We have thus discovered more than a dozen new binaries and determine upper limits on non-detections in support of the measured parallax accuracy. Mars has a rich dust environment, including incoming interstellar dust and dust lofted up from the atmosphere. There is no indication that the moons of Mars contribute significantly to the dust environment.
All observations presented here are from electric field instrument measurements, which provide only limited information about dust origins. Further complicating the measurements, the spacecraft frequency moves from high-density plasma to low-density plasma changing the signatures of dust detection. Of the available probes of interstellar magnetic fields, dust induced dichroic extinction and emission, are the observationally most straightforward, both in terms of facilities and calibration.
Its interpretation has, however, long been handicapped by the lack of a quantitative, observationally supported, understanding of the required grain alignment. Over the last decade this deficiency has been remedied, with the establishment, and observational confirmation, of Radiative Alignment Torque RAT theory. With our growing confidence of RAT alignment, measurements of dust induced polarization can now not only be used for more reliable characterization of the magnetic field, but also to constrain and probe other characteristics of the environment and the dust.
I will review the basics of RAT alignment, some of the empirical support of the theory and some of the new tools for interstellar astronomy made possible by these developments. Planetary systems form in the disks of gas and dust that orbit young stars. In the past few years, very high angular resolution observations of disks in nearby star-forming regions have started to uncover some key signatures of the planet formation epoch.
With orbital periods in excess of thousands of years, wide binaries have traditionally been identified by finding common proper motion stars within astrometric catalogs. Using the additional inclusion of parallax measurements, sophisticated Bayesian algorithms designed to mine the first Gaia data release have robustly identified thousands of new wide binaries.
Already, we are using this sample to place new constraints on stellar multiplicity, the strength of gravity in the weak acceleration regime, and the potential for chemical tagging to identify unique Galactic subpopulations. The much larger second Gaia data release provides precise proper motions and parallaxes for over 1 billion stars, allowing for the identification of wide binary samples of an unprecedented scale; however coupled with this opportunity is a challenging data science problem requiring modern statistical tools, efficient algorithms, and large computing clusters to accurately classify stellar pairs as wide binaries rather than the chance coincidence of unassociated stars.
I will discuss the status of our search for wide binaries within the second Gaia data release, as well as how our resulting samples can help solve several open stellar and galactic astrophysical problems, particularly when our sample is cross-matched with large scale spectroscopic surveys such as APOGEE and GALAH. I will summarize our current knowledge on the properties of the small exoplanet population. Its mission is to identify and initiate measures and investments to diversify and grow Chilean economy in Big Data, using our natural resources for Astronomy and the field data-driven challenges.
According to the strategy of CORFO and its CTD, the capacity to add data-driven value will be critical for competitive edges across industries over next decade, and a driver for diversification of the Chilean productive matrix. We worked with scientific and industrial communities to facilitate multi-sector agreements about what are our opportunities to achieve this mission.
In our first year of work, we produced a high-level system concept that is potentially fit for capacity development, technology transfer and is sustainable from an economic point of view. To research the earliest times in the Universe we do not have to go to high redshift. Our Milky Way still hosts remnants from these times in the form of metal-deficient stars, which probably carry the imprint from First Star supernovae. However, if they were born in binary systems, their chemical patterns today can also be influenced by a companion going through an AGB phase.
Disentangling these two enrichment scenarios will progress our understanding of both First Stars and AGB star chemistry at extremely low metallicities. These carbon-enhanced metal-poor CEMP stars come in two main types: CEMP-s stars are thought to have received their carbon and s-process elements in mass-transfer from an AGB companion that has evolved earlier.
This has been supported by radial velocity monitoring e. The CEMP-no stars - of which the majority show no velocity variations - would instead reflect the chemistry of their birth gas cloud. This provokes the question if some extremely low-metallicity AGB companions currently white dwarfs could have polluted their atmospheres. In this presentation I will focus on the results of a large extension of our radial velocity monitoring program for CEMP-no stars. Compared to earlier work Starkenburg et al. An interesting pattern starts to emerge, raising questions about the origins of CEMP-no stars and their possible relation to extremely metal-poor AGB stars.
The 5-decade old ISYA program is evaluated in the context of the experienced gathered in the field: In the new era of fast internet connectivity, social media, virtual networks, big public surveys and machine learning, the value of face-to-face graduate tuition for regions with limited up-to-date astrophysics research is presented, together with the plan to develop the IAU program into the next decade. Atmospheric models of AGB giants are usually calculated with a scaled solar chemical mixture, except for carbon and maybe some s-process elements. However, due to the combination of nuclear processes in their interior and dredge-up events, also the surface abundances of nitrogen and oxygen might be significantly altered in those objects.
Based on these computations we discuss the corresponding effects on synthetic spectra and photometry of individual stars, as well as possibilities to include them in population synthesis models for galaxies. We will for example show that for photometric studies it should be enough to consider the metallicity and [C-O] values of single objects. It will be shown that with the models available today accurate abundance determinations are only possible for warmer and less pulsating AGB giants. A period of very low solar activity in the 17th century was identified already years ago from the inspection of historical sunspot observations.
The minimum lasted from about to This talk will give an overview of our present knowledge of these observations and the interpretation of them. Physical quantities can actually be derived from the drawings of the solar disk. The differences in behaviour of the solar cycle from today may be the key to understand the mechanism behind the solar magnetic variability, the solar dynamo.
We explore the large-scale spatial distribution and physical properties of gas, metals, and ions in the cosmological hydrodynamical simulation IllustrisTNG. The aim of this work is to investigate the so-called missing baryon problem through the analysis of one of the state-of-the-art hydrodynamical cosmological simulations. IllustrisTNG includes an updated scheme for galactic winds, and a new kinetic black hole feedback model for the low accretion state. We compare our findings with those from Illustris simulation and observational data.
Thanks to a major progress in observing facilities and numerical simulations, there is now a growing interest in the population of dwarf galaxies at high redshift, which play a central role in various studies across cosmic time, since they are the most representative objects of the galaxy population. Such importance is based on their contribution to the star formation history of the Universe, their different physical properties and time evolution compared to their massive counterparts, and their dominant contribution to the ionizing background at the epoch of reionization.
I will discuss the great progress made during the past few years thanks to gravitational lensing, and the routes to move forward to detect a potential turnover of the UV LF, where cosmological simulations predict suppression of the star formation activity in the smallest dark matter halos.
I use high resolution hydro-dynamical simulations of the formation and evolution of the disc component in spiral and lenticulars galaxies to establish and understand the link between angular momentum and radial stellar migration. I show that the latter determines the formation of the break in the stellar radial projected density profile as well as the inner and outer disc scale lengths.
I will present results from over two dozens high resolution chemodynamical simulations of disc galaxies, including both isolated and merger-related cases.
Jovian Transformation: Telltale Planetary Events Since 2009
In particular, I will present the radial metallicity gradients for stellar populations at different distances from the equatorial plane and their evolution with time. In the same way as for the radial metallicity gradients, I will consider either all disc stars, or only populations from specific radial and vertical bins, as well as age bins. Preliminary comparisons with observations show a good agreement, particular concerning the multi-component signatures.
My results allow me to discuss the effect of radial migration on these distributions and radial gradients. One of the problem to fuel black holes and trigger the AGN is to remove a large amount of angular momentum to drive the gas to the center. The dynamical mechanisms invoked depend on the scale under consideration: We will show the study of the morphology and kinematics of the cold dense gas inside the central kpc of 5 galaxies of our NUGA NUclei of GAlaxies program.
Gas flows in and out of galaxies are poorly constrained and understanding these processes is crucial to studies of galaxy evolution. Observations of the Circum-Galactic Medium CGM , where these processes take place, are therefore essential for making progress in understanding gas flows but remain challenging as this medium is intrinsically thin and very faint.
These post-processed simulated halos then give the flux for different lines at different redshifts and can be used as estimates for the observations in different wavelength regimes X-Ray, UV, optical, IR. The next milestone in this research area will be the access to the ELT with its large collective area, increasing the sensitivity to faint extended emission. These are records of grants and other religious deeds with valuable documentation of celestial events like eclipses, planetary conjunctions and even comets.
A study of these records also throws light on the evolution of the calendar and influence of other types of calendars. Possible mention of the supernova event also is discussed. In Reber completed his home-built parabolic reflector antenna of 10 m diameter. He systematically scanned the sky at a wavelength of 1.
After WW-2 radio astronomy became an active research field in several countries and the paraboloidal reflector became the telescope of choice at wavelengths shorter than about one meter. Radar antennas of up to 7. In the early fifties proposals for large parabolic dishes with a size between 15 and 75 m were advanced. The design of these movable structures that had to point accurately in a desired direction and maintain its shape with varying attitude angle, posed new challenges to the structural engineers, who were recruited mainly from the domains of bridge building and aircraft manufacture.
The gas dynamics and long-term evolution of protoplanetary disks PPDs play a crucial role in almost all stages of planet formation, yet they are far from being well understood largely due to the complex interplay among various microphysical processes. Primarily, PPD gas dynamics is likely governed by magnetic field, and its coupling with the weakly ionized gas is described by non-ideal magnetohydrodynamic MHD effects.
Incorporating these effects, I will present the first fully global simulations of PPDs aiming to incorporate most realistic disk microphysics. Accretion and disk evolution is primarily driven by magnetized disk winds with significant mass loss comparable to accretion rate. The overall disk gas dynamics strongly depends on the polarity of large-scale poloidal magnetic field threading the disk owing to the Hall effect.
The flow structure in the disk is highly unconventional with major implications on planet formation. To understand how our climate has changed in the past, and will evolve in the future, it is important to estimate changes in Earth's primary energy source: Solar irradiance is a fundamental component of any climate modelling study. Variations in both the total, and spectral, solar irradiance are essential to determine the magnitude of the impact that the Sun has made, and will make, to the climate.
Here, I will provide an up-to-date review of the main long-term total and spectral irradiance reconstructions relevant to forcing climate models, which can show a large range of both total and spectral variations on decadal and centennial timescales. To put in context the century-scale reconstructions, for which direct irradiance observations do not exist, it is important to also discuss the irradiance models with respect to the observations that have accumulated over the last 40 years, since the beginning of the satellite era.
Therefore, I will also give an overview of the uncertainties that remain in the observations used to constrain and verify models, and the forcing range that the long-term reconstructions will provide to reconstruct past climate behaviour, and make future projections. Johannes Andersen, Claus Madsen and I have tried to trace the changing role of the IAU in the international astronomical community through the twentieth century and into the twenty-first. The IAU has striven — occasionally struggled — to protect international scientific cooperation across the deep political divides that characterized the 20th century, while maintaining an important function in the context of the rapidly evolving science itself and the changing fabric of institutions involved in astronomy.
These fields should be carried out by strong galactic outflows, magnetically enriching the InterGalactic Medium IGM at larger cosmological distances. However direct observation of magnetic fields in the IGM is scarce. In this talk, I will give a review of how Intergalactic Magnetic Field IGMF 's strength and filling factor can be constrained using numerical simulations and gamma-ray observations. We are performing cosmological hydrodynamical simulations containing dark-matter and all relevant physical processes for the baryons.
We analyze the simulations following the methodology of Barai , ApJ, , L17 , and compute the magnetic field in the simulation volume IGM. The search for Earth-like planets around Sun-like stars and the evaluation of their occurrence rate is a major topic of research for the exoplanetary community. Two key characteristics in defining a planet as 'Earth-like' are having a radius between 1 and 1. A major improvement in the determination of stellar radius is represented by the Gaia astrometry satellite, which promises to provide unprecedented precision on stellar parameters.
We present a new estimate of the frequency of Earth-sized planets orbiting inside the host stars's habitable zones, obtained using Gaia measurements of parallax for solar-type stars hosting validated planets in the Kepler field as input for reassessing the values of planetary radius and incident stellar flux. This updated occurrence rate can be an important element in coordinating future observational efforts searching for Earth-like system in the Sun backyard using next-generation astrometric missions.
The approach to understanding solar flares generally characterizes global properties of a solar active region, for example the total magnetic flux, the total free magnetic energy, or the total length of a sheared magnetic neutral line. We take here a different tack, characterizing not the region as a whole, but estimating the energy-release prospects of different sub-regions within the region. We have considered two active regions NOAA ARs and which are similar in their overall size and classification, but produced radically different distributions of flares, with AR producing nothing larger than C-flares while AR produced a sequence of M and X-flares, with very few smaller flares.
We modeled the coronal magnetic field using the CFIT non-linear force-free extrapolation code, and identified individual current systems within the the extrapolation whose energy might be released in a single reconnection event. We present here early results comparing the energy associated with the individual current systems with the magnitude of the flares originating from each region.
Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation. Observational evidence suggests that for a non-interacting star-forming galaxy, the radial distribution of the gas metallicity follows a negative gradient supporting the inside-out galactic evolution scenario. The lack of a large sample with spatially resolved maps of metallicity has hampered the study of the statistical impact of mergers in metallicity gradients.
We explore the variety of shapes observed in the metallicity gradients for interacting galaxies as well as quantify the impact of global parameters. Open Universe seeks to trigger a major evolution of current space science data availability fostering the publication of all existing open space science data in a way that is easily discoverable and immediately usable, thus responding to the global demand for transparency.
Binary interactions are thought to be the formative agent for this torus, but identifying bona fide sgB[e] binaries has proved extremely difficult due to the extreme stellar winds and high levels of local extinction attributed to the torus.
Exploring exoplanet populations with NASA’s Kepler Mission
The star brightened by 5 orders of magnitude within hours before decaying to quiescence in less than 2 weeks. Such X-ray activity firmly establishes this source as a High-Mass X-ray Binary but the nature of the compact object, as well as binary system parameters, are still a topic of debate 20 years on. Since the outburst of CI Cam, a number of sgB[e] stars have been identified as X-ray overluminous for a single star i. Stellar models are only as good as the inputs used to construct them. These may be microphysics inputs, such as radiative opacities and equation of state, or macrophysics effects such as diffusion and gravitational settling, convective overshoot, and rotation-induced mixing.
I shall review how uncertainties in some key inputs to stellar models affect our interpretation of stellar data, and what needs to be done to make stellar models more robust. Cosmic evolution of the large-scale magnetic field in star-forming galaxiesremains an open question in observational astronomy.
A major tool to probemagnetic fields in distant galaxies would be through statistical measurement ofFaraday rotation measure RM towards quasar absorption line systems, which aretracers of galaxies in the high redshift Universe. The distribution of RM oftwo quasar samples, with and without absorption line systems, are compared tostatistically infer the properties of magnetic fields in the intervening galaxypopulation.
To extract as much information on the properties of coherentmagnetic fields, we present analytical and empirical form of the probabilitydistribution function of RM when random lines of sight are shot through asample of galaxies with random inclination, impact parameter and azimuthalangle, and assuming that the magnetic field is confined to the disc withaxisymmetric spiral geometry.
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Interestingly, the dispersion in RM produced bythe large-scale fields in the intervening galaxies is comparable in magnitudeto that observed in previous studies. We find that the width of RMdistribution is directly related to the mean coherent field strength of theintervening galaxy population provided the dispersion within the sample is low. Finally, we discuss sample selection criteria that are crucial for cleaninterpretation of the observations. Selecting high metallicity DLAs as theintervener is the best choice to study magnetic field amplification driven bygalactic dynamo action.
Jovian Transformation: Telltale Planetary Events Since 2009 (5th Edition)
The new Office brought together and strengthened several activities of the IAU aimed at helping astronomers in developing or isolated countries to keep in touch with their colleagues elsewhere and up-to-date with the developments in our science. In this paper, the writer gives an account of the activities of the WGWWDA both during and between General Assemblies, until the year , shortly after which he relinquished responsibility for them.
With approximately three orders of magnitude gain in sensitivity over previous far-infrared missions, the telescope also provides high angular resolution to overcome spatial confusion in deep surveys, and new spectroscopic capabilities to detect water and other volatiles in planet forming disks as well as solar system objects. OST will also characterize the most distant bodies in the solar system.
The high spatial resolution will detect activity in the most distant of comets, as well, and allow thermal imaging of extended structures of dark material or low-albedo binary companions that may accompany these distant bodies. We will introduce the vast array of solar system science that this survey mission offers. Even though substellar objects were first imaged already more than twenty years ago and theoretically predicted more than 50 years ago , many fundamental questions regarding these objects remain open: In this talk I will summarize the state-of-the-art of some of these open challenges and how the ELTs with their first and second generation instrumentation and the synergies with other developping facilities will pave the way to answers.
Cubesat technology is maturing rapidly, becoming versatile and opening the possibility to fly, for modest costs, surveying experiments that will have a tremendous impact in astronomy. This technology has many advantages that includes the quick manufacturing times that adapt well to the rapid evolution of technology and data science.
Their low cost will make space research accessible to small groups and Universities favouring the rapid development of science and technology. However, this brilliant future is hampered by the launching facilities. Creating fast-track launching programs for cubesats is a must for this revolution to take place. The IAU WG on UV astronomy has developed an interface to assist teams interested in developing small U cubesat type project to advertise, look for partners and start collaborations.
The tool will be described during the session. Despite majority of the expectations, it was not neutron star mergers being detected first, but the series of exotic massive black hole mergers. I will describe the leading theories of the formation of such black hole systems. I will also comment on a detection of NS-NS merger. This particular detection may provide striking constraints on binary evolution. Theoretical models demonstrate that galaxy evolution is largely shaped by the interplay between inflows, star formation and feedback processes.
Since chemical abundances are sensitive to the integrated effect of gas flows and star formation, they constitute the ideal tool to improve our understanding of these phenomena. The observed dependence of the metallicity gradient on stellar mass will be discussed in the context of an updated 'bath-tub' model, which we have developed to extend the previous model formalism to resolved scales in galaxies. In particular, I will focus on the importance of including inside-out growth in the models, and on the relation between metallicity profiles and other observables e. I will conclude discussing the possible implications of this result for our understanding of gas flows and recycling in galaxies.
Since then, numerous actions have been carried out that finally drove to the creation of IAU Comission C. In this contribution, a brief analysis of a few study cases centred in the author's experience in Spain will be presented: Future perspectives will also be briefly discussed. Several asteroid families which contain low albedo asteroids were identified in the inner part of the main asteroid belt [e. Science , , ]. Such families are considered to be primordial ones which constrain planetesimals population.
The diversity inside the C-complex was not taken into account. However, for the long time it was known a relative abundance of the low albedo F-type asteroids in the inner asteroid belt. A large fraction of the F-asteroids were associated with the Nysa-Polana family [Cellino et al. Icarus , , ]. Recent classifications are not able to distinguish the F-type asteroids from B or C-types. Icarus , 57, ; Pinilla-Alonso et al. We will show that polarimetric and photometric measurements give a way to separate low-albedo types. The F-type asteroids revealed particular polarimetric and photometric properties different from those of the B and C-type asteroids.
The only plausible explanation of the observed particularity of the F-type asteroids is an assumption of their extremely dark surfaces. Among 24 known F-type asteroids, 13 asteroids have similar proper elements within the Polana-Eulalia complex but they are not considered as family members. Moreover, four F-asteroids were classified as belonging to the Hertha family. We need to take into account a diversity of low-albedo asteroid classes to confirm reliability of low albedo family membership.
The gravitational microlensing planet detection method is currently the only method sensitive to low-mass exoplanets orbiting beyond the snow line, where the core accretion theory predicts that planet formation should be most efficient. I present a comparison between the mass ratio distribution of exoplanets from microlensing found by Suzuki et al.
The Suzuki et al. However, both population synthesis simulations of core accretion predict a deficit of planets at intermediate masses between Neptune and Saturn that is not seen in the microlensing data. This mass gap in the core accretion prediction is due to the runaway gas accretion that is thought to occur once giant planet cores reach a critical mass threshold.
The microlensing observations suggest that this gap may not exist. Perhaps, the formation of gas giant planets is more complicated than previously thought, or it might be that the variations in the planet formation process in different systems are so large that the gap is washed out in a statistial sample, like that of Suzuki et al. Finally, I discuss how the microlensing test of the core accretion theory will be improved with a mass measurements of microlens planets and their host stars, as well as a larger sample of planetary microlensing events. One of its major surveys will be the WFIRST exoplanet microlensing survey that will find planets down to the mass of Mars in orbits wider than 0.
When combined with the results from Kepler, WFIRST will provide a statistical of planets down to low masses at all orbital separations. I present new results that demonstrate this method with high angular resolution follow-up observations from the Hubble Space Telescope and adaptive optics observations with the Keck-2 telescope. I also discuss astrometric microlensing observations that can be made with WFIRST that can measure the masses of planets orbiting stellar remnants. A significant fraction of the energy of solar flares is first released into energetic electrons.
The acceleration process is still controversial. We discuss here the gyrosychrotron emission of relativistic electrons and compare it to the soft X-ray emission of the flare plasma by thermal bremsstrahlung. The ratio of radio to soft X-ray luminosities is a measure of the acceleration efficiency. In regular flares and coronae of active stars, the ratio is constant over many orders of magnitude in flare size.
However, the quiet Sun does not follow the ratio observed for flares. In small preflares we find their radio-to-X-ray ratio at least an order of magnitude smaller than in the main flare phase. The trend of small flares to be less efficient electron accelerators was also noticed in previous observations, indicating that they have a softer hard X-ray spectrum and thus are lacking in electrons accelerated to high energy. It is also a general trend that flares start with a steep hard X-ray spectrum few high-energy electrons and harden during the event.
Most significantly, microflares in the quiet region, also known as large nanoflares, are clearly radio-poor often by more than an order of magnitude, thus are poor accelerators. One of the currently viable scenarios for coronal heating is energy release by nanoflares that are smaller than previously observed. Thus the question arises whether they also accelerate electrons. The emissions of such electrons in gyrosynchrotron radiation or hard X-rays have not yet been observed, but would be a crucial test of the theory. In the case of radio emission, the thermal background makes it impossible.
We report on the estimated flux of the hard X-ray emission of accelerated electrons and discuss the possibility for detecting it with upcoming missions, in particular with STIX on Solar Orbiter. SImilarly, on the Earth with early life, bioaerols could be continuousy emitted into the atmosphere and create biohazes and cloud droplets containing biopigments and other partially decomposed biomass. Here, we employ our spectro-polarimetric laboratory measurements of various photosynthetic bacteria for modeling planetary atmospheres polluted by bioaerosols, such as living and partially degraded bacteria and biopigments.
Using our model for stellar light scattered by a planetary atmosphere, we compute polarized light-curves and spectra from planets with biohazes and cloud droplets containing bacteria and photosynthetic pigments. We estimate the minimum concentration of biomass in the atmosphere necessary for remote detection on distant exoplanets similar to the early and present Earth. We demonstrate an inversion technique to image indirectly exoplanet surfaces using observed unresolved reflected light variations over the course of the exoplanets orbital and axial rotation: Under various geometric conditions the reflected light curve contains enough information to detect both longitudinal and latitudinal structures and to map exoplanet surface features.
We demonstrate this using examples of Solar system planets and moons as well as simulated planets with Earth-like life. Such albedo maps obtained in different wavelength passbands can provide "photographic" views of distant exoplanets and may lead to unambiguous detection of life. Can this magnetic field be used as a test for the primordial magnetic field? I would argue that if the initial cluster field was modified by the nonlinear dynamo, the process would be insensitive to the value of the initial field.
My model relies on statistics of turbulence from simulations of cluster formation in a fully cosmological context as well as nonlinear dynamo theory. Although the initial field is not a parameter of this model, it predicts length scale and magnitude of the magnetic field which are compatible with observations. Accurate and robust measurements of extragalactic metallicities are essential to constrain models of chemical enrichment, chemical evolution, and the cycle of baryons in the cosmos. Despite this strong dependence on chemical abundances, an absolute calibration of gas-phase abundances from nebular emission lines has not been definitively established.
Thus far, CHAOS has increased, by more than an order-of-magnitude, the number of H II regions with high-quality spectrophotometry to facilitate the first detailed measurements of the chemical abundances of a statistically significant sample of nearby disk galaxies. These observations, which include a large number of low excitation H II regions, have led to several unexpected results, challenging our current understanding of the trends in gas conditions, ionization correction factors, relative abundances, and more.
Fortunately, the unprecendented number of sensitive diagnostics in the rich CHAOS dataset allows for new approaches to investigate these issues. In addition to helping us understand nearby galaxies, calibrating the nebular abundances of massive galaxies has important implications for deciphering the ISM in more distant galaxies and properly calibrating the spatially resolved abundances from IFU surveys.
With the continuing successful operations of the Atacama Large Millimetar Array ALMA we are able to characterize the initial stages of planet formation in great detail.
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By far the largest effect that has been inferred to be present is the large discrepencies between gas masses measured by CO and those measured by dust. We will discuss the evidence that this major effect is likely due to changes in the CO abundance through a combination of gas-dust interactions and chemical processing in the gas.
This has implications on abundances of major carriers of elemental C and O which may leave an imprint in the resulting chemical composition of forming gas giants. Thus, we will also discuss the link between disk chemistry and planet formation. It consists in the use of a stable, convenient and NIST-calibrated polychromatic light-source called DICE to measure the broadband response to point-like illumination of a short focal length robotic telescope.
The dedicated telescope is then used to follow the evolution of the broadband fluxes of spectrophotometric standard stars as a function of airmass over a very large number of nights. The experiment is currently in the last stage of its test phase whose goal is to evaluate the accuracy of the calibration transfer accross the atmosphere.
In this contribution, we will review the experiment, present early results from the test phase and discuss prospects for the next phase. This survey extends the previous PN sample by Merrett et al. It promises to answer the open questions on the kinematics of the stellar halo in Andromeda galaxy and the shape of the PN luminosity function PNLF at the faint end.
The recent Herschel mission has allowed to study the distribution of cold dust in nearby galaxies with unprecedented resolution. Radial gradients in the dust mass have been found to be flatter than the stellar, and intermediate between those of the molecular and gas components. In principle, dust and gas resolved observations can be used together to derive the metallicity gradient in the solid phase. There are however several potential pitfalls: Nevertheless, a number of attempts have been made to derive the dust properties, dust-to-gas ratio and CO-to-H2 conversion factors from far-infrared observations.
I will report on these studies, focusing on the results from DustPedia, a database of almost all resolved galaxies in the local Universe observed by Herschel. Jets commonly display bends and knots at which the flows may change character. Some extreme distortions have implications for the nature of jet flows and their interactions.
We will present the results of recent radio mapping of 3CRR and other radio galaxies. In the case of NGC the cause of the distortion is a collision with a foreground magnetised gas cloud which causes Faraday rotation and free-free absorption, and is triggered into star formation: For NGC the distortion is more extreme, but no deflector can be identified in cold or hot gas: The results will be related to encounters with substructures in the intergalactic medium and the compositions and speeds of the jets. New data obtained by space missions to various objects in the Solar system and observations of the outer Solar system and exoplanets by space and ground-based telescopes allowed us to conclude that the atmospheric escape plays an important role in the evolution of the terrestrial planets in the Solar system Marov et al.
Observations and theoretical models of the exoplanet atmospheres exposed to the extreme fluxes of X-ray and UV radiation of the parent star provide a remarkable opportunity to test theoretical understanding of the key processes - thermal and non-thermal escape. It is known, that a prediction of escape rates due to thermal and nonthermal processes defines the long-term evolution of planetary atmospheres, therefore atmospheric escape has long been a subject of interest in the comparative planetology, and in recent years especially in understanding of the evolution of exoplanet atmospheres.
A critical feature is that escape occurs in the rarefied atmosphere, which is usually called the exosphere, where the state of the gas is significantly nonequilibrium. Accordingly, continuum models are no longer applicable, so that only kinetic modeling at the molecular level of the description allows us to accurately predict the structure of the atmospheric gas flow and escape rate.
The report presents the kinetic approach to the problem of neutral escape from planetary atmospheres. As an example, the recent measurements by Mars Express and MAVEN spacecraft are compared with the calculations of neutral escape with the aim to understand the atmospheric loss at Mars. Also the recent calculations Ionov et al. We present a study of decimetric radio activity, using the high time cadence 0.
A bright radio source, associated with the M1. The bright radio source, at the start and during the maximum of C1. A multi-wavelength analysis, in combination with potential field source surface extrapolation, is carried out to investigate the genesis of non-thermal radio emitting electrons, which revealed that the distant decimetric radio source, noticed during the C1.
The apparent shift of the location of the bright radio source could have resulted by ducting of electron beams along the high arching loop, which is interacting with other closed and open field structures at the electron acceleration site. Disks around young stars are the sites of planet formation. As such, the physical and chemical structure of disks have direct impact on the formation of planetary bodies. The innermost disk regions are particularly interesting, due to the potential for planet formation.
These are also the regions where winds, capable of affecting the disk build-up itself, are launched magnetically. Until very recently, we have lacked the facilities to provide the necessary observational constraints and insights into what is actually going on the smallest scales during the earliest stages of solar system formation, meaning it is completely uncharted territory. Bjerkeli , we are targeting young disks and outflows with ALMA in its largest possible configuration 16 km baselines, yielding a resolution of au to zoom in on early disk evolution, outflow launching, and star- and planet-formation.
Since then, we have continued our observations towards TMC1A and in addition included a younger system in the study.
The observations allow us to constrain the detailed kinematics and structure of the disks D. The slow, massive winds observed in evolved asymptotic giant branch stars are usually attributed to a combination of effective dust formation in the dynamic inner atmosphere and momentum transfer from stellar photons interacting with the newly formed dust particles. Processing our increasingly large datasets poses a bottleneck for producing real scientific outcomes and citizen science - engaging the public in research - provides a solution, particularly when coupled with automated routines. In this talk we will provide a broad overview of citizen science approaches and best practices.
Recently, large optical IFU surveys have shown that angular momentum is tightly correlated with galaxy morphology and seems to be a key driver of galaxy formation and evolutionary processes. With SKA-pathfinder instruments coming online this year and the SKA1 hot on their heels, even deeper investigations of the role of angular momentum in galaxy evolution will be possible. In addition to the stellar angular momentum measurements from optical data, we will use radio observations to measure the contribution from the neutral hydrogen HI gas which, like most of the angular momentum, is located at larger effective radii than typically probed by IFU surveys.
The exquisite sensitivity of these new radio telescopes will enable surveys which will probe HI kinematics spatially resolved and unresolved in thousands of galaxies to much higher redshifts than previously possible. I will discuss some of the possibilities for these studies using SKA and its pathfinders. In the recent years, radio galaxies proved to be the the ideal targets for studies aimed at investigating the launching mechanism of relativistic jets. Inferring the intrinsic properties of the jet base through high-resolution radio observations is, in fact, easier in misaligned objects due to the reduced impact of Doppler boosting and projection effects.
So far, very-long-baseline interferometry studies of jet formation have been performed in selected nearby objects mainly in M87, Cygnus A, and 3C84 , and have provided important observational evidence in support of the magnetic launching models. In this talk, I will discuss the attempt to identify a larger sample of radio galaxies suited for such analyses, and I will present first results concerning the collimation properties and the internal structure of the plasma flow in still unexplored sources down to scales of hundreds Schwarzschild radii.
This statement is as true today as it was when John Bolton made it in The nearly year-old structure has been complemented throughout its life with regularly refreshed state-of-the-art instrumentation. Access based on scientific merit engages high impact research teams from around the world. Among its notable achievements are its role in identifying the first quasar 3C , supporting the first moon landing, mapping neutral hydrogen in the Milky Way, discovering more than half of known pulsars, and discovering Fast Radio Bursts.
Only a handful of radio galaxies have been detected invery-high-energy gamma-rays with ground-based CherenkovTelescope facilities. In this talk,I will review recent results from H. The existence of hot X-ray halos in the dark matter halos of galaxies is a fundamental prediction of galaxy formation models, and hence, observations of these halos can be used to probe the key physical processes that influence the evolution of galaxies.
Although hot halos are well explored around elliptical galaxies, these halos remained unexplored around spiral galaxies for several decades. Our group played a key role in detecting several X-ray halos around massive spiral galaxies using Chandra and XMM-Newton observations. We have characterized the properties of these hot halos, and confronted the observed results with those predicted by state-of-the-art hydrodynamical galaxy formation models.
This comparison pointed out that the properties of hot halos are extremely sensitive to the incorporated physics in the simulations, and hence observations of X-ray halos provide a powerful method to constrain the physical processes that play an essential role in the evolution of galaxies from the early Universe to the present epoch. STIS covers the 0. Alternate NLTE Tlusty models for the same temperature and gravity differ in their relative flux distributions and are used to define the systematic uncertainties.
Our targets were selected from narrow-band imaging of the HyperSuprimeCam Survey and are following the star formation main sequence at their redshift. The KMOS data cubes of 26 cluster galaxies allowed to extract extended Halpha rotation velocity fields. Only roughly one third of the galaxies with derived kinematics are regular rotators, in the sense that they establish a rotation velocity-stellar mass Tully-Fisher relation.
Including a comparison to our own studies at lower redshifts, I will discuss the connection between galaxy evolution and environment during cluster build-up 9 Gyr ago. I will review our understanding of the properties of the interstellar medium ISM in dwarf galaxies in connection to their star formation activity. What are the dominant phases of the ISM in these objects? How do the properties of these phases depend on the galaxy properties? What do we know about their cold gas content and its link to star formation activity? Does star formation proceed differently in these galaxies?
How does star formation feedback operate in dwarf galaxies? Asteroid families are the remnant fragments of asteroids broken apart by collisions. Family fragments disperse in their orbital elements, semimajor axis, a, eccentricity, e, and inclination, i, due to secular resonances and the non-gravitational Yarkovsky force. We have developed a new technique that is insensitive to the spreading of fragments in e and i by searching for V-shaped correlations of family members in a and asteroid diameter, D. A group of asteroids is identified as a collisional family if its boundary in the a vs.
The V-shape technique is demonstrated on the known families and families difficult to identify by HCM, and used to discover a 4 Gyr-old family linking most dark asteroids in the inner MB not included in any known family Delbo' et al. Here, I present the main results from my PhD. The solar meridional flow is a crucial ingredient in modern dynamo theory. Seismic estimates of this flow have, however, been contradictory in deeper layers. Here, we develop and validate a method for computing spherical Born approximation kernels for time-distance helioseismology and we employ these kernels to invert for the deep solar meridional flow using days of GONG data from — This especially concerns a shallow return flow at about 0.
While one result is similar to the original single-cell flow found by Jackiewicz et al. To reach an unambiguous conclusion on the meridional flow in this region, the errors in the measured travel times have to be considerably reduced. We conclude that an unambiguous detection of the meridional flow is limited to a much shallower region than previously thought.
This is a partial relief to the controversy about measurements of the deep solar meridional flow. Meteorites are the best studied macroscopic samples of interplanetary material. They represent, however, only the strongest parts of the meteoroids they are delivering them. The strength of the fragmenting body can be roughly estimated as the dynamic pressure acting at its front side at the moment of fragmentation: Previous investigations showed that the strengths are much lower than tensile strengths of meteorites which are typically MPa.
The low strengths are probably caused by internal cracks acquired during collisions in interplanetary space. We analyzed seven falls of ordinary chondrite meteorites with good data on atmospheric trajectories, velocities and light curves from the cameras of the European Fireball Network. A fragmentation model was applied to the data in order to reveal fragmentation points and to estimate the fragmented mass. The sample was supplemented with several other meteorite producing fireballs where the meteorites were not recovered. It was found that meteoroid strengths are not random and cumulate in two regions, 0.
There are therefore two types of cracks, which we call weak ones and common ones. Weak cracks are not always present, the common ones are only rarely absent e. For comparison, we analyzed also the carbonaceous meteorite fall Maribo. Though the data are restricted it is obvious that that meteoroid behaved differently and fragmented all the way along the trajectory. We found no evidences for rubble pile meteoroids. Even bodies that re-accumulated from different meteorite types e. Asteroid collisional breakups and the dynamical evolution of their fragments have helped shape the main asteroid belt.
We can broadly characterize these processes over the last few Gyr with this sequence of events: A few go on to strike the terrestrial planets. The history of asteroid breakups, therefore, is partially constrained by our knowledge of near-Earth objects and craters on inner solar system worlds and vice versa. Here we will discuss recent advances in our attempts to link changes in the impact history of the Earth and Moon to the evolution of specific asteroid families e. A few large and well-placed families are likely connected to substantial changes in the impact flux of inner solar system worlds, but the precise timing and magnitude of these impact showers, as well as the evidence supporting changes in the impact flux, remain interesting issues for on-going work.
The rotation dynamics of terrestrial exoplanets plays an important role in their physical evolution. It affects not only the climate at their surface, but also the amount of energy produced by tides. Indeed, most of the known rocky exoplanets orbit close to their parent star and are thus subject to strong tidal dissipation. Moreover, many of them are in multiplanetary systems where non vanishing eccentricities and inclinations perturb their rotation. Until recently, studies of exoplanet deformation relied on oversimple models of tides.
In the last years, physically motivated rheologies have been introduced but exoplanets are still mostly described as homogeneous bodies. We may nonetheless expect some of them to be composed of a solid crust floating on a viscous mantle with a solid core, as in the case of the Earth for instance. This type of internal structure enriches the dynamics but it also requires an efficient mathematical formalism allowing to explore large parameter spaces.
In our solar system, several icy satellites hold an underneath ocean making them composed of three layers as described above. Furthermore, these bodies have been accurately analysed thanks to spacial missions. This enables to test complex internal models against observations. In the case of Titan, for example, an obliquity of 0. In this talk, we will present our fully analytical three-layer model based on a Hamiltonian formalism. The agreement with the observations and with an hydrodynamic code will be shown.
And finally, the application to the exoplanet field will be discussed. Drake originally formulated the equation merely as an agenda for discussion at the Green Bank conference,  but some applications of the formula had been taken literally and related to simplistic or pseudoscientific arguments.
Another active research area in astrobiology is planetary system formation. It has been suggested that the peculiarities of the Solar System for example, the presence of Jupiter as a protective shield  may have greatly increased the probability of intelligent life arising on our planet.
Biology cannot state that a process or phenomenon, by being mathematically possible, has to exist forcibly in an extraterrestrial body. Biologists specify what is speculative and what is not. Until the s, life was thought to be entirely dependent on energy from the Sun. Plants on Earth's surface capture energy from sunlight to photosynthesize sugars from carbon dioxide and water, releasing oxygen in the process that is then consumed by oxygen-respiring organisms, passing their energy up the food chain.
Even life in the ocean depths, where sunlight cannot reach, was thought to obtain its nourishment either from consuming organic detritus rained down from the surface waters or from eating animals that did. However, in , during an exploratory dive to the Galapagos Rift in the deep-sea exploration submersible Alvin , scientists discovered colonies of giant tube worms , clams , crustaceans , mussels , and other assorted creatures clustered around undersea volcanic features known as black smokers.
Although most of these multicellular lifeforms need dissolved oxygen produced by oxygenic photosynthesis for their aerobic cellular respiration and thus are not completely independent from sunlight by themselves, the basis for their food chain is a form of bacterium that derives its energy from oxidization of reactive chemicals, such as hydrogen or hydrogen sulfide , that bubble up from the Earth's interior. Other lifeforms entirely decoupled from the energy from sunlight are green sulphur bacteria which are capturing geothermal light for anoxygenic photosynthesis or bacteria running chemolithoautotrophy based on the radioactive decay of uranium.
Extremophiles , organisms able to survive in extreme environments, are a core research element for astrobiologists. Such organisms include biota which are able to survive several kilometers below the ocean's surface near hydrothermal vents and microbes that thrive in highly acidic environments. Characterization of these organisms, their environments and their evolutionary pathways, is considered a crucial component to understanding how life might evolve elsewhere in the universe. For example, some organisms able to withstand exposure to the vacuum and radiation of outer space include the lichen fungi Rhizocarpon geographicum and Xanthoria elegans ,  the bacterium Bacillus safensis ,  Deinococcus radiodurans ,  Bacillus subtilis ,  yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae ,  seeds from Arabidopsis thaliana 'mouse-ear cress' ,  as well as the invertebrate animal Tardigrade.
Jupiter's moon, Europa ,       and Saturn's moon, Enceladus ,   are now considered the most likely locations for extant extraterrestrial life in the Solar System due to their subsurface water oceans where radiogenic and tidal heating enables liquid water to exist. The origin of life, known as abiogenesis , distinct from the evolution of life , is another ongoing field of research.
Oparin and Haldane postulated that the conditions on the early Earth were conducive to the formation of organic compounds from inorganic elements and thus to the formation of many of the chemicals common to all forms of life we see today. The study of this process, known as prebiotic chemistry, has made some progress, but it is still unclear whether or not life could have formed in such a manner on Earth.
The alternative hypothesis of panspermia is that the first elements of life may have formed on another planet with even more favorable conditions or even in interstellar space, asteroids, etc. The cosmic dust permeating the universe contains complex organic compounds "amorphous organic solids with a mixed aromatic - aliphatic structure" that could be created naturally, and rapidly, by stars. PAHs seem to have been formed shortly after the Big Bang , are widespread throughout the universe, and are associated with new stars and exoplanets. Astroecology concerns the interactions of life with space environments and resources, in planets , asteroids and comets.
On a larger scale, astroecology concerns resources for life about stars in the galaxy through the cosmological future. Astroecology attempts to quantify future life in space, addressing this area of astrobiology. Experimental astroecology investigates resources in planetary soils, using actual space materials in meteorites. The results support that life could have survived in early aqueous asteroids and on similar materials imported to Earth by dust, comets and meteorites, and that such asteroid materials can be used as soil for future space colonies.
On the largest scale, cosmoecology concerns life in the universe over cosmological times. The main sources of energy may be red giant stars and white and red dwarf stars, sustaining life for 10 20 years. Astrogeology is a planetary science discipline concerned with the geology of celestial bodies such as the planets and their moons , asteroids , comets , and meteorites. The information gathered by this discipline allows the measure of a planet 's or a natural satellite 's potential to develop and sustain life , or planetary habitability.
An additional discipline of astrogeology is geochemistry , which involves study of the chemical composition of the Earth and other planets , chemical processes and reactions that govern the composition of rocks and soils , the cycles of matter and energy and their interaction with the hydrosphere and the atmosphere of the planet. Specializations include cosmochemistry , biochemistry and organic geochemistry.
The fossil record provides the oldest known evidence for life on Earth. Some regions on Earth, such as the Pilbara in Western Australia and the McMurdo Dry Valleys of Antarctica, are also considered to be geological analogs to regions of Mars, and as such, might be able to provide clues on how to search for past life on Mars.
The various organic functional groups, composed of hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, phosphorus, sulfur, and a host of metals, such as iron, magnesium, and zinc, provide the enormous diversity of chemical reactions necessarily catalyzed by a living organism. Silicon, in contrast, interacts with only a few other atoms, and the large silicon molecules are monotonous compared with the combinatorial universe of organic macromolecules. If life has had a comparable impact elsewhere in the Solar System, the relative abundances of chemicals key for its survival — whatever they may be — could betray its presence.
Whatever extraterrestrial life may be, its tendency to chemically alter its environment might just give it away. People have long speculated about the possibility of life in settings other than Earth, however, speculation on the nature of life elsewhere often has paid little heed to constraints imposed by the nature of biochemistry. Only two of the natural atoms, carbon and silicon , are known to serve as the backbones of molecules sufficiently large to carry biological information.
As the structural basis for life, one of carbon's important features is that unlike silicon, it can readily engage in the formation of chemical bonds with many other atoms, thereby allowing for the chemical versatility required to conduct the reactions of biological metabolism and propagation. Thought on where in the Solar System life might occur, was limited historically by the understanding that life relies ultimately on light and warmth from the Sun and, therefore, is restricted to the surfaces of planets. Mars , Enceladus and Europa are considered likely candidates in the search for life primarily because they may have underground liquid water, a molecule essential for life as we know it for its use as a solvent in cells.
Another planetary body that could potentially sustain extraterrestrial life is Saturn 's largest moon, Titan. Measuring the ratio of hydrogen and methane levels on Mars may help determine the likelihood of life on Mars. Complex organic compounds of life, including uracil , cytosine and thymine , have been formed in a laboratory under outer space conditions, using starting chemicals such as pyrimidine , found in meteorites. Pyrimidine, like polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons PAHs , is the most carbon-rich chemical found in the universe.
The Rare Earth hypothesis postulates that multicellular life forms found on Earth may actually be more of a rarity than scientists assume. It provides a possible answer to the Fermi paradox which suggests, "If extraterrestrial aliens are common, why aren't they obvious? The Principle of Mediocrity suggests that life on Earth is not exceptional, but rather that life is more than likely to be found on innumerable other worlds. The anthropic principle states that fundamental laws of the universe work specifically in a way that life would be possible.
The anthropic principle supports the Rare Earth Hypothesis by arguing the overall elements that are needed to support life on Earth are so fine-tuned that it is nearly impossible for another just like it to exist by random chance. The systematic search for possible life outside Earth is a valid multidisciplinary scientific endeavor.
It has been proposed that viruses are likely to be encountered on other life-bearing planets. As of [update] , no evidence of extraterrestrial life has been identified. Yamato , the second largest meteorite from Mars , was found on Earth in At a microscopic level, spheres are found in the meteorite that are rich in carbon compared to surrounding areas that lack such spheres. The carbon-rich spheres may have been formed by biotic activity according to some NASA scientists.
On 5 March , Richard B. Hoover , a scientist with the Marshall Space Flight Center , speculated on the finding of alleged microfossils similar to cyanobacteria in CI1 carbonaceous meteorites in the fringe Journal of Cosmology , a story widely reported on by mainstream media. On 17 March , researchers reported that microbial life forms thrive in the Mariana Trench , the deepest spot on the Earth. In , the spectral signature of methane CH 4 was detected in the Martian atmosphere by both Earth-based telescopes as well as by the Mars Express orbiter. Because of solar radiation and cosmic radiation , methane is predicted to disappear from the Martian atmosphere within several years, so the gas must be actively replenished in order to maintain the present concentration.
It is possible that some exoplanets may have moons with solid surfaces or liquid oceans that are hospitable. Most of the planets so far discovered outside the Solar System are hot gas giants thought to be inhospitable to life, so it is not yet known whether the Solar System, with a warm, rocky, metal-rich inner planet such as Earth, is of an aberrant composition. Improved detection methods and increased observation time will undoubtedly discover more planetary systems, and possibly some more like ours. For example, NASA's Kepler Mission seeks to discover Earth-sized planets around other stars by measuring minute changes in the star's light curve as the planet passes between the star and the spacecraft.
Progress in infrared astronomy and submillimeter astronomy has revealed the constituents of other star systems. Efforts to answer questions such as the abundance of potentially habitable planets in habitable zones and chemical precursors have had much success. Numerous extrasolar planets have been detected using the wobble method and transit method , showing that planets around other stars are more numerous than previously postulated.
The first Earth-sized extrasolar planet to be discovered within its star's habitable zone is Gliese c. Research into the environmental limits of life and the workings of extreme ecosystems is ongoing, enabling researchers to better predict what planetary environments might be most likely to harbor life.
Missions such as the Phoenix lander , Mars Science Laboratory , ExoMars , Mars rover to Mars, and the Cassini probe to Saturn 's moons aim to further explore the possibilities of life on other planets in the Solar System. The two Viking landers each carried four types of biological experiments to the surface of Mars in the late s. These were the only Mars landers to carry out experiments looking specifically for metabolism by current microbial life on Mars.
The landers used a robotic arm to collect soil samples into sealed test containers on the craft.
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The two landers were identical, so the same tests were carried out at two places on Mars' surface; Viking 1 near the equator and Viking 2 further north. Its primary purpose was to search for signs of life on Mars , past or present. Although it landed safely, it was unable to correctly deploy its solar panels and telecom antenna. The Tanpopo mission is an orbital astrobiology experiment investigating the potential interplanetary transfer of life, organic compounds , and possible terrestrial particles in the low Earth orbit. The purpose is to assess the panspermia hypothesis and the possibility of natural interplanetary transport of microbial life as well as prebiotic organic compounds.
Early mission results show evidence that some clumps of microorganism can survive for at least one year in space. ExoMars rover is a robotic mission to Mars to search for possible biosignatures of Martian life , past or present. Mars rover mission is under development by NASA for a launch in It will investigate environments on Mars relevant to astrobiology, investigate its surface geological processes and history, including the assessment of its past habitability and potential for preservation of biosignatures and biomolecules within accessible geological materials.
The rover could make measurements and technology demonstrations to help designers of a human expedition understand any hazards posed by Martian dust and demonstrate how to collect carbon dioxide CO 2 , which could be a resource for making molecular oxygen O 2 and rocket fuel. Europa Clipper is a mission planned by NASA for a launch that will conduct detailed reconnaissance of Jupiter 's moon Europa and will investigate whether its internal ocean could harbor conditions suitable for life.
Icebreaker Life is a lander mission that proposed for NASA's Discovery Program for the launch opportunity,  but it was not selected for development. It would have had a stationary lander that would be a near copy of the successful Phoenix and it would have carried an upgraded astrobiology scientific payload, including a 1-meter-long core drill to sample ice-cemented ground in the northern plains to conduct a search for organic molecules and evidence of current or past life on Mars.
Journey to Enceladus and Titan JET is an astrobiology mission concept to assess the habitability potential of Saturn 's moons Enceladus and Titan by means of an orbiter. Enceladus Life Finder ELF is a proposed astrobiology mission concept for a space probe intended to assess the habitability of the internal aquatic ocean of Enceladus , Saturn 's sixth-largest moon. The spacecraft would enter into Saturn orbit and enable multiple flybys through Enceladus' icy plumes to collect icy plume particles and volatiles and return them to Earth on a capsule.
The spacecraft may sample Enceladus' plumes, the E ring of Saturn , and the upper atmosphere of Titan. Oceanus is an orbiter proposed in for the New Frontiers mission 4. It would travel to the moon of Saturn , Titan , to assess its habitability. Explorer of Enceladus and Titan E 2 T is an orbiter mission concept that would investigate the evolution and habitability of the Saturnian satellites Enceladus and Titan.
The mission concept was proposed in by the European Space Agency. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. It is not to be confused with Xenobiology. Abiogenesis , Earliest known life forms , and Panspermia. Astrobiology journal and Astrobiology Magazine. Communication with extraterrestrial intelligence. Abiogenesis , Biology , and Extremophile. Geology of solar terrestrial planets. Viking lander biological experiments.
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