Ma famille en est l'image parfaite: Ce qui explique que ce qu'il y a d'italien en moi, c'est de l'Italie du Nord. Les Italiens expriment leurs sentiments, sont ouverts, disent qu'ils vous aiment ou ne vous aiment pas. Mais ils m'adoraient quand je faisais gagner la Juventus. Francesco Smalto, tailleur parisien: Depuis que j'ai pris ma retraite, j'ai de moins en moins l'occasion de me rendre dans mon pays natal ou de parler ma langue maternelle. Puis la domination culturelle de la Renaissance et ils savent qu'on ne fera jamais mieux.
Et puis, il y a aussi la gastronomie italienne. Enfin, ce qu'il y a aussi d'italien en moi, c'est mon amour pour Rome. L'Italie en moi, c'est comme une enfance. Mon premier livre s'intitulait L'Italie de Mussolini. Moi, j'ai appris l'italien. Je m'y suis senti chez moi. Il n'existe pas deux pays plus proches l'un de l'autre. Nadine Morano, ministre de l'Apprentissage et de la Formation professionnelle: L'Italie, c'est tellement de choses, en tout cas une partie de moi! Et chez nous, l'incontournable, c'est aussi le minestrone.
Disons-le, et je l'assume, je suis une vraie mamma. Je ne peux pas vivre sans ma tribu! C'est mon refuge et ma force! When speaking about eating or drinking an item, there are specific situations for the use of each article. If the noun taken in a partitive sense happens to be preceded by a qualifying adjective, or a negative verb, then de is used alone.
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Wikipedia has related information at French articles and determiners. In French, all nouns have a grammatical gender ; that is, they are either masculin m or feminin f. Most nouns that express people or animals have both a masculine and a feminine form. For example, the two words for "the actor" in French are l'acteur m and l'actrice f. The two words for "the cat" are le chat m and la chatte f. However, there are some nouns that talk about people or animals whose gender are fixed, regardless of the actual gender of the person or animal.
For example, la personne f the person is always feminine, even when it's talking about your uncle! The nouns that express things without an obvious gender e. This form can be masculine or feminine. For example, la voiture the car can only be feminine; le stylo the pen can only be masculine. There are many exceptions to gender rules in French which can only be learned. There are even words that are spelled the same, but have a different meaning when masculine or feminine; for example, le livre m means the book , but la livre f means the pound.
Some words that appear to be masculine like le photo , which is actually short for la photographie are in fact feminine, and vice versa. Then there are some that just don't make sense; la foi is feminine and means a belief, whereas le foie means liver. A pronoun replaces a noun in a sentence. Often used to prevent repeating the noun. French has six different types of subject pronouns: Tu is informal and used only with well-known acquaintances.
In case of unknown persons you have to use the polite form Vous. A good example, to explain that is the following: If two business acquaintances meet another, they say Vous. If they later fall in love, they say Tu. When unsure, it is better to say "vous.
However, when pronounced, they normally sound the same as "il" and "elle", so distinguishing the difference requires understanding of the various conjugations of the verbs following the pronoun. Ils is used with all-male or mixed groups, elles is only used when all members of the group are female. French pronouns carry meanings that do not exist in English pronouns. The French third person "on" has several meanings, but most closely matches the English "one", except that it is not so formal, and is more common. It has a number of uses:. On does not have ordinary direct- and indirect-object pronouns, only the reflexive pronoun se.
Similarly, its disjunctive-pronoun form, soi , is only used when on is the subject and soi refers to the same entity. The pronoun quelqu'un "someone" can fill some of the roles of on , in the same way that one and someone are sometimes interchangeable in English. A direct object is a noun that receives the action of a verb. You have learned earlier that names and regular nouns can be replaced by the subject pronouns je, tu Similarly, direct objects, such as "la balle", can be replaced by pronouns.
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Indirect objects are prepositional phrases with the object of the preposition. An indirect object is a noun that receives the action of a verb. Lui and leur are indirect object pronouns. When used with the direct object pronouns le, la , and les , lui and leur come after those pronouns. Note that while le, la , and les are used to replace people or inanimate objects, lui and leur are not used to replace innanimate objects and things.
Also note that unlike le and la , which are shortened to l' when followed by a vowel, lui is never shortened.
Note that lui and leur , and not y , are used when the object refers to a person or persons. The French pronoun y replaces a prepositional phrase referring to a place that begins with any preposition except de for which en is used. When expressing positive commands, there are several rules one must remember when using object pronouns. Wikipedia has related information at French Pronouns. In the introduction of the book the description of a sentence, versus a phrase was outlined. A sentence, and not a phrase, is a grammatical unit, which may have nouns, verbs, adjectives, etc.
Like English, a sentence begins with a capital letter and ends with a punctuation mark. This word order is pretty much the same as English. While this is true in the literal sense, it doesn't mean you can't get the point across in another way. The French declarative sentence with direct and indirect object nouns must be in this order: In the second example you will see that the direct object and indirect object have been swapped. In order to translate an English statement like this, you would have to slide the indirect object to its proper place. Il aime les bonbons.
Il aime les bonbons? Does he like sweets? To form a question, attach "Est-ce que Sometimes "que" has to be modified to "qu'" for elision. Est-ce is actually the inversion of c'est "it is". Like all inversions a '-' dash is required. These questions in this form are typically mean't to elicit a "Oui" or "Non" answer. If you want more than that, you must precede it with an interrogative: Quand est-ce que, Qui est-ce que, or Quel est-ce que, for example. Some of these later examples can more easily be said by just leaving the inversion off.
If the question is negative, then the form is: N'est-ce pas qu'il fait beau temps? It is good weather, is it not? Il aime ce film. He likes this film. This is considered to be the most formal way to ask a question out of the three. The indicative form of the following sentences will be placed in parentheses for comparison.
To ask a question by inversion, simply invert the verb and the subject the pronoun and insert a hyphen un trait d'union in between. Do you like apples? Tu aimes les pommes. In the case where the verb ends in a vowel while the subject starts with one, a "t" needs to be inserted to avoid elision.
Did she make the decision already? She made the decision already. For third person plural verbs ending in "ent" , there is no need to insert the "t". Are they buying a house? They are buying a house. If the subject is a noun instead of a pronoun, invert the verb and the pronoun that represents the subject. Did Marie choose this shirt? Marie chose this shirt. Marie a choisi cette chemise. For negative such as "ne Didn't you eat the whole pizza? You didn't eat the whole pizza. Have you been there? You have been there.
If you finish your homework, I'll give you some candies. Si tu finis tes devoirs, je te donnerai des bonbons. If you are cold, close the window. If I had a million dollars, I would buy a house. If I had known or "had I known" computers were so useful, I would have taken a computer course. Pronominal verbs are verbs that include pronouns.
These pronouns are me , te , se , nous , and vous and are used as either direct objects or indirect objects, depending on the verb that they modify. Either the conjugated verb or the infinitive can be negated each with slightly different meanings. In perfect tenses, the past participles agree with the direct object pronoun, but not the indirect object pronoun, in gender and plurality. Therefore it would only agree when the reflexive pronoun is the direct object.
Also remember that the past participle does not agree with the direct object if it goes after the verb. When a reflexive verb is put as an infinitive behind any other verb e.
Like reflexive verbs, the past participle of reciprocal verbs agrees in number and gender with the direct object if it goes before the verb. It therefore agrees with all reciprocal pronouns that function as direct objects. In perfect tenses, these verbs agree with the direct object if it goes before the verb.
Otherwise, the past participle agrees with the subject. Now, the 'ne' sometimes disappears when one speaks. However, it is always used in written French and for formal conversations. To say not , never , or other negative verbs, you have to 'sandwich' the negative words around a verb. Wikipedia has related information at French verbs. French conjugation is the creation of derived forms of a French verb from its principal parts by inflection. French verbs are conventionally divided into three conjugations conjugaisons with the following grouping:.
The first two groups follow a regular conjugation, whereas the third group follows an irregular one. It is noteworthy that the verb aller is the only verb ending in -er belonging to the third group. There are two auxiliary verbs in French: Compound tenses are conjugated with an auxiliary followed by the past participle, ex: The participle is inflected with the use of the verb avoir according to the direct object, but only if the direct object precedes the participle, ex:.
This verb has different stems for different tenses. Although the stem changes, the inflections of these tenses are as a regular -oir verb. However, in the simple present, not only are there stem changes, but the inflections are irregular as well:. Besides using avoir affirmatively. You can also use it interrogatively. A small complication arises, in that without some help, the result does not sound very good.
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The use of an euphonic pleasing to the ear is used with vowels before the pronoun. Thus, the letter -t- is placed between the verb and the pronoun:. These are all pronounced differently: French verbs ending in -er, which comprise the largest class, inflect somewhat differently than other verbs.
In addition, the orthographic -t found in the -ir and -re verbs in the singular of the simple present and past is not found in this conjugation, so that the final consonants are -, -s, - rather than -s, -s, -t. Hais is as usual used for the imperative.
The verbs dormir, mentir, partir, sentir, servir and their derivatives do not take the -iss- infix. The effect of this is that they conjugate as -re verbs rather than -ir verbs, apart from the past participle which is still -i. Sortir and its derivatives are similar in their usual meanings of "to go out" etc. Partir serves as an example:. The verbs couvrir, offrir, ouvrir, souffrir and their derivatives are similar, but orthographically they differ slightly: In addition, their past participles end in -ert.
Ouvrir will serve as an example:. The common verbs venir "to come" and tenir "to hold", as well as their derivatives,  change their stem vowel to a diphthong or nasal in much of their conjugations. Venir will serve as an example; for tenir, simply change the v to a t. Verbs ending in -oir tend to have stem changes, which makes them more irregular than the other conjugations. Many have stems ending in -v, which drops before a consonant or the vowel u. Others have stems ending in -l, which undergoes changes similar to the plural of French nouns ending in -l.
The usage of puis in other cases is mannered. Orthographically, the -re verbs have the inflectional endings of the -ir verbs singular -s, -s, -t in the simple present and past. However, unlike the -ir verbs, there is no suffix -iss- between the root and the inflection, except in the past subjunctive, which is identical to the -ir verbs. The verb aller "to go" has the unique quality of having a first group ending with an irregular conjugation.