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Dokumentations- und Kulturzentrum Deutscher Sinti und Roma Das Programm der Ver- nichtung durch Arbeit. Religious Leaders and the American Eu- genics Movement. Oxford University Press Entwicklungslinien des Antisemitismus, ed. Wolfgang Benz, Werner Bergmann. Deutschland schafft sich ab. Wie wir unser Land aufs Spiel set- zen. Begegnun- gen des Festschrift Germania Judaica —, ed. Bachem Verlag , pp. Hofmann und Campe Nationalsozialismus und Erster Weltkrieg, ed.
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Antisemitism in France at the Time of the Dreyfus-Affair. Associated University Presses Shoah und Porrajmos im Ver- gleich. Antisemitismus und Antiziganismus im Vergleich. Gobineau und der Rassismus. The Idea of English Ethnicity. Das Deutsche Kaiserreich in der Kon- troverse, ed. Der Kolonialkrieg — in Namibia und seine Folgen, ed. Links Verlag , pp. Central European History , 32, pp. Die nationalsozialistische Vernichtungspoli- tik gegen Sinti und Roma. Zigeunerpolitik und Zigeuner- forschung im Europa des The Patriarch of Antisemitism.
Das deutsche Polenbild in der Geschichte. The introduction of the concept of antisemitism into the debate about the so-called Jewish question intended to substitute the religious discourse for a racial one. Yet the racialization of Jew-hatred since the end of the 19th cen- tury created many paradoxes: With hindsight old Jew-hatred looks racist whereas modern antisemitism does not exclude religious beliefs and traditions.
Arabs, in their turn developed their own brand of antisemitism. Surprisingly enough antisemitism and racism became integrated into the attitudes and self-perception of Jews, before and after the Holocaust. Of all sorts of racism antisemitism seems to be singular and of all ob- jects of racism Jews seem to be indeed a very special case.
It is the dynamics of cumulative radicalization us- ing modern methods and modern tools on the way to the most extreme consequences, supposedly rooted in an unparalleled long and continuous historical tradition of anti-Jewish attitudes, which makes this singularity. A reference to this quotation does not necessarily mean that antisemitism as racism must inevitably lead to such extreme results or that it has to be analyzed within the con- text of National Socialism, World War II or even the history of the 20th century only.
As racism in its broader, culturalistic sense, — Fanon distinguished between cultures with or without racism, racism being any attempt at the inferiorization of a group of human beings2 — is not confined to Europe, to the 20th century alone or considered a mere mental disposition, anti- semitism too must be contextualized as broadly as possible. Die elende Praxis der Untersteller all quotations from other than English sources have been translated. Racism, as opposed to race, and not only according to Snyder, became a meaningful concept, and not only in the realm of politics, but also in research: The Idea of Racialism, p.
Race and Race Theory, pp. Rassismus; David Theo Goldberg: That the whole problem of racism is essentially a product of so-called western civilization or the confrontation with that civilization is illus- trated by the historiography of racism in East Asia. The import of antisemitism from Europe to Japan, just to mention one exam- ple of modern racism, originated an approach uncommon to European antisemites: If indeed the Jews are able to rule the world — so the reaction in Japan12 — this talented people must be appreciated, not criticized for it.
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Societies differing in mentality and socialization thus address racism differently. Be it as it may — antisemitism should be understood as one multi- faceted pattern of racism focusing on the alleged contrast between Jews and non-Jews or on the idea of a Jewish danger to non-Jews. Conceptually the analysis of both racism and antisemitism confront us with the same problem — on the one hand we do not accept the notion of race as neutral and matter-of-fact while on the other hand we do not accept the validity and existence of a group called Semites.
In spite of the use of the word antisemitism we still deal with Jews and non-Jews, not with Semites and non-Semites. Race in China, p. The Jews and the Japanese. Between Jew-Hatred and Racism 45 non-Jews does not automatically imply that antisemitism is the only racist way to relate to Jews. George Mosse, a historian so sensitive to myth building, allowed him- self the following remark: Philosemitism may be in principle no less racist than antisemitism. On the other hand, many agree with Han- nah Arendt that antisemitism was the main pillar of fascist propaganda and remains one of the most important principles of fascist political or- ganization.
It is a creation of the late 19th century and its use for describing Jew-hatred or the discriminatory approach to Jews before — the year it was politically used for the first time — is, or may become an anachronism. In the context of this chapter the common inflationary use of the word antisemitism to describe Jew-hatred before may blur the difference between two complexes.
It is one thing to talk about racism and antisemitism and another to do so about racism and traditional Jew-hatred. Only by separating these two complexes from the start we may reach conclusions about the amount of overlap between racism and antisemitism in general, even before , or about the mod- 14 George L.
Im Anfang war Auschwitz. The Seeds of Fascist International. Anti-Semitism and Fascist Propaganda, p. At the end, but not a priori, we may arrive at the conclusion that traditional Jew-hatred was, or could have been, also racist in nature, sometimes even in its argumentation or overt verbal expression. We may also reach the conclusion arrived at al- ready in by Fritz Bernstein in his book about antisemitism as a so- cial phenomenon that the word should be used only because all synonyms are confusing or misleading, while what we have in mind is the negative attitude towards Jews, not Semites, without a reference to the question of racial inferiority.
His personal experience in Central America in the 50s of the 19th century and his interest in the history of the US provided him with ample relevant information. Der Antisemitismus als Gruppenerscheinung. Between Jew-Hatred and Racism 47 The intention behind introducing the new concept was, in fact, polit- ical.
Wilhelm Marr was the founder of a new political party and wanted to make a clear-cut distinction between his new party, based on race the- ory, and the anti-Jewish Christian-Social Party of court chaplain Adolf Stoecker with its religious orientation. Jacob Katz, the most prominent Israeli historian of the 20th century accordingly called his book: Theodor Fritsch, a chief propagator of anti- semitism between and provides us with the following striking example: Anti-Semitism; Karsten Krieger ed.
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Was ist Antisemitismus, p. Here you have my entire confession of faith: It is the mission of the Jew to torment humanity and it is the mission of humanity to trample on the Jews [. Vermin disguised as human beings! It is not surprising that the same mixture dominated by racist vocab- ulary remained typical for turn-of-the-century antisemitism in general.
Muslim — religious Jew-hatred. But, since it is a two-way prob- lem, we should also ask: Is this anti-Jewish tradition not providing us with an explanation for this inconsequent turn to secular, scientific racism?
Even if one clings to the notion of racism by standards set since the end of the 19th century one might find expressions of racism and especially of racist antisemitism long before Accusing the Jews of blood libel or ritual 26 Letter to Wilhelm Marr 8. Two generations of German Antisemitism, p. Between Jew-Hatred and Racism 49 murder as of the 12th century is typical of this kind of racist Jew-hatred.
And there were even more extreme examples. The historian who described this phenomenon did not hesitate to call it medieval antisemitism. Or, to use an elegant statement addressing the American scene: Der vormoderne Antisemitismus, p. The Destruction of the European Jews, introduction. Anti-Semitism in America, p. This is why relating to social discrimination against Jews before the 19th century as racism is, after all, questionable.
By the same token we should not reject the notion of the Enlight- enment as a milestone on the way to racist antisemitism, since it was a milestone on the way to modern racism in general. This was not only the case with Immanuel Kant, but with many key figures of the Enlighten- ment: By introducing a secular set of values into the social and political debate the representatives of the Enlightenment helped introduce not only modern, scientific and racist ideas into the debate concerning human na- ture in general but also into the discussion about the Jews.
Voltaire on the one hand, Fichte38 on the other served as milestones on this road. Antisemitism and National Socialist Racism For an article on antisemitism and racism National Socialism seems to be a clear-cut case of the absolute compatibility of both concepts. Geschichte des Rassismus, p. For a different view see inter alia Wulf D.
Negative Societalisation; see also his essay in this volume. Race and Enlightenment; Klaus L. Between Jew-Hatred and Racism 51 the Jews, leaves antisemitism in both cases as the key word. Moreover, it rediscovered a conceptual difficulty — the al- leged contradiction between the use of the word antisemitism and Nazi underlying racist system. The door to this debate was opened already during the infancy of modern antisemitism. The Jews are a certain small tribe of the Semitic race, not the whole race [.
What is even more paradoxical — this rejection of the word antisemitism by racist Jew-baiters reached its heydays sur- prisingly enough in the Third Reich. Nazi Germany and the Jews, ch. Judas Kampf und Niederlage, p. Handbuch der Judenfrage , p. Therefore the word antisemitism was discredited. Only the word, not the contents: Neither the hatred of the Jew nor the racist approaches were, of course, given up.
Moreover, the assumed will of Zionism to exterminate! Goebbels, Rosenberg, Himmler, all in their turn, discovered the im- passes created by the word antisemitism when confronted with alleged Semites, not only in the Middle East, but in the Soviet Union or in Ger- many. Of course, it was not racism in general or racism directed against Jews that called for reassessment, but only the term antisemitism. Der Staatsfeindliche Zionismus, p. Mohammed als Vorbote der NS Judenpolitik? Handbuch der Judenfrage , pp. Between Jew-Hatred and Racism 53 rejected. Persecution of Jews by Arab Muslims since the Middle Ages was usually less extreme and less frequent compared to Christian Europe since the 11th century.
Only with the emergence of the Jewish state and its wars against the Arab-Muslim world a strong anti-Jewish feeling began to characterize Arab public opinion and politics. At first the idea of call- ing this attitude antisemitism seemed a contradictio in adjecto, as Semites cannot, by definition, be antisemites unless we may call this attitude self- hatred.
Therefore the word Judeophobia was often used instead. Since both Zionism and imperialism are challenges of European ori- gin to the Arabs in the Middle East the use of yet another import from Europe — antisemitism — as an instrument for fighting Zionism or impe- rialism is less paradox. No less an expert than Bernard Lewis referred to European antisemitism as a weapon taken up by Arab governments in the wake of the lost war against Israel. Judeophobic racism really exists. Semites and Anti-Semites, p.
Yet he was aware of the fact that in the early phase of Jewish coloniza- tion of Palestine there was hardly any sign of warning in this direction. Der alte Antisemitismus im neuen Gewand, pp. Between Jew-Hatred and Racism 55 Antisemitism and Everyday Life For historians and social scientists searching for expressions of racism, the focus on the contents and the language of law or on the intervention of politics traditionally seemed to provide the most useful sources of infor- mation.
Indeed, the introduction of Jewish emancipation by law during the French revolution on the one hand and the exclusion of Jews as defined by the Nuremberg Laws of the Third Reich , including the relevant political debates, address the question of race and ethnicity expressis verbis. But historians who write the history of mentality, ev- eryday life and popular attitudes, look for additional and very different sources. What about popular authors of the 19th century like Fe- lix Dahn or Gustav Freytag?
The importance of these el- 58 Cf. The image of the Jew in German popular Literature. The sport arena provides us with a special source of information in this context, as the times of excluding sports from the cultural history are gone by. In the European scene sports, Gymnastics Turnen and the body played no less a decisive role in expressing racial attitudes or, on the other hand, trying to refute racial prejudices. The attention paid by histori- ans of antisemitism to sports as a factor of cultural history and especially concerning the social and cultural status of Jews in Europe is essentially a phenomenon of the last decades.
The history of Jewish gymnastics in Germany is a good illustration to the history of German everyday racism and antisemitism between the Second and the Third Reich and of the way historians nowadays approach antisemitism. As racism became the credo of the Third Reich the Jews opted for an intensified activity in sports within the only framework that was left open — i. Michael Brenner, Gideon Reuveni eds.
Between Jew-Hatred and Racism 57 mention only a few — is a sardonic confirmation of the singular nature of antisemitic racism. Inverted Antisemitism Not only in the field of sports and the appreciation of the human body had antisemitism seemed to lead its objects, Jews, to accept the basic beliefs of anti-Jewish racism and react accordingly. The attempt to explain Jewish identity or behaviour while using the terminology suggested by racists and antisemites unwill- ingly or unconsciously drove Jewish persons to the shores of racism.
Especially Zionism fell victim to this kind of imagery. Jewish Self-Hatred; Veronika Lipphardt: Racism — The Tool of Politics, pp. An article by Theodor Herzl il- lustrates well how far this influence could go: In hard times he becomes all the more crooked. In better times [. Here too the victim of racism used the racist and antisemitic tool directed against him and turned it around. Such an extreme case occurred under Nazi rule: Immediately after the proclamation of the Nuremberg Laws a Jewish orthodox physician, an expert on eugenics, told his read- ers that Judaism, especially when orthodox, takes a special care of racial purity and racial quality of the Jews.
As if he said: They handle us like scum, but we are really as good a race as they are. But not Zionist or orthodox Jews alone sometimes accepted the ba- sic racist premises of antisemitism and turned them upside down. An Amer- ican Jew, Theodore N. There, among other things, he proposed the ster- ilization of the whole German population which would eventually cause Germany to disappear within two generations. The point is, that the book shows how even the most radical antisemitic racism may trigger a compa- rable racist reflex among the potential victims.
Presenting the Germans as victims of Jew- ish racism, forced to act in self-defence and retaliate. Only that the relation between perpetrator and victim was turned in this case upside down by the master of telling lies. In April , i. Why are we antisemites? We may be inhuman, unjust and immoral, but we have the right to be such since this way we save our people from the tyranny of 73 Henry Picker: From their perspective the Jew i.
Zionist leader Weiz- mann declared war on Germany, not the other way round. Antisemitism and Racism in the Jewish State A special aspect of the interrelation between racism and antisemitism concerns the attitude of Jewish citizens of the state of Israel towards racism, as Israeli society is by no means immune against it, neither the Jewish majority nor the Arab minority. Jewish racism in Israel is mainly directed against non-Jews, like asylum seekers from Sudan or workers from China, Rumania etc.
There is yet another sort of Jewish racism, one directed at Jews who are black Ethiopian Jews or at oriental Jews from Morocco or Iraq, a racism that could be defined, because of its objects and narrative, even as an- tisemitism. From the point of view of ultra-orthodox society in Israel the attitude of the non-orthodox majority may be considered also racist, even antisemitic.
The images used and the historical associations that come to mind when clashes between the two groups occur seem to support this point of view. In the 80s some extreme, if isolated, examples of such Jewish racism made their way to the fore, i. Adolf Hitlers Reden, pp. Illuminating from a different angle of the relationship between racism and antisemitism is the frame of mind of Israeli Jews when relating com- paratively to antisemitic as against non-antisemitic racism. It is hardly surprising that among Israeli Jews racism directed at Jews is perceived as racism to a greater extent than racism directed by Jews against non- Jews, and especially against Arabs.
For once the Center for the Study of Antisemitism of the Hebrew University in Jerusalem conducted in a research that did not aim only at proving that antisemitism is on the rise, but tried to look also into the nature of Israeli racism. Among others they were asked to evaluate the amount of racism in six cases presented to them.
In general the students considered the incidents in Europe to be much more of a racist nature than the parallel incidents in Israel. And no less surprising: In the eyes of young Israelis thus an attack against Jews by definition has a more racist character than an outrage against non-Jews, especially when it comes to Arabs. This is, among others, the explanation of a paradox which research dis- covered in this case: A high degree of correlation between racism and antisemitism still characterize European societies,83 but antisemitism is overshadowed by other expressions of racism.
Outside Europe, where in the past racism had little to do with Jews as an object, antisemitism is spreading. And in the land of the Jews, the history of antisemitism serves as a pretext for racism practiced by the heirs of its historical victims. References Adorno, Theodor W.: Anti-Semitism and Fascist Propaganda.
Anti- Semitism — a Social Disease, ed. International University Press Jewish Frontier, June Racism — The Tool of Politics. Magnes Press [Hebrew]. Biography of a World Problem. Fairleigh Dickinson University Press Die Legenden um Theodore N. Begriffe, Theo- rien, Ideologien. Bergmann, Werner, Rainer Erb: Antisemitismus in der Bundesrepublik Deutsch- land. Versuch einer Soziologie des Judenhasses Berlin: Antisemitismus in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland, pp. Brenner, Michael, Gideon Reuveni eds. Jews and Sports in Europe. University of Nebraska Press In 25 Kapiteln zeichnet er die verschlungenen Wege dieses besonderen Sinns bei Denkern vom antiken Griechenland bis zum Read Online or Download Der innere Sinn: This essay makes an attempt to illustrate the importance of the main of job within the philosophy of Karl Marx.
Marx, the Body, and Human Nature.