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Once a year, the gentle form of this fierce feline goddess was feasted in Bubastis and, although Herodotus said that people revelled with wine II, 60 , the fact that he erroneously said elsewhere that there was no wine in Egypt II, 77 indicates that he probably meant any intoxicating drink, wine being nearer to his Greek heart than beer.

The general character of these celebrations is fairly well known. But there were, besides Hathor-Sekhmet, other goddesses of beer, like MnqJ whose name could well have been a pun on, or a deification of, the mnqJ f vs where beer was stored, and Tnmy. If a man dreamt of beer, the omen varied with the kind of beer and the dream context.

It was of good augury to dream of drinking sweet beer: On the othei hand, to drive away evil dreams, the face of the dreamer had to be rubbed with herbs moistened with beer while uttering a spell Gardiner, , p. Egypt Beer was thus, in Greek opinion, the originator of beer, although the Sumcro- Akkadians, another agricultural people who prepared it since the dawn of history, may share the claim. One may even surmise that its invention came as a result of the accidental discovery in household bakeries of the euphoria experienced after consuming cereals prepared to make gruels or bread, when left to ferment.

Hebrew laham, bread to indicate brewing, and by the constant association of baking and brewing in Egyptian art. The divinities presiding over it were goddesses, and girls and maids arc prominent in the processes of kneading, sieving and actual brewing, as represented in tomb art. Prehistoric jars examined by Petrie , p. Social Standing Beer, however, was the usual drink of commoners, while wane w'as the beverage of the rich. Athenaeus indicated this difference in the tale of Food: B j This distinction may be the reason why, in Egypt, less is known about beer than about wine, since the customs and food habits of the poor were less carefully recorded by the chroniclers than those of the rich.

The Greek and Roman traxTllers equated beer with poverty, while they, themselves, understood and appreciated wine. Even Aristotle is credited with a discriminatory comment 'Alen who have been intoxicated with wine fall down face foremost, whereas they who have drunk barley beer lie outstretched on their backs; for wine makes one top-heavy, but beer stupefies.

But the extensive lists of oflerings and donations that have survived, do not bear this out.

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In fact, Diodorus acknowledged the pleasant taste of the drink made from barley that, he said, "For smell and sweetness is not much inferior to wine. Beer was thus next in preference to water, the popular beverage par excellence. An even more striking custom was the common use of the greeting formula "'bread and beer'' Montet, , p. Beer recurs in each of the tales told and retold around Ancient Egyptian hearths, and copied and recopied by successive generations of scribes.

Wine is mentioned only in the Adventures of Sinouhe and then when the hero was in Asia ' Lefebvre, , p.

Food: the gift of Osiris - v.

The universal popularity of beer as a general bexerage, even in preference to water, may in part be explained by the state of sanitation that made water, usually contaminated, a risky drink until the last century. A proper perspectix e is gix en to this problem by the care gixxn by old authors, like Hippocrates, to correlate xvater, along xvith xvinds and other ecological factors, with health, temperament, and disease. The theme of unwholesomeness of xvater recurs again and again in the history of early settlers in the United States, xvhen official reports ascribed sickness to lack of beer and consequent reliance on xvater.

A letter xvritten in says of these sturdy colonists. These traditions serx'cd the country xvcll during the crucial years of friction bctxvcen the rulers and the colonists, when the fear that imported supplies be cut off led to the publication of numerous family recipes; then liome brexving thrixed again, as it did later under the Prohibition.

The Gift of Osiris Method oj Preparation The preparation of beer, as described in late Egyptian documents and in tomb art of all periods, did not materially differ from the methods of preparing present-day booza see below , or its. The basis of all beer production is the fermentation of starch in amylaceous cereals. Grain always contains a small quantity of directly fermentable sugar, but this is inadequate in amount to produce an alcoholic drink.

As starch, itself cannot ferment unless first split into fermentable sugars, it is usually first subjected to malting; i. In modern processes, malt is then heated and dried to stop germination, then boiled with water, strained and inculiated with yeast. In antiquity, however, malt was immediately worked into a dough and processed. In some countries, like China and Japan, starch splitting moulds or other microfiora, either deliberately added onto the brewing mash or growing in it spontaneously, are responsible for the production of alcohol from rice or bran.

This forms the basis of the modern Amylo method of production of alcohol Owen, However, the Egyptians, wittingly or not, relied on malting. Several substances drawn in Egyptian tomb paindngs have been said to represent malt, a substance with which Sumerians are known to have been familiar. Another inscription, in Neferhotep's tomb at Thebes f eighteenth dynasty , indicates the.

Gruss i found material from beer jars, and the residue of mashing from various periods, to consist of grains of Emnier starch, yeasts, moulds and bacteria. The yeast consisted of a previously unknow n species, and was accordingly named Saccharomyces winlocki, after Winlock w'ho provided Food: The Gift of Osiris Fig. L A scene of brewing See Text. In addition, yeast specimens in eighteenth dynasty finds were sufficiently uniform and pure to suggest that pure yeast could be prepared at that time.

In brewing illustrations, Montet , p. In his commentary on the scenes in Ti's tomb he noted two w orkmen pouring something from a small vessel, one into a mould, the other into a differently shaped container 'Fig. Montet, as well as Vandier i , IV, p.

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As mentioned previously, the brewing residues he examined were uniformlv made of Emmer starch. Harris, however, found three specimens from Deir El Medineh to be residues of barley Lucas, , p. Production Methods The actual process, as carried out in the third to fourth centuries a. Though this text stems from a late period, and despite the need for a revision of the existing translation Wild, , p. The Gift of Osiris In one method, barley was first macerated in water for a day, after which it was spread and well aerated.

It was then rc-moistcned, ground, worked into a dough, and yeast was added. When it was judged that fermentation had proceeded sufficiently, the whole mass w'as strained through a ck th or a sieve, and the filtrate recovered. The second method utilized dried bread, soaked in water, and left to ferment in a warm place.

Two men at the otlu'r end of the panel hold pole-like pestles with which they alternately pound grain ; zh. Below him, to his right, a kneading man is kneading into dough a mass o[ t-whj green bread ', possibly malt from the jar above. From left to right, moulds are being heated 'see Cdiapter Breach; a worker is pouring a liejuid or semi-liquid preparation?

An Old Kingdom, limestone model of a perforated basket superimposed on a receiving jar is on view at the Dokki Agricultural Museum, Cairo Fig. As has already been mentioned, two different cereals are used in these operations: The same duality recurs in other tombs, e. In Ken-Amon's Tomb, at Thebes, Wild surmised that the whitish flaky material contained in two baskets in one of the illustrations could well represent malt Fig. One of the baskets is capped by a small pot that could be a measuring vessel. Similar scenes are found in Antefoker's tomb at Thebes, the discussion of which in Chapter 12 stopped at the production of bread.

In the flames i upper left y the dough is soon rough-baked. It is taken out, crumbled into water, and left to ferment. The former operation may be shown in the lowest register, where a man stoops over a mass and works it with his hands. The process of fermentation is left to the onlooker's imagination, unless it be represented by a man with his hand in ajar second from the left who mutteis.

When it is completed, we see the liquor ] eing pressed out of the mass through a fine sieve into a large jar ' se 'ond person from the right below. Dokki Agrirultural Museum, Ckairo. Modern Preparation of Booza The whole process as illustrated above, and as described by Zosimos, in particular the use of two dilfcrent cereal preparations, appears very similar to the preparation of booza.

Booza is also made all over Egypt by Xubians but it is drunk only by the poorer classes. The present-day method of preparation consist first in kneading ground wheat, barley, or other cereal with water and yeast. After a short leavening, this dough is lightly Iraked into thick loaves. Separately, another fraction of wheat is moistened, exposed to air for some time, crushed, and then added to the previously prepared loaves after they have been crumbled. The fermentation is then promoted by the addition of some old booza, Xo llavouring material and no hops are added.

The only ev idence is a difficult passage of Columella which is usually quoted as indicating that lupine, skirret, and the root of an Assyrian plant? This is attested by sevTral documents: The Gift of Osiris In that respect, some brewing scenes described above have received new interpretations. Some see in Antefokcr's illustration Fig. Helck interprets it as a continuation of a process depicted in a bas-relief in the Karlsruhe Museum Wiedemann and Porter, , plate VI. In the latter scene, according to Montet , p.

A man works the mass into small balls which another man puts into a large vessel. I can now make something good out of them. If only I could see them all out, this would be a happy thing to me" and he comments that this part of the scene is not always connected with brewing, which deprives it of a great part of its value.

Petrie Tell el Amarna, , p. In the papyrus Anastasi Xlaminos, , p. As to sgnn, this was, since the New Kingdom, the name of an oil or of a scent, a meaning that it kept in Goptic IV, , '. But Montet , p. That dates were utilized in brewing is, indeed, supported by many documents that enumerate the large quantities delivered to brewers, like the accounting papyrus E. This is made clearer in a tomb at Meir Fig. It has been concluded that the jars, before being filled, had their inner surfaces smeared with clay to ensure their impermeability and possibly to clarify the fermeirted product.

Among these w ere the isolation of a pure strain of yeast by German brewers in the nineteenth century; meclian- ization; the use of steam for heating; pasteurization; and refrigeration. Many of the beers of the Ancients probably resembled those produced at home today widely throughout Africa south of the Sahara.

The Gift of Osiris Other Uses of Beer Cooking Beer seems to have been considered a household and kitchen necessity rather than a superfluous luxury. Theophrastus 4, 8, 12 wrote that malinathalle was boiled in beer to make it sweet and edible. But by far the greatest consumption of beer was for the pleasure and good humour it imparted. But although its mild sedative or euphoric action was recognized, there are reasons to believe that in all these prescriptions it was utilized as a vehicle or base.

These reasons are the large amounts in which it is prescribed, or its prescription without any indication of dosage; its usual mention at the end of the prescription or, less common- ly, at the very beginning; and its frequent occurrence in the part of the prescription connected with dispensing or preparation. Beer was also included in medicines to be chewed, e. It was injected in enemata Eb. A further discussion of the official use of beer will be found in the section dealing with the medicinal uses of wine.

Importation of Beer There was no need to import beer as it was available to the smallest purses, in the most modest households; and cereal was evervwhere abundant. Nevertheless, the papyrus Anastasi contains two references to an imported Kedi beer. This is striking, in view of wdiat must have been an enormous local production.

Beer and the Authorities Several important officials had to deal wdth the administrative and financial problems raised by this imported product. The Gift of Osiris both titles implying the existence of many more subordinate employees. About taxation in Pharaonic Egypt we know little, but under the Ptolemies and the Romans, beer was subjected to producer taxes paid in copper see also Hunt, SF. Most of our knowledge of the ancient origins of vine growing and of wine production in Egypt represents Greek and Roman interpretative thought rather than true Egyptian mythology or history.

Indeed, botanists are not certain where the vine Idtis vinifera originated, though some believe that this was in southern Russia in the mountainous vicinity of the Black and Caspian Seas Candolle, , pp. The Biblical account of Noah Genesis, 8, 4 situates the point where the ark came to rest not far from that region, on the mountains of Ararat, traditionally located in eastern Turkey formerly Armenia. It was presumably there that. Xoah began to be an husbandman, and he planted a vineyard: The Gift of Osiris the district of original vine cultivation.

Nevertheless, there are many other conllicting statements. But, though this site has not been located with absolute certainty, the reference moves one to investigate more thorough- ly the mythologic history of the vine and wine in Egypt. Aloreover, the possibility of a southern route of introduction of the vine into the Nile Valley cannot be ignored. Grapes have been en- countered in Nubia and Central Afiica by several explorers. It is, therefore, the more to be regretted that excavation in the vicinity of the Nile in Nubia has become impossible now that these localities have been submerged by the waters of the High Aswan dam.

The main leitmotiv of Egyptian mythology centred round 0,siris as the good and benevolent god who taught his people agriculture, and the production of grain and grapes. Much later, Greek tradition equated him with Dionysus, and asserted that the rather uninhibited festivities of Dionx sus worsliip, the Dionysia or Bacchanalia, had been introduced into Greece by the Egyptian king Danaus. Where did you get this purple water, my friend? Wherever did you find blood so sweet. Ehe statements of Herodotus and Plutarch as to Egyptian ignorance of wine are, however, some of those blatant mistakes of Greek authors which remain incomprehensible.

Psammetik, howxwer, ruled approxi- mately twenty-five centuries after the first appearance of the wine-press as a hieroglyph and the introduction of Osirian beliefs into Egyptian religious thought. Plutarch apparently used as his authority the Greek traveller and historian, Eudoxus of Cnidus not to be confused with Eudoxus of Cyzicus w ho failed in his attempted circumnavigation of Africa, c. This Eudoxus is knowm to have lived in Egypt Food: This was true also of Plutarch years after Eudoxus: When the turn of the last in line came, this prince, finding himself denied the honour of oflering his liba- tion, spontaneously offered his bronze helmet and thus fulfilled the prophecy of the oracle.

Diodorus 1, 66, dismissed this story as a fabrication of Herodotus. He believed Psammetik to have been a merchant who aroused the envy of the eleven other princes by acquiring near the sea large tracks of land that enabled him to carry on extensive trade with Phoenicia and Greece and, thereby, amass great riches. But, once upon a time, when some men were drinking at the sea-shore, a rain-storm fell upon them and broke up the party, but filled up the bowl, which still had a little wine left in it. After the weather cleared they returned to the same place and tasting the mixture of wine and water, they found pleasant and painless enjoyment.

For this reason, when the unmixed wine is poured during the dinner, the Greeks call upon the name of the Good Divinity, doing honour to the Divinity who discovered the vine. There still live many heirs to these fabulous creations of the human mind. History and Production Techniques As early as the first dynasty, wTitten records distinc tly specified wane and associated it with Horns.

The first Pharaoh of that dynasty. Zoser tliird dynasty'; called it Food: Tomb illustrations add to this evidence another dimension. Lutz, himself, was not expressly firm on this point. One wonders where he obtained his unfounded information. Along with this lack of certainty in the evaluation of the colour of grapes, a similar uncertainty exists as to the colour of wines. It may be argued also that New Kingdom paintings vividly show a dark red juice pouring out of the treading vats.

Such representations, however, need not be true to life, since the juice even of purple grapes is usually colourless. But as the colour of red wine is derived from the grape skins from which it is extracted by the alcohol produced by fermentation, the yield of the treading vat may be coloured if ferment- ation has sufficiently proceeded during the early stages, which is quite possible in hot weather.

The first mention of colour as colour is the second to third century A. The wine made from them is excellent; it is white and pleasant, fragrant, easily assimilated, thin, does not go to the head, and is diuretic. The harvested grapes were transferred in baskets to the treading vats, of which no specimen has survived, although they are abundantly illustrated. The fact that no vat has been found indicates that no religious meaning was attached to them, in spite of the Osirian con- nections of wine. It has also raised the possibility that they were temporary constructions of wood, and Lutz , p.

The Gift of Osiris delivered in one year jars of good wine, and 50 of medium quality Posener, , p. The grapes were then squeezed by treading, as is still done in some small wineries in Europe. In some illustrations, the treaders are shown maintaining their balance while treading the slippery must by holding onto ropes hanging from the ceiling or from a cross-beam that forms a frame with two vertical poles attached at each end of the vat Fig.

The treaders then went merrily round and round accompanied by music and the clapping of the onlookers. Regarding the treading method of pressing grapes, it has been commented that, because it does not crush the skins and seeds, it is less likely than the modern mechanical press to release undesirable astringent matter. In Greek times, the hiring of workmen and musicians was a business of middlemen. A contract dated a. After treading, the lees were transferred to a cloth bag for further squeezing.

In one technique, one end of the bag was tied to a fixed support, and the other end was fixed to a pole which was twisted bv several men Fig. In between the two groups, a fellow w'as busy with hands and feet keeping the poles apart. The artist, no doubt a humorist, often added a note of his own.

We do not know' whether the products of treading and of squeezing wxre mixed, or whether they were allowed to ferment separatelv Wine [Part I producing wines of different qualities, the second carrying with it colouring and other matter from the grains, seeds and stalks. These are depicted only in tombs to the north of the Theban neciopolis. He prudently draws no con- clusions. Further excavations may indeed reveal such scenes, although their absence hitherto allows speculation as to the quality of Thebaid wines. The expressed juice was then strained through cloth into fermentation jars.

In some cases, the process was quickened by warming; and when it was over, the product was decanted or siphoned Fig. This is not surprising, for their extensive forests provided the Greeks with the pitch necessary for this procedure, whereas Egypt was not blessed with any such reserves. For coating beer jars see p. Finally, when fermentation was over, the wine vessels were sealed with opercula of straw and clay Fig. In many of the jars, safety holes were drilled either in the stopper caps or in the necks, to prevent bursting by accumulation of gases.

These were plugged with straw or wax Lucas, , p. At some stage in the final processing, wine was tasted and its quality After Caillaud , Darby collection F,g. Mixing wines by syphoning them into a cup. The elaborate decoration of the stand suggests that the mixing was carried out in a banquet hall. Reproduced from Erman and Kankc Z. To the ka of the herald Antef as a gift of Rnwt. If this interpretation be correct, it supports the view' that tlie jars were not internally coated.

A contract dated to the Roman Period, a. Most wanes were consumed locally, although we shall meet with evidence that wines of quality were transported. Little is knowai concerning transport of this fragile merchandise, but tomb reliefs depii't the movement of huge wine jars on sleds, w ith workmen pouring lic uicl in front of the skids to reduce friction, as well as tlieir storage in cellars. One of these illustrations 'Fig, 2. The products of Buto ofWrabia, of the oasis of Farafra as well as the country oi' Knm [? One of the wine jars found in the tomb of 1 ut-ankh-Amon.

Note the seal ot the pharaoh impiinted on the lid. When they arrive opposite any of the towns upon the banks of the stream, they approach the shore, and. More grape-wane is consumed at this festival than in all the rest of the year besides. The number of those w ho attend, counting only the men and women and omitting the children, amounts, according to the native reports, to seven hundred thousand.

He described the magnificent spectacle celebrated in honour of the god Dionysus at the stadium of Alexandria. The date of this celebration cannot be fixed with certainty; but it occurred during the reign of King Ptolemy Philadelphus and cannot, therefore, be considered purely Egyptian. The following extracts from this very lengthy passage in w'hich Athenaeus melted his memories with iii! The Gift of 0 si is Even if Callixcinus was prone to exaggerate, and there are arguments both for and against this point, this festival offered by Ptolemy Philadel- phus to the citizens of fair Alexandria must have been one of the most exotic and spectacular ever witnessed by man.

Sacrifice Pouring wine on libations has always been part of religious ritual in the East. Although the description given by Herodotus II, 39; of the use of wine during sacrificial offerings of animals is late, it was true, as attested by sacrificial scenes, of all periods.

King Sesostris II if, B. He considered this gift significant since, in a comparative time, the precious kings of Egypt had offered onlv 2, jars of wine to the temples of Heliopolis, and a mere jars to those at Memphis I'A. In respect to the non-ritual consumption of wine by Egyptian priests, Herodotus HI, 37 noted that priests were given a daily allotment of wine with their food. The Gift of Osiris Such abstinence among priests appears, however, to have been a regulation of only the Hcliopolitan order.

They have many periods of holy living when wine is prohibited and in these they spend their time exclusively in studying, learning, and teaching religious matters. Over one hundred years after Plutarch, Porphyry of Tyre, on the authority of Chaeremon of Gyrene, confirmed the moderation or ai stemicnce of priests. In the medical papyri, wine is frequently listed, though less commonly than beer, possibly on account of its higher cost, or its more powerful effects.

But it was relatively given more frequently internallv. Externally, lees were the usual medium, as in Eh. Idle use of Ices was also possibly a function of cost, but it limited this medicine to the vining season. In that respect, the Berlin papyrus differed in that it ahvays mentions for external application wine, never dregs see von Deines and Grapow', , Vol. The Gift of Osiris although a rubefacient action was certainly achieved. It was prescribed for oral use in many ways: This mixture was prescribed for the mysterious illness, wkdw, for which no better translation than ''materia peccans" has yet been found.

For anorexia, out of ten prescriptions in the Ebers papyrus [Eb.. LI, , three contain wine alone, one beer and wine, and four only beer. Some medicated wines were specificallv used to ease childbirth, like XCIV, and wh ich wTre supposed to "loosen the child in the belly of the woman". Such preparations recall the aiiortifficient wines mentioned by the Greeks. But of all Egyptian wines the Thebaid ones were the most appreciated for hygienic reasons.

Fashionable physicians, however, prescribed foreign wines to their wealthy clients. Apollodorus lecommended to Ptolemy Pontine and Prepart hian wines as being more uirative than Egyptian ones! In antiquity, as today, wine was principally a source of pleasure. A parallel situation prevailed in Rome around H9 B. The Gift of Osiris at banquets. Pliny further added, on behalf of Marcus V'arro, that. Athenaeus 1, 34, B wrote that beer was in fact invented to help those who could not afford wine.

This statement, of course, is legend: It would appear, therefore, that when Diodorus Siculus 1, 36, 6 wrote. One ethnic minority, however, did enjoy the vine. It is no place of seed, nor of figs, or of vines. But whereas it was realized that the company of Dionysus brings pleasure to those who practise moderation, the disasters it brings to others wxre painfully appreciated. Eubulus c, b. When this bowl is drunk up, wise guests go home.

The fourth bowl is ours no longer, but belongs to violence; the fifth to uproar, the sixth to drunken revel, the seventh to black eyes, the eighth is the policeman's, the ninth belongs to biliousness, and the tenth to madness and hurling the furniture. When the vine grew and put forth its leaves Satan came again and killed an ape over it, and the vine drank the blood of the ape also.

When grapes first formed on the vine he killed a lion over it, and the vine drank up the blood of the lion. When the fruit was fully ripe Satan came again once more and killed a pig over it, and the vine drank up that blood also. When he first tastes the wine, and it begins to crawl in his limbs, the color blooms in his face, and he becomes gay as a peacock. When the first signs of drunkenness come upon him he plays, claps hands, and dances like an ape.

When the wine grows stronger within him he grows violent like the lion, and challenges every one else. At last he wallows like a pig in the mire, desiring only to sleep, and his strength is gone. In contrast to this moderation, and apart from the possibly ritual drinking of some pharaohs Chapter 13, pp. The Gift of Osiris Although this accusation may be a later fabrication, Mycerinus was the first king of Egypt to be accused of exceeding the limits of propriety.

According to further tales he wais not the last. Of all the kings of Egypt discussed by Herodotus, the one he least admired was Amasis ic. Such too is the nature of men He lived in constant feasts and revelries, and whenever his means failed him, he roamed about and robljcd people. Philip, Alexander's father was another drink-lover. Philip was a madcap and inclined to rush headlong into danger, partly by nature and partly because of drink; for he was a deep drinker, and w as often drunk when he sallied into battle. Among Egyptians, also, every kind of symposium was conducted with moderation in ancient times — for they sat as they dined, making use of the simplest and most healthful food, and drinking only so much wine as would be sufficient to promote good cheer.

In the List action oj Ka-Gem-Xi, believed to have been composed under the third dynasty, though most extant copies date to the Middle Kingdom as products of constant re-copy and study by generations of Egyptian scribes, a passage prescribes the proper behaviour of guests.

Thou speakest, and an unintelligible utterance issueth from thy mouth. If thou fallest down and thy limbs break there is no one to hold out a hand to thee. If there cometh one to seek thee in order to question thee, thou art found lying on the ground and thou art like a child. In a banquet, amid scenes of the usual polite behaviour, an almond-eyed beauty, her stomach overwhelmed with the festivities, turns away from the table in need of assistance; but the serving maid unfortunately arrives too late Food: The Gift of Osins to aid her mistress, giving the unknown proletarian artist whose brush captured this embarrassing moment, an opportunity to illustrate that the nobility were no better than he Fig.

A helping servant offers encouragement. I am not going to leave von. The final outcome may be the subject-mattei of a scene in the tomb of Khety at Beni Hassan, i eleventh dynasty, r. Xew berry and Fraser , pp. But it would appear equally possible, if not indeed probable, that the bearers were supporting one of their number who had passed out from drinking. Indeed, Lutz i, p.

But as all members of the group are identical in size and dress, they should according to Egyptian canons rather be regarded as his peers. The entertainers of these merry gatherings were of course the rnosl prone to habitual excess. I cannot bring the harp in order to chant without having drink [and eaten fiom the Jar. The musician leaves the hosts aghast at his capacity for food.

Sick lady at banquet. Guests carried away at banquets. Other harpists, too, wcie the butt of literary jokes. Avicenna, whose drinking habits are well-known, wrote. For this conduces to drinking more wine. In some instances, in the Late Dynastic Period, the banquet concluded with a macabre scene that symbolized the frailty of man.

Let us eat and drink, for to-inorrow' we die. But basic attitudes w'cre not dissimilar. Tomb of Petosiiis iLefebvie, Throuofhout Dynastic and Ptolemaic history, there is no indication of O any social taboo against wine drinking by Egyptian women. This is made of raisins, and when drunk, it Food: The Gift of Osiris tastes like the sweet wine of Acgosthcna or like the Cretan; hence they use it to counteract the urgency of thirst.

At Rome women w'ere not allowed to drink. Among various instances w'e find that the wife of Egnatius Mactennus w'as clubbed to death by her husband for dinking wine from the vat, and that Romulus acquitted him All these accounts, how ever, are w arped by the fact that the moderate users of wine were overshadow ed by their more boisterous counterparts w ho added colour to history. Reliefs from temples of that period at Edfu and Esna indicate a permissive attitude.

In the beautiful reliefs of everyday life that may be seen in the tomb of Petosiris at Tuna-el-Gabel Tigs To say nothing of the guests, who thus dine in complete embarrassment ; if the occasion happens to be a religious festival, even the god wall cover his face and depart, abandoning nf t only the house but also the entire city. Such immoderates, well illustrated in Bacchic scenes of the Graeco- Roman period Fig. In this letter, Cyprian wrote lengthily to a bishop condemning an abuse that was introduced during the persecutions. This was the use of milk instead of wine in Hoh' Communion.

As Mass was celebrated in the morning, the condemned bishop had tried thereby to avoid betraving the participants bv their smell. Among other prescriptions, Cyprian added that water should be added to mark the union of C. Wine [ Part I Nowadays, Eastern Churches prefer red wine, because it is closer to the blood into which it is said to be transmuted bv consecration, whereas W ester n Churches prefer the less messy and cleaner white wines that better symbolize the holiness and splendour of the sacrifice Fons onmis sanctitatis et mtoris.

W ine is used too in other parts of the liturgy, for example, in washing the Chalice, in priestly ablutions, and in the consecration of bells, altars and churxhes. Its historical connection with and importance to the unrxformed churches has been such that the flourishing of wine and vining in Catholic countries, as opposed to beer in reformed churches, has been attributed to these liturgical and monachal activities. In the sense of diluted, i. During the reign of Zaleucus, King of Locria, a severe penalty was decreed against that custom.

It is interesting to compare this belief with the opinions of Aristotle and Avicenna. NIacpdzi wrote in the fourteenth century a. Originally, it was a fresh water lake on whose shores all kinds of fruit grew Maqrizi, Gh. On the 12th April, , Sir John Hely-Hutchinson, the British General w4io was besieging the town, let in seawater to cut off the water supply and stop the besieged 's retreat, creating the weedy salt-swamp utilized nowadays as a saline.

Many an old legend surrounds this area of silence and mirage. One attributes it to the punishment of Hatass ', a rich but mean lady w ho lived in that region and refused, one stormy night, to give shelter to a holy man. The storm was raging; her neighbour, a poor but kind woman by the name of Xeferu welcomed the harassed traveller who next morning blessed Food: It drowned her garden, and ended by forming the lake 3.

In some figures, vines appear to bear gtnirds. The eoiKjueiiug army of Alexander the Great has been estimated at a mere 30,00 1 soldieis. This statement should also he considered in the light of the statement of the same Herodotus TI, 77' that nr wines wc're I'ound in Egypt. Amerine personal communication, 19 8i ofiert'd several enlightening criticisms of this passage- Moreover, how could leopard skills be stitched watertight? Basing himself on the value of the Sterling Pound, and on its relative purchase power. Gulick P 28, Yol.

O'his appears also in Herodotus: Young adults should take ii in moderation. Among the [leople of Massilia. Fw o Egvptian oases: Chapter 15 Wine Part II 'How much more ingenious, howeveu man has been in respect of di ink will be made clear by the fact that he has devised kinds of beverages or.

Food : the gift of Osiris

It must be noted, however, that most of our information comes from Greek authors writing at the beginning of our era, and that their reports, at times, may not apply to the Dynastic Period proper. The Gift of Osiris inclusive. The following are some of the appellations found in the litera- ture, arranged in alphabetic order. According to Brugsch i 1 , p. The close resemblance of this name to those of the villages of Hmt and Imt in the Delta, where wane also was produced, poses further questions of identification.

At present, it is safer to note these problems, and to wait for their solution. Neither of these two regions has yet been identified, and the above-noted resemblance with Amt must be taken into a 'rount. Imt Iml wine is mentioned in scv'cral texts e. Petrie located a town called Amt at the modern village of Nebeshch close to Tanis. It is possible that Imt and Hamel were identical, although Kees , p. Mareotic Wine This wine, also called Alexandrian, was one of the most appreciated Athenaeus, l,33,D-E , and Strabo praised it as highly as did Athenaeus.

This is difficult to accept unless he meant that Alexandria Food: The Gift of Osiris wines were a variety of the Mareotic, or that some vineyards to the north of Lake Alareotis, west of Alexandria, had their natural market in that town. It is also tempting to equate the fine Mareotic wines with the so commonly mentioned wines-of-the-iiorthern country.

Another vintage, the nhhjiw of the Pyramid Texts was believed by Lutz , pp. These 2 locations in Tasmania: These 4 locations in Victoria: Open to the public ; held Book; Illustrated English Show 0 more libraries These 2 locations in Western Australia: None of your libraries hold this item.

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The University of Melbourne. English View all editions and formats Summary: Illustrated history of the history of nutrition in ancient Egypt. Allow this favorite library to be seen by others Keep this favorite library private. Find a copy in the library Finding libraries that hold this item William Jefferson , Food.

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