Gelatin silver print, Paul Getty Museum, Los Angeles. Photograph, mm x mm, Watercolor and pencil, 48 x 36 cm. Watercolor and pencil, 39 x 34 cm. Die Freundin, March 5, Photomontage, 21 x National Gallery of Australia, Canberra. Photomontage, 35 x 25 cm. Collection Guido Rossi, Milan. Photocollage on paper mounted on cardboard, Private collection, Des Moines, Iowa. Himmel On the Way to F. Private collection, New York. Die Freundin, 7 Jg. Pictured in Udo Pini, Liebeskult und Liebeskitsch: Erotik im Dritten Reich Munich: Ink on paper, x mm.
Pictured in Herbert Remmert und Peter Barth, eds. Werke und Worte Berlin: Verlag der Rabenpresse, Oil on canvas, x 66 cm. Photomontage, 30 x Museum of Modern Art, New York. Photomontage with collage, Photomontage, 20 x Collection Thomas Walther, New York. Watercolor, 39 x cm. Gelatin silver print, 25 x Collection Dakis Joannou, Athens. Photomontage, 18 x 23 cm. Benutzung der Bubikopfmode Male Transvestite. Use of Bubikopf hairstyle. Moll, Polizei und Sitte, p.
Magnus Hirschfeld, Berlins drittes Geschlecht Leipzig: Verlag Max Spohr, , p. Berliner Illustrierte Zeitung, no. Die Freundin, March 5, , p. Berliner Illustrierte Zeitung, August 10, , p. Die Freundin, 4 Jg. Error in sexu Pseudohermaphrodite with dominant feminine behavior. Verlag von Julius Springer, , pp. The Granger Collection, New York.
Photomontage with watercolor, 30 x Dutton, , facing page Moll, Polizei und Sitte, between pp. Frontispiece, Hoyer, Man into Woman, Hoyer, Man into Woman, , facing page Carl Reissner Verlag, Frontispiece, Aveux non avenus, Oil on canvas, x 65 cm. Oil on canvas, Photomontage, 30 x 22 cm. Goauche, 63 x 47 cm. Berlinische Galerie 7.
Gouache, 45 x 32 cm.
Watercolor 40 x 57 cm. Watercolor, 72 x 57 cm. Ink on Paper, 23 x 23 cm.
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Gouache, 45 x 62 cm. Oil on canvas, 90 x 60 cm. I am grateful to Tirza True Latimer, whose insight and suggestions helped me to develop my thesis in its early stages. I would like to thank my committee members Catherine Scallen, T. Kenny Fountain, and above all, my advisor Anne Helmreich, whose intellectual clarity helped me to structure my argument.
I am especially indebted to my second reader Ellen G. Landau, whose invaluable assistance in the final stages of the writing process enabled me to complete this dissertation. I would like to thank the staff of the Kelvin Smith Library and Inter Library Loan for their professional and friendly assistance. I am indebted to Sabine Balke of the Berlin Spinnboden Lesbenarchiv who generously allowed me to acces Weimar materials and Ralf Burmeister of the Berlinische Galerie who was never too busy to locate information and provide valuable advice.
I am grateful to my parents and my sisters and the many friends and accomplished individuals who have inspired, encouraged, and generously supported me throughout the years. Because of this, her work is generally explored within the context of mainstream media and, to a degree, this is adequate.
The Dadaists engaged with these media both as a raw material in their art, and as publishers. In their hands, the photomontage, composed from contemporary media fragments, constituted a politically and culturally disruptive act. Phaidon, , Referencing Expressionist artists E. Kirchner and Ludwig Meidner, Gale remarks that when they engaged with urban themes, they were generally depicted as alienating or as apocalyptic visions. The Malik Verlag served as a political platform for pacifist and communist-informed texts and satirical illustrations.
Yale University Press, Walker Art Center; New York: Los Angeles County Museum of Art, , Johnson has identified the sources of images; however, the sources of the remaining images have yet to be determined by Johnson, or others. When they met, Hausmann was married and had a seven year old daughter.
Osburg Verlag, , Frauen in Not was intended to raise awareness for the plight of women faced with unwanted pregnancies with no alternatives but illegal and medically risky procedures, or suicide. Cyankali was shut down by Nazi eugenicists in Yet, unlike other studies, the primary focus of this one will not be popular, i. Instead, her oeuvre will be newly considered in relation to publications that, while available to the average reader, nevertheless fell at the fringes of Weimar culture.
Depictions of women in the Weimar media were generally informed by patriarchal heterosexism, yet lesbian print culture offered an alternative to this model. However, as will be seen, on occasion, and somewhat ironically, lesbian publications reflected or appropriated popular representational tropes: As this study newly reveals, mainstream and lesbian print media were often, for all practical purposes, interchangeable. Understanding these similarities and subtle differences is crucial to an expanded 17 Heike Schader, Virile, Vamps und wilde Veilchen: Helmer, , Lesbian journals newly emerged in Weimar and were regularly published and distributed in Berlin between and Indiana University Press, , De Lauretis lists the following elements as essential to feminism: However, their satire was especially vitriolic when addressing sexism and gender-related themes.
Cambridge University Press, , The subsequent war only exacerbated the process. During the s for the first time in history , Weimar lesbians expressed themselves via public media, especially with magazines and books. However, the women involved in the authorship of these materials were faced with the task of representing what had traditionally been represented by men, 25 and often within a prurient or pornographic context. Staple media representations included dancers, show girls, nudists, and New Women a term that will be expounded upon later.
Wolfe and Julia Penelope, eds. Blackwell Publishers, , But these are not works within a Lesbian literary tradition. While the two works, cannot, with absolute certainty, be characterized as a pair, as this chapter will argue, they may nevertheless be situated firmly within Weimar lesbian subculture. The Scrapbook includes imagery from the s and s and was most probably assembled in Das vertippte Zebra, Lyrik und Prosa Berlin: Hoho Verlag Hoffmann, , University of Cambridge, , By , the National Socialists Nazis had become so powerful that they dominated Weimar politics.
Yet, despite these developments, each woman continued, either in her art or writing, to courageously resist Nazi policy and politics. The dual and ambiguously gendered Tamer will be shown to reflect, in a significant way, contemporary sexological publications and Weimar sexual subculture. This chapter will present an overview of the nineteenth-century theorists whose research laid its foundations.
Weimar sexology was largely based upon the work of Karl Heinrich Ulrichs , Carl Westphal , and especially Richard Freiherr von Krafft-Ebing See, Lavin, Cut with the Kitchen Knife, , An Introduction New York: New York University Press, , 1. Feminism and the Subversion of Identity New York: Routledge, , Contemporaneous popular debates surrounding the New Woman figure will also play a key role in Chapter V. Both artists may be characterized as New Women; they were economically and sexually independent and lived in an urban environment.
The New Woman was an international phenomenon largely generated by historical events. After World War I, in what has been described as the feminization of the city, vast numbers of women flocked to European urban centers in search of employment. Chicago University Press, Gender and Modernity in Weimar Culture Berkeley: University of California Press, ; Katharina Sykora, et al.
While Tamer, Strong Men, and The Sweet One disrupt stereotypical representations of gender, above all, the latter two imply its increasing medicalization. Beginning in the s, the boxer and boxing became a favorite and frequent motif among artists. It will trace in much greater detail than ever before exactly how selected works, both before and after her years with Brugman, were influenced by the dynamic discourse of gender and sexual identities in Germany. Nevertheless, as will be seen, these experiences appear to have inspired her lifelong engagement with gender-related themes.
McGraw-Hill, , This will be followed by a discussion of photomontage, a medium characterized by the cutting and recombining of photographic and other readymade graphic imagery. Active within international avant-garde circles, Brugman fig. Brugman was clearly not afraid of controversy, yet her forceful personality was at times a liability. Above all, male artists with whom she was affiliated rejected and feared her bold critique and sarcasm, which was often at their expense.
Thames and Hudson, , Images from the s and s, especially those depicting children, for example, suggest that she had not yet fully come to terms with her terminated pregnancies which took place in and From the mid s, figures all but disappear from her work and her brief marriage with Matthies seems to have had little influence on this development. Osburg Verlag, , ; n In part, this may be attributed to dramatic changes in the German publishing industry. However, under Nazi rule, censorship, and, especially after , war-related shortages and disrupted distribution channels curtailed the availability of print media.
Her later reintroduction of the figure may, in part, be explained by the renewed availability of color print media in postwar Germany. During the s, women, much as they had in the s, sought greater economic opportunities yet, unlike their predecessors, they now gained a significant measure of sexual independence through contraceptive drugs. These combined developments inspired a 44 Heinz Ohff, ed. Ein Leben mit der Pflanze Gelsenkirchen: Hatje Cantz, , vol. Her mother Rosa, born Sachs, was interested in music, literature, and painting, which, in the late nineteenth-century, was not uncommon among women of her class.
She was forced to return to Gotha and work for the Red Cross. In she resumed her education and in began working as a graphic artist in Berlin for the Ullstein Press. In late or early , a portion of the School had been transformed into a makeshift military clinic and, as a result, the war was always present. The emergency shelter unit at the hospital was managed by Richard Cassirer, the brother of the Berlin gallery owner Paul Cassirer.
See also, Lavin, Cut with the Kitchen Knife, While the neue Frau New Woman informed and inspired countless young German females, their hopes were often dashed by the harsh realities of surviving in urban Weimar where they earned much less than their male counterparts. Made from a combination of cloth and other materials, these figures also reflect a revived contemporary interest in puppets and dolls. Women in the Metropolis: University of California Press, , Von Ankum claims that the economic disadvantages woman faced were largely responsible for a reactionary trend in late Weimar to idealize more traditional, and ergo, financially more secure, female roles of marriage and motherhood.
Hatje Cantz Verlag; Berlin: Berlinische Galerie, , Koss locates the historical sources of the early twentieth-century fascination with the doll among the artistic avant-garde, and their frequent substitution of the human with the puppet, in the German Romantic literary imagination. As she claims, works of E. Droste Verlag, , Made from paper embroidery pattern scraps, the humble materials and irreverent title of Sketch suggest the mocking tone of the Dadaists.
Die Andere Seite des Mondes: Kunstsammlung Nordrhein Westfalen; Cologne: Dumont Verlag, , Mann, , After the Hausmann family relocated, Victor no longer forced his unruly fourteen year-old son to attend school. Shortly 65 Schweitzer, Schrankenlose Freiheit, Yale University Press, , Herwarth Walden [born Georg Levin] ? These consisted of a publishing house and journal, founded in , to which Walden added a gallery two years later.
Kunstsammlung Nordrhein-Westfalen, , Berlinische Galerie; Argon Verlag, , In August , during a vacation in Heidebrink, a fishing village on the island of Wollin, they report inventing photomontage. The Making of Modern Art London: The use of photographic fragments marked a watershed-semantically, aesthetically, politically. Johnny Heartfield and I invented photomontage in my studio. Suffice it to say that, broadly speaking, photomontage undermines the concept of empirical truth. The Nazis were instrumental in the systematic Aryanization of the German language, i.
MIT Press, , Klinckhardt und Biermann, , Translated from Czech into English by Jitka Salaguarda. The peculiar characteristics and its approaches have opened up a new and immensely creative field for a creative human being: Even these newly discovered possibilities remain subjects to the laws of form and color. The image was published on two occasions. While the version appears on a neutral blank background, in , the plant is surrounded by text.
Interestingly, the text addresses the theme of photographic manipulation: This commentary implies that by , the public had grown accustomed to images enhanced through photomontage. In addition, it also suggests that they could appreciate the increased veracity of unadulterated photographic and filmic reportage made newly possible through technical advances. Bakels and his wife Miek lived in Berlin until political developments forced them to leave in the late s. Dada represented and provided a voice of opposition when the leftist revolution was suppressed by the Weimar government.
As will be discussed below, these 88 Lavin, Cut with the Kitchen Knife, Art and Politics in Northern Europe, , eds. Palgrave Macmillan, , Yet the intensity of the filial or sexual intimacy that this image suggests is relativized by the two hemispheres of a globe pictured nearby. In the early decades of the twentieth-century, the globe was a symbol of expansion, and, among Western European colonial powers, a visual cipher for spaces and lands to be conquered.
Here, the dual hemispheres, pasted over with meaningless letters snipped from a cheap newspaper, suggest the rootless emotional state of the orphaned emigrant artist, Raoul Hausmann. In addition to a dual-gendered figure, in the lower right corner of the image, the body of a fat baby is capped by the tiny face of an old man, another provocative composite. His version of Dada, Schwitters one-man-movement Merz was named after a fragment of the German Kommerzbank Commerce-bank. He was excluded from the group because Huelsenbeck and especially Grosz were not convinced of his political commitment.
See, Heinz Ohff, ed. Kunstsammlung, , Princeton university Press, While these images often convey meaning, they are on occasion unintelligible. Nonetheless, the primacy of letters and textual fragments in these images emphasize the aesthetics of typography: Ivan Puni was a Russian Constructivist who moved to Germany during the s to escape Soviet oppression.
His watercolor La Fuite des Formes is pictured in Gale Hoho Verlag Hoffmann, , ; n3. As feminist scholars maintain, early twentieth-century European modernism was clearly gendered masculine.
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The inherent paternalism of language was thematized by Jacques Lacan. According to Lacan, the pre-oedipal child is not yet formed as subject and identifies with the mother as one. The interruption of this unity comes in the form of speech from the father. Yale University Press; London: The Open University, , Feminism and Art History: Questioning the Litany New York: Harper and Row, , ; Sandra M. Yale University Press, , vol. I, The War of the Words, As will be seen in a later chapter, images of bearded women were deployed in the Weimar media as an intimidating and powerful anti-feminist tool.
If they should ever achieve anything beyond being a dilettante, they would mutate into men. The exhibition ran from June 30 through August 25, The initiative and organization of the Dada-Fair largely reflected the efforts of George Grosz who convinced Burchard, a dealer who specialized in Chinese porcelain, to support the project and provide an exhibition venue.
While both photomontages include textual elements and human figures, a closer comparison of the two works reveals key differences based on content, iconography, and technique. In Sonniges Land dozens of textual references in the form of political headlines dominate the image. Staatliche Museen Preussischer Kulturbesitz, , Words and phrases randomly affixed to the montage appear to have been cut from Dada-generated rather than mainstream print materials.
This suggests that, in some ways, she considered her fellow Dadaists as not unlike the horn-blowing politicians they themselves so vehemently disdained. Through all phases of development, he has been my closest relative. It began with Dada. However, unlike Ernst, who often utilized entire catalogue pages for his collages, as in Jean Hatchet and Charles the Bold fig. Abrams, , When the paper is unfolded, surprising visual configurations are revealed.
Generally the genus and scale of the figures generated rarely find semiotic resolution. However, while the unconventional manner in which these images are generated suggests that the game was an extension of Dada-like practices, cadavre exquis requires a high degree of procedural rationality such as symmetrical folding and strict linear demarcation of heads, torsos, and legs. The grotesque typically characterizes a class of imagery that does not fit comfortably within the boundaries traditionally set by aesthetics or art history.
Peter Fuss argues that although the grotesque is generally regarded with trepidation, it is an indicator of, and an active agent of cultural change. Nelson and Richard Shiff, eds. Critical Terms for Art History Chicago: Ein Medium des kulturellen Wandels The Grotesque: A Medium for Cultural Transformation Cologne: Comic and horrific, the cobbled figures in these works satirize beauty standards, disrupt social order, and perennially confound the modern mania to impose classification.
The Dadaists generally re- photographed their photomontages to create a smooth and seamless surface. The artist polarizes, yet conjoins gender: A boxer, the largest of the figures surrounding the seated Father, is the only figure that actively engages with the infant. A symbol of heroic masculinity in Weimar, the boxer in The Father punches the baby on the cheek.
This aggressive act, coupled with the feminized and helplessly immobile Father, suggests anger and frustration. It also connotes an inability or a reluctance to assume a paternal role. The image, as Lavin observes, suggests violence, alienation, and anger, yet also aligns the modern woman with signs of physical pleasure signaled by a gymnast and a dancer. Berkeley; Los Angeles; London: Cut with the Kitchen Knife, 6, and reiterates her reading, 8: In the background of Dada-Ernst, two boxers closely engage in physical struggle.
Both iconographic elements are common in Northern Renaissance Nativity and Annunciation images and suggest the interrelated themes of childbirth and conception. The similarity of this mysterious oversized object with Lavin, Cut with the Kitchen Knife, 8, n The publication regularly featured cartoons by George Grosz. Langenscheidt, , A photograph of these instruments is prominently pictured in Wulfflen as a double-page spread.
The image was later replicated as a slightly altered drawing in, Dr. This letter appealed for more revolutionary aims: The theme of sexuality in Dada-Ernst is most strongly suggested by a prominent eye placed between the two legs near the center of the image. Not featured the work of a number of prominent international male and female artists.
Cornell University Press , Yet, in Dada-Ernst, the eye functions much like a talisman and suggests the vaginal imagery of the mysterious Sheela-na-gig figures found throughout Northern Europe Fig. See, Barbara Freitag, Sheela-na-Gigs: Unravelling an Enigma London: Routledge, ; See also, H. Lawlor claims that the etymological basis of the term Sheela-na-gig cannot be traced. Ihr Werk, ihr Leben, ihre Freunde Berlin: Soldiers—and especially ranking superiors--are generally depicted wearing monocles. But, perhaps unsurprisingly, the monocle became a recognized sexual fetish in Wilhelmine Germany and, by the s, was a popular lesbian accoutrement.
The Lighter Side of the New Woman: Even more so than Da-Dandy, Ohff, ed. Ein Leben mit der Pflanze, Neumann closes his discussion with the following words: While Hirschfeld does not discuss this, I have observed several pictures of homosexuals [both male and female] wearing monocles in his publications. For a discussion of the monocle as a sexual fetish and lesbian accessory, see, Marjorie Garber, Vested Interests: The fashionable and expensive accessories pictured in it include turban-like hats, pearls, fancy shoes, a ring and gold bracelets.
The visual repetition of the figures in Da-Dandy, and the close-ups of their accessories clearly reflect a way of seeing inspired by the new medium of film. Held in Stuttgart, the May Fifo brought together the work of international photographers, photomontage artists, and filmmakers.
Arno Press, , Two works are listed as Portraits, and another as a Fotomonage. The work celebrates popular representations of women and features three scantily clad figures engaged in dance. Like them, other girls pictured in the photomontage are not fully dressed, rather, they are shown in sports attire or bathing costumes. The ultimate contemporary symbol of personal mobility, the car became a cipher for freedom and independence and a requisite accessory of liberated and wealthy Weimar New Women. Jensen, Body by Weimar: Oxford University Press, The image, later a cover illustration for the leading German fashion magazine Die Dame July 1, , depicts an elegant woman at the wheel of a car.
This letter is also cited in Burmeister, et al. Sauer, and Diane Watt, eds. Brugman reluctantly agreed, and, in April , she traveled to Holland for a week.
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Brugman did not accept the situation passively and attempted to win Hannah back; she was, however, unsuccessful, and in May , Brugman moved out. While this infraction was slight and carried a one Mark penalty and a maximum two day jail sentence, bureaucratic pursuit of this matter revealed that a German-wide search warrant for Matthies had been issued the previous month by the Munich police.
He had been arrested and jailed for similar incidents earlier in and in During his incarceration, Matthies was subjected to extensive medical and psychological evaluations. Under the Erbgesundheitgesetze Hereditary Health Laws , eugenically motivated laws instituted to curtail the transmission of hereditary weaknesses and diseases, castrations Schweitzer, Schrankenlose Freiheit, As Schwetzer claims, Matthies used a false name for a reason; he knew the police were looking for him.
In October , the police issued a nationwide warrant for him. Matthies was a pedophile and was arrested for indecent exposure for the first time in Berlin in and again in While this was Schweitzer, Schrankenlose Freiheit, Matthies would remain on parole for three years until July 30, The honeymoon did not last very long. Beginning April 26, , the net value of Jewish-owned businesses could not exceed Reichsmark.
However, his castration rendered him, at least to those with whom he was physically intimate, sexually ambiguous. The artist noted these impressions in her datebook. Both depict over-sized heads perched on tiny legs against empty backgrounds. Due to their similarity, the two are often discussed in tandem. The two photomontages illustrate the front and back covers of their discussion: The various signs of shadowing or doubling suggest an intimate and interactive practice in which two women mirror and change one another. Lesbian Cultural Criticism, Susan J.
Blackwell, , University of Minnesota Press, , Europe, , Orlanda Frauenverlag, , Art, Identity, Action, Joanna Frueh et al. Harper Collins, , New York University Press, , Written in large font, the advertisement for Quell emphasizes that the scandalous book was publically burned. Moreover, Lavin conflates the New Woman and the dancer: In , the Weimar sexologist Dr.
Verlag der Kulturforschung, , Davis and Company Publishers, , Similar remarks were also made by Edward Carpenter. See, The Intermediate Sex: A Study of some transitional types of Men and Women ; repr. The history of Weimar lesbian subculture can be most effectively reconstructed and investigated through print media. Not only did lesbian magazines and lesbian-themed books leave a tangible trace that can still be accessed today, but they were a key means by which the subculture was expressed.
Weimar lesbian media served to interrupt representational conventions in which the lesbian was invisible, the object of male fantasy, or a sidebar within homosexual subculture. This problematized lesbian expression yet, as history has proven, it was a surmountable challenge. As the following discussion confirms, Weimar lesbian media newly lent the lesbian subject a visible contour and was ultimately effective in extricating it from a heterosexist cultural matrix.
While images of women are a staple of Western art, they are often produced by men and geared to the Carolyn J. Dean, Sexuality and Modern Western Culture. Twayne Publishers, , A similar, yet hyperbolized because it involves two female subjects spectatorial logic informs the representation and reception of lesbianism. Click on below image to change. Click on image to Zoom. Please enter valid pincode to check Delivery available unavailable in your area. Description Giovanni wird in Moskau ermordet. Paper Back Publishing Date: Submit Review Submit Review. Pick Of The Day.
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