commission considers to directly affect the emissions of gaseous and particulate pollutants from an engine will always be contained within a co-decision proposal to the co-legislators. The first two stages of emission limit values, widely given the assignation 'Euro 3' and 'Euro 4', are applicable to new types of heavy-duty engines from October and and all types of heavy-duty engines from October and October A third level of standards that provides more stringent NOx limits only the other emission limits from Euro 4 carry-forward , and given the assignation 'Euro 5', is applicable to all types of heavy-duty engines from October In addition, Article 7 requires the Commission to take account of a number of pertinent factors: As noted above, the Commission is due to confirm the NOx limit of 2.

    At that time, the Commission will also report on the development of a world-wide harmonised test cycle for the type-approval testing of heavy-duty engines and, if appropriate, accompany the report with a proposal to introduce such a harmonised test cycle at an appropriate time. In total, less than 1, alternative-fuelled engines were produced in the EU in , mostly natural gas engines for the bus market. Several manufacturers plan to certify their future alternative-fuelled engines as Enhanced Environmentally [friendly] Vehicles EEV. By no major EU heavy-duty vehicle manufacturer is expected to produce any ethanol vehicles.

    Current production is only around 25 per annum. Therefore, emission limits for presently non-regulated pollutants are not introduced in this proposal. The application of measures applied to the transport sector that may be developed through the Commission's contact group on alternative fuels will also have a bearing on this review [11].

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