In March , as the GlobalSecurity organization describes, "an epochal event occurred, hardly creating a ripple in the world press. The Convention is often referred to as the Caldera Convention, after the President of Venezuela, who was one of the driving forces behind it".
This decision was welcomed and supported by all sectors of society, including the Catholic Church, the free press, business sectors and all political parties. Furthermore, Congress was ready to pass an amnesty bill had Caldera refused to pardon the insurgents. Caldera pioneered the introduction of Christian Democracy into Latin America. He explained that Christian Democrats understand democracy in the light of Christian philosophy, and Christianity in its living democratic manifestation.
For Caldera, Christian Democracy was not a middle point between liberalism and socialism. He saw it as a specific political alternative to laissez-faire capitalism and Marxist socialism. Caldera rejected Marxist ideas of dialectical materialism and class struggle, but he was also convinced that Capitalism without social safeguards produces a grossly inequitable society. Caldera published several books and countless booklets and speeches on Christian Democratic ideals, including Ideario: His Especificidad de la Democracia Cristiana Christian Democracy , a handbook of Christian democratic principles and programmatic ideas, has been translated into several languages, including English, German, Portuguese, Italian, Russian, Romanian, and Polish.
In this book, Caldera develops a conception of democracy that integrates personalist, pluralistic, communitarian, participatory and organic dimensions. This understanding of democracy, Caldera explains, rests upon foundational principles of Christian philosophy: Caldera describes the concept of integral human development, the fundamental value of labor, the social function and forms of property, the role of the State in social life, the principle of subsidiarity, the defense of the rights of social groups, and the concept of international social justice.
He viewed these principles as a set of political ideas committed to social justice and inspired by the Catholic social teaching.
In the speech he delivered to the joint session of the US Congress in , he explained:. The rights and the obligations of the different countries should be measured, therefore, in terms of its potential and the needs of each one, making peace, progress, and harmony viable, and making it possible for us all to advance within a true friendship…. The notion of social justice is still confined to the internal order of the individual state.
Sierra Nevada Scrambling - the ridge of Puntal de la Caldera
The idea of social justice which opened the way to one of the most interesting stages of human history gave rise to new branches of law, beginning with labor laws. It transformed archaic juridical systems based upon individualism. It opened roads to the establishment of a new balance and protected the organization of the weak so that they could be on a par, in doing juridical business, with those who had more strength, especially in those things related to economic power. But the victory of social justice is still incomplete, confined to the limits of the domestic law of each country… The obligation of parties in international relations are based on the old laissez-faire underpinning.
Eventually, the term itself was included in official Vatican documents. Pope Paul VI , for instance, in a letter written to the Secretary General of the United Nations, on the occasion of the Extraordinary General Assembly devoted to the study of the problem of raw materials and development, wrote: Despite never having remained longer than one month outside Venezuela, he was fluent in English, French, and Italian, and proficient in German and Portuguese. Throughout his lifetime, Caldera was bestowed with honorary doctorates, degrees, and professorships from a dozen universities and academies in Venezuela, and from thirty universities worldwide, including: The distinction Caldera most cherished, however, was the Honorary Professor award with which his alma mater, Central University of Venezuela, unanimously honored him in In , he was elected to the Venezuelan National Academy of Language.
Bicentenario de su nacimiento" ,  and "Caracas, Londres, Santiago de Chile: Las tres etapas de la vida de Bello" The various texts Caldera devoted to reflections on the intersection between faith and public service are key to understand the spiritual drive behind his unwavering commitment to political and intellectual pursuits. At the conclusion of his presidency, Caldera returned to his home, just as he did at the end of his first term.
He was known for living simply and eschewing luxuries, and for being an honorable public servant in a country where corruption is pervasive. In , Caldera published his last book, De Carabobo a Puntofijo: Any political project that ignores this reality is condemned to failure". They had six children: At the time of his death, the couple had twelve grandchildren and five great-grandchildren. Caldera died a little more than a year after her husband, on 9 February From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
This name uses Spanish naming customs: First Presidency of Rafael Caldera. Second Presidency of Rafael Caldera. English translation by John Street. Conservative representation without conservative parties. En el principio fue la UNE. Linz, and Seymour Martin Lipset eds. Ifedec, , Rafael Caldera - Vatican.
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Refugio Vivac de la Caldera
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Highest roads in Peru. Highest roads in Romania. This is loose as is everything hereabouts! This is the simplest way to the summit but with little scrambling.
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From the col before the large crag the best way trends leftwards up a ramp formed by huge boulders marked red on photo below. This leads to an initial gully which can be climbed rightwards to the ridge crest at grade 3. We kept trending left up rising ground on slabby rock. The ridge crest was regained and we continued to the summit linking as many of the rock outcrops as we could.
Harder options abound if you prefer! The descent of the east ridge to the Collado de Ciervo is easy grade 1. Keep to the ridge crest for maximum enjoyment rather than be tempted to take avoiding action. This is a scramble well worth doing and can be done in a day. From the start of the scrambling Loma Pelada to the end at Collado de Ciervo took us 1.
We took our time, savoring the incredible situations. Please try it out for yourself! In winter this route makes for a superb winter mountaineering climb which we include as part of our Alpine Mountaineering Courses.