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No information can be transmitted faster than the speed of light. As far-out as the idea seems, quantum entanglement has been proven time and time again over the years. When researchers create two entangled particles and independently measure their properties, they find that the outcome of one measurement influences the observed properties of the other particle.

But what if the apparent relationship between particles is not due to quantum entanglement, but instead is a result of some hidden, classical law of physics? In , physicist John Bell addressed this question by calculating a theoretical limit beyond which correlations can only be explained by quantum entanglement, not classical physics. However, as is often the case, there are loopholes.

The Auroral Entanglement: James Nabi Michael: ogozoqosolym.tk: Books

One of the most stubborn of these loopholes is the so-called "freedom-of-choice" loophole, which suggests a hidden classical variable can influence how an experimenter decides to measure seemingly entangled particles. This causes the particles to appear quantumly correlated even when they are not. To help constrain the impact of the freedom-of-choice loophole, the authors of the new study used extremely distant quasars exceptionally bright and energetic galactic cores to decide which properties of entangled particles to measure.

By allowing the quasars' light to "choose" what properties to measure, the researchers effectively removed the freedom-of-choice loophole from the experiment.

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This is because the quasars are located 7. Both telescopes were trained on different quasars located billions of light-years away. Meanwhile, at a station between these two telescopes, the researchers generated pairs of seemingly entangled photons — or particles of light — and beamed one member of each pair to a detector at each telescope.

As the entangled photons traveled to the detectors, the telescopes analyzed light from the quasars and determined whether the light was more red or more blue than a baseline. This graphic shows the experimental setup used to test the freedom-of-choice loophole.

Researchers produce two entangled photons middle and shoot them in opposite directions toward detectors located at each telescope. The telescope then use ancient quasar light to determine which properties of the photons to measure. Depending on the measurement, the entangled-photon detectors automatically adjusted the angle of their polarizers, which are devices that measure the orientations of photon electric fields.

This allowed the researchers to test whether the photon pairs were truly linked to one another, or if they were just faking it. Over the course of two minutes experiments each utilizing two different pairs of quasars , the researchers measured over 17, and 12, pairs of entangled photons, respectively. According to the study, the results show it is extremely unlikely a classical mechanism is responsible for the strong correlations observed between the photon pairs, meaning the photon pairs truly were quantumly entangled.

The next step This experiment is not the first time the freedom-of-choice loophole has been tested. Just last February, the same team of researchers led a similar study that used year-old starlight to determine which photon properties to measure.


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  6. And although the new research uses light that is nearly 8 billion years older, there still remains a small window of time for the freedom-of-choice loophole to slip through. In order to close this window completely, the researchers are already planning to look back even further in cosmic time, concentrating on the earliest light in the universe — photons from the cosmic microwave background. As strange as quantum mechanics may seem, it continues to match every experimental test we can devise.


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      Quantum Entanglement Simplified Microscopic Universe

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      A massive star is forming a companion instead Cassini catches two of Saturn's moons building a cosmic snowman Despite concerns, space junk continues to clutter Earth orbit The Sky This Week from December 14 to December 23 Juno's mission to Jupiter just hit its halfway point: Deep-sky objects to observe this winter. The Geminid meteor shower peaks under a dark sky this week Mars continues to dazzle as the days grow shorter. Picture of the Day Image Galleries. Get a sneak peek at Mission Moon 3-D. Eicher and Brian May arrives! ScopeOut Cincinnati will be lots of fun. Dave's Universe Year of Pluto.

      Quantum entanglement loophole quashed by quasar light

      That's what happens when you let quasars decide what to measure. Thursday, August 23, Quantum entanglement is a bizarre offshoot of quantum mechanics that says two particles can instantly communicate with one another, even across cosmic distances. With the help of two extremely bright quasars located more than 7 billion light-years away, researchers recently bolstered the case for quantum entanglement — a phenomenon Einstein described as "spooky action at a distance" — by eliminating one classical alternative: Quantum connection Of the many mindboggling facets of quantum mechanics, one of the most intriguing is the idea of quantum entanglement.

      This occurs when two particles are inextricably linked together no matter their separation from one another. Although these entangled particles are not physically connected, they still are able to share information with each other instantaneously — seemingly breaking one of the most hard-and-fast rules of physics: No information can be transmitted faster than the speed of light.

      As far-out as the idea seems, quantum entanglement has been proven time and time again over the years. When researchers create two entangled particles and independently measure their properties, they find that the outcome of one measurement influences the observed properties of the other particle. But what if the apparent relationship between particles is not due to quantum entanglement, but instead is a result of some hidden, classical law of physics?

      In , physicist John Bell addressed this question by calculating a theoretical limit beyond which correlations can only be explained by quantum entanglement, not classical physics. However, as is often the case, there are loopholes. One of the most stubborn of these loopholes is the so-called "freedom-of-choice" loophole, which suggests a hidden classical variable can influence how an experimenter decides to measure seemingly entangled particles.

      This causes the particles to appear quantumly correlated even when they are not. To help constrain the impact of the freedom-of-choice loophole, the authors of the new study used extremely distant quasars exceptionally bright and energetic galactic cores to decide which properties of entangled particles to measure.

      Tonight's Sky — Select location

      By allowing the quasars' light to "choose" what properties to measure, the researchers effectively removed the freedom-of-choice loophole from the experiment. This is because the quasars are located 7. Both telescopes were trained on different quasars located billions of light-years away. Meanwhile, at a station between these two telescopes, the researchers generated pairs of seemingly entangled photons — or particles of light — and beamed one member of each pair to a detector at each telescope.

      As the entangled photons traveled to the detectors, the telescopes analyzed light from the quasars and determined whether the light was more red or more blue than a baseline.