Covers in popular music appear as a new way of questioning copyright and media strategies within cultural industries. This issue also diggs into intertextuality and how it feeds covers. According to other approaches, they become a temporal locomotive that reveal, through their genealogies, the cultural transformations of our societies. Far from being the simple repetition of a preexisting work, the cover version becomes, in this issue of Volume!
May 15, Publication Name: Music and Culture on the Edge, Oxford, Berg.
A variety of articles that tackle questions of politics, gender, youth, identity… by an international crew of A variety of articles that tackle questions of politics, gender, youth, identity… by an international crew of researchers from various fields of research. Sevin eds , The French journal of popular music studies. The contributors are researchers who aren't fully involved in this environment, who work in disciplinary fields that are rarely mobilized, or on objects that do not coincide with the usual questions of a sector that is mostly attached to the construction of its representation, as well as to the definition of the public policy it benefits from.
Rotten par Lydon, Paris, Camion blanc, p. Uses of reflexivity in cultural sociology" issue more. On a few recent publications - Alain-Philippe Durand ed. The French journal of popular music studies and Jean-Marie Seca. The French journal of popular music studies , Francois Ribac , and jean-marc Leveratto. With Elsa Grassy ed.
Selected proceedings of the Strasbourg conference. To be published in November All texts now online here: Recent developments in sociological theory complicate and problematize theories developed in the s, with digital technology, for example, providing an impetus for new understandings of counterculture. Music played a significant part in the way that the counterculture authored space in relation to articulations of community by providing a shared sense of collective identity.
Not least, the heady mixture of genres provided a socio-cultural-political backdrop for distinctive musical practices and innovations which, in relation to counterculture ideology, provided a rich experiential setting in which different groups defined their relationship both to the local and international dimensions of the movement, so providing a sense of locality, community and collective identity. Musiques populaires et logiques industrielles Jeremy Deller: Culture populaire et innovation musicale: Industrial Music by Industrial People: The French journal of popular music studies and Anne Petiau.
Nov 6, Publication Name: Fabien Hein, "Le monde du rock.
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Fabien Hein, "Hard rock, heavy metal, metal. Histoire, culture et pratiquants" more. Emmanuel Grynszpan, "Bruyante techno. The French journal of popular music studies and Emmanuel Grynszpan. An excerpt is freely downloadable here: Vibrations was the first French journal of popular music studies Vibrations was the first French journal of popular music studies.
The French journal of popular music studies , and Antoine Hennion. L'emploi permanent dans les lieux de musiques actuelles more. Actions culturelles et musiques actuelles. Cultural Policy and Popular Music. La diffusion dans les lieux de musiques actuelles Analyse statistique et territoriale sur la saison more. Mais le texte de met en avant plusieurs dimensions: Economics and Popular Music.
Within that time span, academic research and events dedicated to metal studies books, scholarly journal issues, conferences, and workshops have multiplied all around the globe — a process confirmed by the creation in of Metal Music Studies Intellect Books , an interdisciplinary research journal. Following the United States, Finland and Canada, France will thus be hosting the edition of this reference metal studies conference. After years of prosperous research and study, and six years after the birth of the ISMMS, the time has come to review knowledge on metal music and culture.
Locations and positions can be understood in the proper sense, that of the geography, the territories or the physical spaces and places of metal practices, communities and scenes, as well as in the figurative sense, as social space. Perspectives francophones sur les musiques hip-hop more. Rock and Violence is an international conference that will examine a growing issue for historians, specialists in youth movements, musicologists, sociologists, and performing arts professionals. This event is the first of two conferences, the second of which will take place in under the sponsorship of the History department at California State University, Long Beach United States.
The first component, at Rouen June , concentrates on Europe, while the second part, on the same theme, will focus on the situation in the Americas. The purpose of these two events is to gain an understanding of the place of rock in contemporary culture and to define its significance and impact in our societies. From this starting point, the conferences will also endeavor to consider the part of legend that encompasses the myth of rock music. The association between rock and violence, however fantastical and artificially constructed, is a given which has penetrated the music's history during the second part of the twentieth century; in some ways, the recent dramatic events at the Bataclan have highlighted this in an extremely tragic manner.
Watching music - Music Video Cultures more. Comment envisager les rapports entre musiques et images?
Quels sont les publics du clip? Que nous apprennent-ils sur les processus de construction identitaire contemporains? Popular Music and Video Analysis. Philosophie des cultures populaires: The French journal of popular music studies , anthony pecqueux , and Pauline Nadrigny. La revue des musiques populaires Philosophie des cultures populaires: Oct 18, Conference Start Date: Philosophy , Aesthetics , and Popular Music.
The symbolic practices through which subcultures state and reinforce identities have been widely documented mainly in the field of Cultural, Gender and Postcolonial Studies , as has the increasingly political and revolutionary dimensions of popular music. Yet little has been written about how the politics of popular music has reflected the social, geopolitical and technological changes of the late 20th and early 21st centuries, after the fall of Communism. Still, the music of the Arab Spring or of the Occupy and Indignados movements have been scarcely commented upon while they attest to significant changes in the way music is used by activists and revolutionaries today.
This international conference therefore aims to explore the new political meanings and practices of music and to provide an impetus for their study.
Broadly the themes of the conference are divided into five main streams: Music as a Political Weapon The history of popular music cannot be divorced from that of social, cultural and political movements, and yet the question remains: It is not clear what role music plays in the struggle for political, ideological and social change. While musical practices and the writing of songs can strengthen existing activist groups, can it also truly change minds or upset the established order and destabilize it? If there are such things as soundtracks for rebellions and revolutions, do they merely accompany fights or can they quicken the pace and bring about change themselves?
Popular music artists and whole genres can refuse to meddle in politics — and the non-referentiality of music makes it an ill-suited medium for the diffusion of clean-cut messages. It would therefore be ill-advised to consider popular music genres and artists as falling either into the political or apolitical categories. Music can also be violent in less political ways, and even carry nihilistic undertones — it can ignore or even mock its own alleged political power.
This should lead us to a re-evaluation of subcultural politics.
Political Change, Musical Revolution? The Question of Artistic Legacy The musical styles that accompany social and political change are part of a musical continuum. This prompts the question of originality and relation to tradition. Has the new historical context shaken up the old codes for protest music? What are the new politically conscious forms and genres of today, and how do they relate to older protest movements?
The covering of songs from the Civil Rights era and the Great Depression in the aftermath of Katrina and the participation of singers from the s counterculture in the Occupy Wall Street movement raises the issue of correspondences between groups of artists and activists. We will also look at how contemporary movements connect with one another. Can it be said that protest music is globalized today? Music, Identity and Nationalism Popular music has a hand in the building and solidification of sub cultural communities. Songs have expressed the emergence of new group identities in fall of Communism, the breakup of Yugoslavia and during other political schisms in Latin American countries more recently.
People sing and play the old regimes away, or they use music to connect with fellow migrants or refugees in an upset political landscape.
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Songs serve as a bridge between past and present by pairing traditional patterns to new instruments, new technology, and new media — by associating nostalgia with the wish for change. They can also smooth out the transition to a new life and a new identity as individuals and groups assimilate into another culture. Reversely, they can reflect new cultural antagonisms and class conflicts and follow the radicalization of group identities.
In the Balkans, Eastern Europe and Russia, nationalist movements have their own anthems, too. Aesthetics, digital practices and political significations The increased use of computing technology in musical practices as well as the advent of social networks has opened new aesthetic vistas with the increasing use of sampling, mashups, or shreds , as well as changed the way music is shared, advertised and composed. The problem for the composer is that the elusive character of the medium opens for tampering with his message, not least by those who think of music as primarily a performing art.
To others, especially composers, music as sound is not the end of the story, it is just a container, a means of transportation meant to hold and protect its fragile structure of meaning. Under the dotted line: Understanding this part of the process is crucial for the conductor in his aim to identify the musical intention of the composer. This is also where the relationship between conductor and musicians is defined. Every conductor-ensemble constellation is unique in this respect, and in a given constellation it even differs from piece to piece, dependent on e.
Likewise, the perception of a music semantic unit depends on a host of possible technical variations in the way the sound is produced, and in order to obtain the expression he has planned, the conductor must select, provide or complete this information, which is not necessarily present in the score and the parts but nevertheless necessary for the musicians. To a certain extent one might say that this completion and selection forms his interpretation of a piece, 5 and this aspect accounts for a great deal of the above-mentioned differences.
But every orchestra and choir is different, as is the concert hall or church acoustically with and without audience. Like every other musician, the conductor gets excited and even spontaneously develops new musical ideas during the performance. Hence, what he and the ensemble rehearses must be changeable to a certain extent in order to allow an artistic optimum to be reached in the acoustically and spiritually new environment of every performance. A Bach-score has much less printed information than a score by G. Strauss or a contemporary composer.
This does not necessarily mean that the number of parameters is smaller in early music, just that the composer used to be there and provide the information directly as a leader or a soloist.
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Sometimes the conductor choses to accept a less-than-ideal but — with the given resources — feasible version or to go with the tradition of the house and the orchestra. Their main topics are usually: Apart from the obviously interesting examination of what we are saying, this also influences how we should say it, i. The members often have different national and social backgrounds; they differ in gender, age, education and cultural breeding, thus representing many phenotypes, from almost purely motorical talents to music theoretical geniuses — and every thinkable type in between.
Also the instrumental registers — the violins, the brass section, the soprano group etc. An example might help to understand what they mean: I just say that it must somehow be played indirectly. In a rehearsal I once said: You meet a friend in the street and say: There, and now you play the waltz. Correct agogic can be explained in a couple of seconds by showing the six waltzing steps meant to accompany the music. This again could easily be transformed into conducting movements with three uneven beats — or less than three beats with differing movement quality through the trajectories.
A third possibility could be to verbally describe the timing of the beats, i. Professional musicians are trained to deal with this kind of interjected academic approach. Does it tell the musicians that they have to play the second beat early and the third beat late — when to do this and when not to? Who is going to put this into action and after how many attempts? In which position does the process following the explanation place the conductor as a leader?
And as the triangle above Fig. Musical meaning is carried by means of sound itself in a function of time. This a matter of pure physics, and all desired musical information must be contained in the — measurable and recordable — sound parameters in the room. Conductor and ensemble must — obviously — convey musical meaning to the audience without the use of words. Hence a non-verbal form of rendering must establish itself during the rehearsals, enabling an audience to understand through sound without further explanation.
They are all symbolic and therefore have a restricted paradigmatic and syntagmatic unfolding, and the range of their signification is bound to their situation of communication, their place, and their time of display. Pointing by finger, hand or gaze is the most common example of a deictic gesture, and probably the most basic case; it is conventional, always situational and intentional — requesting the addressee to pay attention either to what it is pointing towards its object or to how it is pointing to it its manner , and then requiring an action involving object and manner.
Does the responsibility for the realisation of all these parameters lie in the hands of a concertmaster or the single musicians respectively? If so, is the conductor still in full control of his interpretation? And maybe the most important component: Is there no common language, or do they all want something different from the same score?
But even the same piece — e. The conductor wants a different result every time expressing an artistic choice. The conductor wants the same result every time but compensates the fact or probability that ensemble B is different from ensemble A, that the musicians in an ensemble unintentionally play the repetition differently, or that physical conditions — e. The conductor is not conscious about the meaning of his signs, thus cannot repeat his own last version but relies on a mixture of beat patterns and spontaneity, reckoning on the musicians to sort it out.
In the rehearsals, he will have to stop frequently and give verbal correction, but during a concert…. The signs of the conductor in general have marginal or no influence on the way the music is performed. The first and second explanation presuppose that the conductor is conscious about his gestural tools, and that he can alter and calibrate them freely according to the type of information he wants to convey. Even an elementary common terminology is lacking, which makes an academic discourse very difficult. Rather missing is an analysis of the performative and musical implications of the single elements and qualities of conducting gestures and how to master more than very elementary patterns of movement.
Most tutorials restrain completely from illustrations, others depict trajectories for singular measures, so-called conducting or beat patterns, however with no information about the quality and 3-dimensionality of the movements, let alone patterns comprising musical entities longer than one bar. What do I teach my students, then?
Why study this at all? Do I want control? Can I get it? And if so, by means of which parameters? Baton , fingers, hands, arms, face, head and body. The more distant the hands are held from the body, the bigger the effect of the mass with which he influences the sound Archimedes , and the more of the potential energy PE in the system he releases, the louder the resulting sound from the performers. By adjusting the position of the hands, the size, speed and form of the movements, as well as the relative weighting of hand and arm, the conductor can influence most of the parameters making up the composite sound of the ensemble.
If he respects the physical laws of movement and gravity, these purely physical instructions will be understood by musicians and singers in real-time, as they are not subject to interpretation but transferable into playing and singing technique following the same laws. It does however also function between visual objects and musical sounds. Listeners are able to presume the tactile quality of an object judging from the sound it makes. This is the case not only on an elementary level e. As this ana-logical ability seems to be mapped in our brain on a deeper — and quicker — level than are language and other rather slow and culturally dependent interpretive brain processes, a conscious use of these mappings opens the possibility of controlling important sound qualities in real time.
The composer writes a forte for a chord in the score but nothing about the character of this loud sound: Not least because they are active, whether he is involved or not. A string player of course cannot avoid making a choice about any of the categories, just because the conductor does not inform about it. The result could be random — or by contrasting personal choices in a group: Very across-the-board single notes thus compare to letters, motives to words and phrases to sentences.
Phrasing means making these semantic units audible. In music, the comprehension is further complicated by the fact that the listener is very often supposed to hear and understand the expression of several voices simultaneously. Usually the tempo is accelerated through the chosen point of culmination, after which it is relaxed, reaching the basic tempo of the piece at the end of the phrase. The changes in tempo are minimal but nevertheless capable of creating a bow of tension discriminating the given phrase from the next one. If loudness within a phrase is slightly increased until the point of culmination and decreases again, it will help constituting a unity of the notes involved.
The beginning and the end of an event are referred to as onset and offset respectively. The articulation signs accents, slurs, dots etc. Figure 7b shows a tenuto: Figure 7c is a staccato: The last illustration, Figure 7d, pictures accents on every 8 th -note the lower part of this type of accent sign being a transformed tenuto: The accent is an effect of the dynamic difference between offset of the former and onset of the new note. By the use of certain gestures, body-, arm- and hand postures, the conductor can tell the singers and musicians to modify the tone production in a certain way and thus in real-time vary, say, the brightness of the total output or parts of it.
Of course not all instruments can change their configuration. A piano — and in the orchestra: But both string players and many wind instruments can partly chose how much material they will use to produce a certain note. Vocal chords can steplessly change their length and thickness and thus in principle be configured freely, if preferred even without audible transition between registers. The tone production of singers can easily be manipulated by conducting gestures, which is both wonderful and dangerous, as it makes singers and their instrument very vulnerable when confronted with conductors of little vocal expertise or with a poor conducting technique.
A use of this parameter in case of a singer would mean a change of the subglottal pressure, which has implications on other parts of the voice, too, and a string player would in- or decrease the pressure from the bow on the strings.
And — due to the constructing principles of most instruments — for the frequency as well. Pitch is a result of the weight of vibrating mass and the tension in the material.
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Think of a violinist tuning his instrument: He can change the frequency even while playing by drawing or pushing the active string with his left hand fingers, thus achieving an upward glissando because the tension of the string is increased. Wind players use a similar technique: Singers adjust the tension in their vocal folds permanently and steplessly to create any tone. The influence is of course proportional to the freedom of configuration — i.
A standard 4-beat pattern may have this form Fig. As will be shown later the beat is felt at the lowest point of the trajectories. The placement of 2 and 3 is therefore somewhat mysterious, if not misleading. Unfortunately this goes for the design of beat patterns, too. Summing up from more than 30 books on conducting 19 here is a selection: A selection of beat patterns 1: Does it at all matter what we show? Levels of the beating point positions 1, 2 or 3 levels. Form of the trajectories: F orm of lower vertical turning point rounded or pointed. Form of upper vertical turning point rounded or pointed.
As none of the shown beat patterns of the selection equals any of the others in all aspects, the result in this case would be 9 different musical events. However, the sounding phase begins just then and is ringing during the reflex, the resulting sound profile functionally mirroring the reflex through the TP. By carefully forming the reflex , the conductor can influence the length and development of the sound in several ways.
A convex left and a concave right mathematical functio n. As the form itself functionally changes the sound features of the trajectory dramatically, making the right choice here cannot be overestimated: