Due to missing data and the fact that only sexually active participants were asked the question about condom use frequency, sample size ranges from to for women, and from to for men. Standardized betas from regressions predicting sexual behaviors and beliefs from gendered attitudes. In step 1, we entered demographic controls: To test Hypothesis 1, in step 2 we entered endorsement of a sexual double standard and its interaction with biological sex.
To test Hypothesis 2, in step 3 we entered the two gender role attitudes and their interactions with biological sex. Because our hypotheses are specific to predictor rather than outcome, we describe the significant betas by predictor, rather than by model. In all 3 regressions, step 2 addresses Hypothesis 1, and step 3 addresses Hypothesis 2. For number of partners, the change in R 2 for step 2 was significant see Table 3 , Model 1. Endorsement of a sexual double standard and its interaction with biological sex were both significant, indicating that endorsement of a sexual double standard was associated with number of partners for men but not women.
For condom use, endorsement of a sexual double standard and its interaction with biological sex were not significant Table 3 , Model 1, step 2. For barriers to condom use, the change in R 2 for step 2 was significant see Table 3 , Model 3.
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The interaction between sexual double standard endorsement and biological sex was significant, indicating that endorsement of a sexual double standard was associated with perceived barriers to condom use for both men and women, but in opposite directions. Thus, findings partially supported H1. Men who endorsed the sexual double standard more tended to have more sexual partners and perceive fewer barriers to condom use, whereas women who endorsed the sexual double standard more tended to perceive more barriers to condom use than women who endorsed it less.
For number of partners, the change in R 2 for step 3 was significant see Table 3 , Model 1. The interaction between male role norms and biological sex was significant, indicating that male role norms were associated with number of partners for men but not women. For condom use, the change in R 2 for step 3 was significant see Table 3 , Model 2. The main effect of male role norms and its interaction with biological sex were significant, indicating that male role norms were associated with condom use for women but not for men. The main effect of female role norms and its interaction with biological sex on condom use were also significant, indicating that female role norms were associated with condom use for women but not men.
For barriers to condom use, gender role attitudes and their interactions with biological sex were not significant Table 3 , Model 3, step 3. Thus, findings partially supported H2. In this study, we went beyond standard examinations of sex differences in sexual behaviors and beliefs, and instead examined more socially constructed facets of gender. Our findings suggested associations between endorsement of a sexual double standard and sexual behaviors and beliefs in traditionally sex-typed ways. Women may have more power over their beliefs than their behaviors, and these beliefs may not always translate into the corresponding behaviors.
In addition, condom use, more than condom beliefs, may be context-specific, varying depending on the partner and situation. Thus, women who more strongly endorse the sexual double standard may choose a type of partner who takes more responsibility for condom use within the partnership. For men, sexual double standard beliefs were associated with sexual behaviors in terms of number of partners.
Thus, within sex, male and female students who endorsed the sexual double standard more tended to behave or think in ways that were consistent with it. In addition to endorsement of the sexual double standard, a sex-specific gendered attitude, non-sexual gendered attitudes also were important for sexual behaviors and beliefs.
However, against predictions, these conventional beliefs were more likely to be associated with lower risk than with higher risk, particularly for young men. For instance, men who had more conventional attitudes about male role norms tended to have fewer partners. One possible explanation that we did not examine in these analyses is the role of religion. In addition, more religious individuals are less likely to have ever had intercourse and tend to have fewer sexual partners Earle et al. Thus, more religious young men may have more conventional attitudes about male role norms, and also limit their number of sexual partners.
Because this finding was opposite to our prediction, and because it was a newly developed measure, caution is necessary in interpreting this finding. One goal of the current study was to determine whether gender role attitudes about non-sexual domains were associated with sexual behaviors and beliefs above and beyond endorsement of a sexual double standard. Thus, more conventional beliefs about the male role may indicate acceptance of a power differential between men and women.
To fully understand how individuals will behave in sexual situations, it is important to understand not only their gendered beliefs in sexual domains, but also to understand their gender role attitudes, including how men and women should behave in society more generally.
This study had some limitations that indicate caution when interpreting the findings. First, the findings were cross-sectional, and therefore, we cannot know whether gendered attitudes preceded sexual behaviors or beliefs, or the reverse. In the future, it will be important to examine gendered attitudes and sexual behaviors and beliefs longitudinally. In particular, studies that examine adolescents and young adults as they transition to first sexual experiences may help to explain how gendered attitudes predict these first sexual behaviors.
Second, our participants were chosen because they were in their first year at a residential university.
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However, findings from this study cannot be generalized to similarly aged individuals who do not attend college, or students at non-residential campuses. Third, we purposefully created our own measure of female role norms in order to employ a measure that mirrored our measure of male role norms. However, perceptions of female roles in our society tend to be more flexible than perceptions of male role norms Diekman and Eagly , and thus it is possible that our female role norms measure was not as sensitive to conventional gender attitudes as the male role norms measure.
Future work should consider including both implicit and explicit measures of male and female role norms. It is clear that a number of other factors unassessed in this study relate to sexual behaviors and condom use. Future studies should examine gendered attitudes within a larger constellation of structural and interpersonal predictors, such as religiosity, socioeconomic status, family characteristics, romantic relationship commitment, and sexual relationship power.
Future studies should examine how gendered attitudes differentially relate to vaginal and anal sexual behaviors, as well as how they relate to oral sex. In summary, women and men who endorsed a sexual double standard more tended to behave in ways or endorse beliefs that were more conventionally gender-typed.
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Even after accounting for these sexual behavior-specific gendered attitudes, more general gender role attitudes played an important role in sexual behaviors. Taken together, these findings suggest the importance of multiple aspects of gendered attitudes in understanding sexuality during the transition to university, and the importance of understanding variation among men and among women in their gendered attitudes, rather than simply examining group differences. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U.
Author manuscript; available in PMC Mar 1. Lefkowitz , Cindy L. Shearer , Meghan M. Gillen , and Graciela Espinosa-Hernandez. See other articles in PMC that cite the published article. Abstract This study examines associations between endorsement of a sexual double standard, gender role attitudes, and sexual behaviors and beliefs. Gendered attitudes, Sexual behaviors and beliefs, Sexual double standard, College students, Condoms. Endorsement of a Sexual Double Standard Although many argue that a sexual double standard still exists in American culture Bordini and Sperb ; Crawford and Popp ; Kreager and Staff , there is individual variation in such endorsement.
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