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When asked how brother was after skipping the wedding Babyliss curl secret in a wood,http: Field's argument however is mainly relevant to conditions of the Florentine context itself, for it rethinks realities of the Laurentian court, rather than the modes by which outsiders typically idealized it. Girolamo Arnaldi and Manlio Pastore Stocchi, vol. A Reassessment of "The Courtier" Edinburgh, , esp.

The Ideal and the Real in Renaissance Culture, ed. Hanning and David Rosand New Haven, , esp. All of this stoical decorum adds up to a well-tended, varied performance, as the continuation of Federico's explanation makes clear: Style was varied for effect.

Federico elaborates the idea in a lengthy analogy between the courtier's mixing of virtues and the painter's chiaroscuro. This is what a good painter does when by the use of shadow he distinguishes clearly the light on his reliefs, and similarly by the use of light deepens the shadows of plane surfaces and brings different colors together in such a way that each one is brought out more sharply through the contrast; and the placing of figures in opposition to each other assists the painter in his purpose.

In the same way, gentleness is most impressive in a man who is a capable and courageous warrior; and just as his boldness is magnified by his modesty, so his modesty is enhanced and more apparent on account of his boldness. Yet such contrast must be carried off "discreetly" and without obvious "affectation": Bembo insisted on these qualities for the writer perhaps even more strenuously than Castiglione did for the general courtier.

Like Castiglione, Bembo depoliticized. See also numerous essays in Hanning and Rosand, eds. Ettore Bonora, 2d ed. Ciceronian rhetorical norms in the process, replacing the dynamic involvement with current affairs that inspired Cicero's oratorical model with cerebral ideals of refined detachment.

Courtly ways were no more excised from the elastic social fabric of Venice than from its literary norms; rather they existed in varying degrees of comfort side by side with indigenous republican ones. The model of the princely establishment even had its analogue in the internal structure of the Venetian government. The doge, although an elected official of the state, had minimal control over policy.

He stood in for Venetians as a kind of princely surrogate, divested of real political power but heavily imbued with symbolic force. His principal functions were to guard civic values and to maintain an overarching awareness of public issues. Even the Venetian political historian Gasparo Contarini admitted that the doge's exterior was one of "princely honor, dignitie, and royall appearing shew. The paradox of the doge remains a telling one. As Edward Muir has written, "in this image one can see the nexus at which many of the tensions in Venetian society.

Bouwsma, Venice and the Defense of Republican Liberty: Renaissance Values in the Age of the Counter Reformation Berkeley and Los Angeles, , discusses the tendency in cinquecento Venice toward standardization and fixity in academic matters, relating its presence in Bembo to his lack of interest in contemporary events of historical importance pp. Greene, The Light in Troy: Imitation and Discovery in Renaissance Poetry New Haven, , similarly links the formal perfection sought by Bembo to a "refusal to respond to contemporary history" p.

Carlo Dionisotti, Geografia e storia della letteratura italiana Turin, , notes in "Chierici e laici" that Bembo's detachment from political consciousness and service represents a striking break from an earlier Venetian tradition of the scholar-public servant p. Finally, on the Venetian nobility's retreat from the urban realities of commerce, trade, banking, and shipbuilding in the sixteenth century in favor of more idealized existences linked to mainland farming and real estate see Brian Pullan, "The Occupations and Investments of the Venetian Nobility in the Midto Late-Sixteenth Century," in ibid.

The inherent conflict between Castiglione's monarchism and Bembo's republicanism is taken up by Woodhouse, Baldesar Castiglione, pp. Herein lay another paradox to catch Venetians in an existential bind: This, after all, was the same city that revealed to the artistic world sensuous new realms of color and light and boasted the most beautiful women in Europe.

Like its elegant palazzi and gracious waterways, its resistance to invasion, and its invincibility at sea, sensual beauty and luxuriance formed fabled parts of Venetian lore. Many a foreigner commented on the richness and delights to be had in the city, even while remarking on its odd habits of thrift and modesty.

As well as being skilled conversationalists and writers, many of these courtesans were singers, often apparently improvising and accompanying themselves on instruments such as the lute or spinet — this in an age that sheltered women closely and kept most nonpatrician women illiterate. The honest courtesan's success in sixteenth-century Venice thus offers a paradigm for how the city, with its pliable and equivocal social structures, could become an extraordinary resource for inhabitants not born into a full measure of its benefits. Mayer London, , pp. For further on this see Margaret F.

Rosenthal, The Honest Courtesan: Veronica Franco, Citizen and Writer in Sixteenth-Century Venice Chicago, , whose ideas helped stimulate the interpretations I put forth in the following pages. Ferguson, Maureen Quilligan, and Nancy J. Vickers Chicago, , pp. For an important collection of essays emphasizing the resources offered for the fashioning of identity by the ambiguities and social complexities of early modern city life see Susan Zimmerman and Ronald F.

Renaissance Gender Ideologies and Women's Lyric," Jones proposes what she calls a "pre-poetics," an analysis of "conditions necessary for writing at all" in the "ideological climate of the Renaissance" that is apropos here; in The Poetics of Gender, ed. Miller New York, , pp. A few managed to gain fame through the press, plying the arena of public discourse in order to advance their social and economic positions.

The most remarkable of these women was Veronica Franco, a cittadina and daughter of a procuress who became a major poet in the s and an intimate of the literary salon of Domenico Venier. In one noted instance she parried a detractor by boasting an array of linguistic arms. Franco's bravura served her well in the ambivalent world that cherished the honest courtesan even as it scorned her. Rosenthal and Ann Rosalind Jones have shown, in speaking out in areas where women had been largely silenced, vaunting her proficiencies in the verbal arts and challenging her defamer in the terms of a male duel, Franco violated a gendered system of rhetorical orthodoxies.

Franco was only one of many nonpatricians who ameliorated their marginal social positions by utilizing the city's opportunities for self-promotion and social. Abdelkader Salza Bari, , no. Subverting the Master's Plan," Italica 65 Jones, "City Women and Their Audiences," p. Another, outstanding for our purposes, was Willaert's student, the organist, composer, and vernacular author Girolamo Parabosco, a Piacentine who arrived in Venice around Like her, too, he came from a bourgeois family. In the humble words he professed to Giovanni Andrea dell'Anguillara:.

Not his birth but his virtue makes a man worthy of honor, Parabosco claims, not rank but merit. He himself is no nobleman, not to say Tuscan — that is, linguistic aristocratic — but a mere citizen from modest Lombardy. Later in the same capitolo he alludes to his eminent position in the city as if only to thank those in Venice more highly placed than he.

Parabosco's was no mean duty. With this prestigious title, Parabosco held a trump card among literary colleagues in the city's populous salons,. For his biography see Giuseppe Bianchini, Girolamo Parabosco: The will is an ironic reminder of cinquecento disarticulations between the real and the represented: Bianchini, not surprisingly, is credulous on this score; see, for example, pp.

Probably ducato is a pun "ducat" as well as "duchy". His position placed him conveniently betwixt and between — between professional musicians and literati, between nobles and commoners — a situation that made good capital in Venetian society. Elsewhere Parabosco pressed the view that real nobility came from inner worth and not from birthright. His letter to Antonio Bargo of 18 November affected shock at Bargo's attempt to ingratiate him with an unworthy acquaintance, at his wanting him "to believe that it is a good thing to revere men who live dishonorably, so long as they come from honorable families.

Parabosco answered Bargo in the spirit of familiar vernacular invective that had recently been popularized by Pietro Aretino and followers of his like Anton-francesco Doni. In meting out satiric censure in letters, capitoli, and sonetti risposti, Parabosco engaged in complicated strategies of challenge and riposte, wielding his interlocutors' rhetoric to his own ends. Defending his comedies against certain nameless critics in a letter to Count Alessandro Lambertino, for instance, he shot off a battery of rejoinders, the last of which protested that "some benevolence" should be shown him in the city of Venice, since with all his "study, diligence, and labor.

Some years earlier, writing the literary theorist Bernardino Daniello along similar. Antonio amico carissimo, io ho ricevuto la vostra de vinisette del passato, nella qual havete vanamente speso una grandissima fatica, volendomi far credere che sia ben fatto portar riverenza a gli huomini, che dishonoratamente vivono ancora che usciti di honorevole famiglia.

Bargo is almost surely the same as Antonio Barges, a Netherlandish maestro di cappella at the Casa Grande of Venice between at least and when he transferred to Treviso and a close friend of Parabosco's teacher Willaert. Richard Nice Cambridge, , pt. Heather Dubrow and Richard Strier Chicago, , pp. Letter dated 5 August Again his protestations were voiced in the language of Venetian panegyric as it was handed down in civic mythology — or a quasi-satiric inflation of it. Apart from his position on the issue of love, he insisted, he "always spoke of the aged with infinite reverence, especially in this sanctified and blessed Venice, today sole defense of Italy and true dwelling of faith, justice, and clemency, in which there are an infinite number [of old people], any one of whom with his prudence could easily govern the Empire of the whole world.

With these paradoxical rhetorical stances, writers like Franco and Parabosco could avail themselves of transgressive possibilities inherent in the diverse literary genres newly stimulated by Venetian print, yet still align themselves with the prevailing power structure. They were at once iconoclasts and panderers. In both roles they seized the chance to shape their own public images, as Franco told her adversary so unequivocally.

Doni, the plebeian Florentine son of a scissors maker, represented at its most venal the phenomenon of making capital of the social breach. After an unsatisfying start as a monk, he fled Florence for the life of a nomadic man of letters, arriving in Piacenza in and in Venice the following year. But I hearten myself with having as much patience to die as they have the stupidity to live. As if to underscore his irreverent manipulation of printed words and the contradictory strategies that the two of them crafted, Doni's letter then made out as if to return Parabosco's laudatory sonnet with a matching risposta.

Like Parabosco's, Doni's skill at social climbing played a role in Venetian madrigalian developments, if one more mercenary than musical. He possessed a rudi-. Girolamo Parabosco [Venice, ], fol. The letter, undated, comes from the First Book, which was first printed in as Lettere amorose. Venier's stanza set by Donato, Chap. Grendler, Critics of the Italian World, Doni's eclecticism depended on the city's flexible structures. It leaned away from the elitist, totalizing aesthetic of Bembo toward the grittier, more syncretistic one that the city paradoxically made possible.

This is evident in his most famous joining of musical and literary worlds, the Dialogo della musica, published in by Girolamo Scotto shortly after Doni's arrival in Venice, in which he playfully recreated the casual evenings of an academic assembly. As noted by Alfred Einstein and James Haar, the first of the Dialogo' s two parts is unmistakably set in provincial Piacenza, where a circle that formed around the poet Lodovico Domenichi took on the title Accademia Ortolana.

Only Arcadelt and da Milano had no strong known connection with Venice. Doni was always fascinated by this sort of academic life. He gives an account of current academies in the last pages of his Seconda libraria Venice, In between they freely interpolate sight-readings of music — mainly madrigals. At the outset the interlocutors decide on the style of their encounters with characteristic self-consciousness.

Once Doni enters the expanded world of Venice in Part 2, new personalities double his resources. Now eight interlocutors are present: Bargo and Michele from Part 1, a woman called Selvaggia, the composers Parabosco and Perissone, Domenichi and Ottavio Landi from Piacenza, and the composer Claudio Veggio, who seems to have been connected with both cities. Pieces handed out from Michele's pouch [ carnaiolo ] now accommodate up to all eight of those present.

Once again the speakers begin with reflections on their relations to one another and remarks on their use of conventions, all the while laughing at their own bows and curtsies. Inasmuch as I am among the number of honored women and this music is made out of love for me, I thank you and I am most obliged to Parabosco and everyone. I'm just kidding, since you began with servants and such things, which aren't really used by musicians, painters, sculptors, soldiers, and poets.

So that we don't just keep multiplying words, how did you others end yesterday? Tanto ch'io son nel numero delle donne onorate e che per mio amore si fa questa musica, io vi ringrazio e v'ho tropp'obbligo e con Parabosco e con tutti. Dico appunto baie, come tu hai cominciato di servidore e di certe cose, che fra noi non s'usano alla reale da' musici, da' pittori, scultori, da' soldati e da' poeti. Dialogo della musica, p. At this they move on. Doni continues to aim for the informal realism of a private academy, moving the speakers in and out of their commitment to the discourse and sustaining their self-conscious scrutinies.

After the initial gallantries Parabosco announces that their company has been ordered to speak about a beautiful woman by Grullone and Oste. Since neither Grullone nor Oste is there, they sing instead a madrigal about a donna bella set by the obscure Noleth. This prompts a trifling speech by Domenichi on what makes a woman beautiful, in the course of which Doni quotes his own epistolary eulogy of the Piacentine beauty Isabetta Guasca — probably the real-life name of the Dialogo 's Selvaggia.

In this way Doni presents the salon not only as a dynamic space for arbitrating different styles and tempers but as a vehicle for self-display and self-fashioning. The salon thus functioned like the occasional and intertextual verse of Franco and Parabosco. Salons encouraged the sort of juggling for position and exposure common to places of barter. The nobility who formed the salons' main patrons were more receptive to ambitious commoners than they had been before. And by the mid-sixteenth century the means for winning intellectual and artistic recognition within the bustling city had become more diversified and more ample than ever.

Not surprisingly, ambitions proved only more fierce as a result. The ascendency of the private salon following on the heels of Venetian print culture brought quick changes of players, fast renown, rapid dissemination of ideas and artifacts, and above all pressures to excel and adapt quickly to new fashions. The idea of the marketplace, then, is not just metaphorical, for marketplace economies held a material relevance in the city's salons. The salon was not only the concrete locus of patronage, with all that winning patronage entailed; even more crucially, the busy commercial aspect of the city — with its large mercantile patriciate, its steady influx of well-heeled and cultivated visitors, and its thriving presses — increasingly animated.

On Guasca see Haar, "Notes on the Dialogo della musica, " p. Another Piacentine and favorite poet of early madrigalists, Luigi Cassola, addressed her in his Madrigali Venice, , verso of penultimate folio. For the extensive popular literature containing similar encomia of women see Chap.

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From More to Shakespeare Chicago, , pp. Essays in Literary Theory, Interpretation, and History, ed. New Haven, , pp. The heterogeneity and lack of fixity that typified these salons were interwoven threads in a single social fabric. The very immunity of private groups to concrete description, so confounding to the modern historian, lies at the core of their identity. One of their defining characteristics, this loose organization and openness to change was essential to forming competitive groups.

Private gatherings in salons, though often described in contemporary literature as accademie a term I use here , were in fact only distant predecessors of more formalized academies that proliferated later in the century. Instead, they protected their cultural cachet in the safe seclusion of domestic spaces, where discussion, debate, and performance were private. Rather than demanding fixity from either their activities or adherents, they thrived on the easy accommodation and continual intermingling of new ideas and faces. This is true both of academies that concentrated on literary enterprises in the vernacular — poetry, letters, plays, editions, and treatises on popular theories of love and language [62] — and of those musical academies linked to the circle of Willaert.

The gatherings of Venetian noblemen like Marcantonio Trivisano and Antonio Zantani or of transplanted Florentines like Neri Capponi and Ruberto Strozzi are all known only from scattered accounts and allusions. By reducing them all for convenience to the single epithet academy, I mean to stress their historical relationship to the later groups, but not to confuse their structures with the formalized ones of those later academies.

The generic names applied to academic salons during this time were as changeable as their makeups — accademia, ridotto, adunanza, or cenacolo. Still informative if partly outdated , particularly because they incorporate less-fixed academic groups, are the older studies of Michele Battagia, Delle accademie veneziane: See also Achille Olivieri, "L'intellettuale e le accademie fra ' e ' Verona e Venezia," Archivio veneto, 5th ser.

Outside this pattern are a very few public-minded and philologically oriented academies that grew up earlier in the century; in the early cinquecento this includes the Neacademia of Aldus Manutius, devoted to Greek scholarship, and at midcentury the Accademia Veneziana, also known as the Accademia della Fama, devoted to an encyclopedic agenda of learning and publication. Business and Scholarship in Renaissance Venice Ithaca, , pp.

The Choice is Ours (2016) Official Full Version

In the remainder of Part 1, I try to depict the textures of vernacular patronage in Venice by focusing on the private worlds of figures such as these. Chapter 2 begins with the pair of Florentine exiles Capponi and Strozzi, apparently the main private benefactors of Willaert and Rore, respectively, from about the late s until the mids. As rich aristocrats and singers of domestic music, they represent a kind of private patronage that shunned the popularizing commodifications made by the likes of Parabosco.

They stand in sharp opposition to another foreign patron, Gottardo Occagna, who sponsored prints of vernacular music and letters in Venice from about to Fictitious printed letters to Occagna from Parabosco that feigned public displays of private diversions suggest he colluded with vernacular artists in mounting the Venetian social ladder. Central to my assessments of both Occagna and the other protagonist of Chapter 3, the patrician Zantani, are the ways in which social images were fashioned through the rhetoric of Petrarchan love lyrics.

The juxtaposition of Occagna's and Zantani's cases shows that while those outside the Venetian patriarchy might invert this rhetoric to mobilize their positions, the local aristocracy sought out ennobling texts and images to reinforce their status claims.

Zantani probably promoted some of the many encomia of his wife that were made in the rhetoric of Petrarchan praise, and he engineered several printed volumes that could bring him renown, not least an anthology with four of the madrigals from Willaert's then still unpublished Musica nova corpus. All of these figures are maddeningly elusive to our backward gaze. It is only in Chapter 4, with the salon of another native patrician, Domenico Venier — a friend of vernacular music whose palace was the literary hub of midcentury Venice — that we come to see the full richness of exchange, the gala of personalities, the competitive forces they set in motion, and the fruitful intersection of art and ideas that the flexible social formation of Venice allowed.

Throughout much of the s and beyond Venice sheltered a colony of exiled Florentines, the fuorusciti. As a group, the fuorusciti were highly aristocratic and educated, well versed in music and letters, and eminently equipped to indulge expensive cultural habits. Before long he had established what became the most sophisticated musical academy in Venice, headed by Willaert and graced by the acclaimed soprano Polissena Pecorina. Like other private patrons, Capponi seems to have gathered his academists under his own roof, where they flourished in the early s and almost surely premiered much of Willaert's Musica nova.

Another Florentine, Ruberto Strozzi, lodged intermittently in the city during the thirties and forties in the course of far-ranging business and political errands that accelerated after his family was banished from Florence in The portion of the Frari's archive at I-Vas designated "Scuola dei fiorentini" lacks items for the years to See further on Capponi's genealogy in n. Agee was cautious about concluding definitively that the Neri Capponi of musical fame is the same as the one appearing in many Strozzi letters, but cross-references in the letters combined with Passerini's genealogy cited in n.

Canciano along the lovely Rio dei Santissimi Apostoli Plate 7. In the early to mid-forties, as he tore about Italy and France, Ruberto is known to have bought up madrigals and motets by Cipriano de Rore. The coincidence of the Florentine presence in Venice with the flourishing of Venetian madrigals was fateful. Florentines made their way into Venice following a long history of political strife in their own city, whose republican edifice by then had collapsed. During the years spent in Florence, these exiles had sustained a long tradition vigorously promoting Italian vocal music.

It was only natural that they should have continued it once abroad. The patronage of both Capponi and Strozzi was aggressively acquisitive, seeking sole ownership of important new settings. But their interest was not mere collection. Each was groomed in gentlemen's musical skills and moved in patrician circles that practiced part singing.

In both political and artistic realms the vicissitudes and imaginative powers of Ruberto's father had played a dominant role — a role that is critical for our understanding of the next generation's construction of this heritage and its relationship to Venetian music. Ruberto was the son of Filippo di Filippo Strozzi, the most prominent Florentine banker of the first third of the century and, by many reckonings, for most of his life the richest man in Italy.

Niccolini, Filippo Strozzi, tragedia Florence, , p. Sagredo believed that the Strozzi house was "quella ora del Weber dove altre volte era la famosa Biblioteca Svajer" p. This house stands at the Ponte di San Canciano by the so-called Traghetto di Murano and is now numbered in the sestiere of Cannaregio. See further in Giuseppe Tassini, Alcuni palazzi ed antichi edifichi di Venezia storicamente illustrati con annotazioni Venice, , pp. Lino Moretti Venice, , p. For an English text see the trans. Gargani Florence, , who claimed that "nella ricchezza fu solo, e senza comparazione di qualsivoglia uomo d'Italia" p.

Ruberto and Neri were thus first cousins, and Filippo Strozzi, Neri's uncle. By the mid-thirties, however, owing to Strozzi clashes with the new duke, Alessandro de' Medici, Filippo's family and its immediate associates had been cast into a restless and embittered exile. In the course of this, Filippo's banking interests were managed from abroad, mostly by employees from the ranks of the fuorusciti. Venice was just one of several cities that received substantial Strozzi business, along with Rome, Naples, Lyons, and Seville.

To clarify the precarious social and political situation in which Filippo, his family, and their Florentine allies found themselves in the s, it is necessary to look briefly back over the long-standing Strozzi relationship with the Medici. In , during Florence's next-to-last republic, the headstrong Filippo became engaged to Clarice de' Medici.

At that time her family was banished from the city. The engagement was a brash move on Filippo's part that drew horror and fury from his half-brother Alfonso and members of the extended Strozzi clan, who held at the time at least tentative favor with the Ottimati government. With the Medici restoration of Filippo found himself ideally placed to exploit the financial interests and favor of Clarice's uncle Giovanni, who assumed the papacy as Leo X the following year.

In the decades up to Filippo bankrolled two Medici popes in his role as papal financier, culminating in with his dowering of a Medici bride for the future king of France, Henry of Orleans, at the staggering sum of , scudi. Note, however, Agee's cautions concerning some apparent genealogical confusion in her discussion of these marriages, "Ruberto Strozzi," p. Pompeo Litta Milan, , which is variously ordered and bound in the different copies that survive. The copy in I-Vas includes 14 vols.

Luigi Passerini , in vol. Neri's grandfather is described there as a very rich banker who opened a banking house at Lyons. Our Neri, born 6 March , appears as the oldest of ten children. For a general account of the hazard perceived by the Ottimati government in Strozzi ambitions see Eric Cochrane, Florence in the Forgotten Centuries, On a single occasion in , at the institution of the College of the Knights of St.

Peter, Giulio de' Medici, then Pope Clement VII, awarded him eleven titles of the office of knight in return for credits totaling 9, ducats; he divided them among four of his sons, giving three to Ruberto. Until Clement VII's death in September Filippo's political position experienced only one real setback when he abandoned Rome for Florence shortly before the sack in to take the helm of popular republican leadership. Having failed in that role, he was temporarily forced to pursue interests abroad. But by he had reforged Medici bonds in Florence and Rome and resumed principal residence in the latter city.

It was only after several years of renewed papal collaboration that Filippo's seemingly unbreakable financial edifice began to crack with the death of the pope — Filippo's primary debtor and Medici supporter. Filippo still boasted a sprawling empire and had much to protect in the continued prestige of the Strozzi family. But any goodwill toward them that remained among Medici at home was dwindling fast. Filippo's wealth and leverage among princes posed an immediate threat to the collateral line of the Medici headed by the dissolute Duke Alessandro, now in firm — and monarchical — command of the patria with imperial support.

Alessandro grew increasingly suspicious of Filippo and his sons. At last, in December , shortly after Clement's death and after various skirmishes that took the family again out of Florence, Alessandro declared them rebels. Filippo's story merges at this juncture with that of members of the younger generation who are my main concern here. In August , after a two-year stay in his palazzo at Rome, Filippo finally retired to Venice.

Goaded on by Piero, he also began to organize troops for an assault against the Medici, only to be captured in his first major attempt in the Tuscan hills of Montemurlo on 31 July. The Florentine historian Jacopo Nardi recounted that Filippo's sons retreated the next day toward Venice, tired and defeated and with no alternative but to take stock of their situation and await a better opportunity to strike. Pietro Stromboli Florence, , pp. See Table 1 below. Florence, , 2: Varchi's account largely agrees with those of Strozzi, Vite, pp.

Both of the last two include the story that Filippo, once he made up his mind to believe Lorenzo, proclaimed him the Florentine Brutus — just one detail whose repetition suggests a strong narrative filiation among the various versions. I have synthesized events highlighted in Florentine letters and histories in order to emphasize the intrigues and narrowly factional politics that brought elite Florentine patrons into Venice. Far from epitomizing the republicanism idealized in Venice and attached to Filippo in various romanticized representations that appeared after the events of , he and his kin differed little in kind from the Medici themselves.

In a very real sense, an entrepreneurial merchant-banker on the rare order of Filippo Strozzi — not unlike Jacob Fugger, imperial banker to Charles V — was at once invention and inventor of the princely sponsors who required him to stage their grand schemes. His identity depended on an exchange of mutually productive powers. Born into such a dynasty in the world of early modern power politics, a young man like Ruberto cannot have thought himself much less a prince's son than if his father had been a duke or an emperor, a difference he might have attributed to the winds of fate or to a slight disparity in style or ambitions.

For the Strozzi, empire and culture formed an indivisible alliance. As Pier Paolo Vergerio had put it, not only was "the ability to speak and write with elegance" — and, we might add, to sing — "no slight advantage. Filippo's passions for high finance and Florentine politics extended almost by necessity to arts and literature, in which he developed considerable abilities.

His brother Lorenzo wrote that on all those days that Filippo was free to plan as he liked, his time was divided equally between "the study of letters, private business, and private pleasures and delights. See also Gelli's commentary in Nardi, Istorie 2: Filippo was the dedicatee of Pisano's edition of Apuleis, on which see Frank A. D'Accone hesitated to link too securely the identity of this Pisano with that of the musician, but his doubts are certainly cleared up by Varchi's reference to Pisano as an "eccellente musico in que' tempi, che grande e giudizioso letterato" as noted by Agee, "Filippo Strozzi," p.

The madrigal was included in the first layer of B-Bc, MS Only a few settings of Filippo's poetry are known today, but given the exclusive patterns of patronage that obtained with Florentine patrons it seems likely that others ones for which he commissioned settings, for example simply are not extant. The findings of Agee, "Filippo Strozzi," suggest that literary patrons wrote many more verses for commissioned settings than now survive; see also Thomas W.

Apropos, it might be of interest that while in Lyons Capponi wrote Filippo, then in Venice, to send thanks for a capitolo Filippo had composed for him — for singing to music? The pains Filippo took to reinforce his cultural hegemony naturally included his immediate family. He attended to the humanistic education of his sons by hiring noted tutors and later sending his sons to the Studio in Padua. Girolamo Parabosco's description of Ruberto as having "rare judgment in all sciences" may therefore reveal more than the usual hyperbole, [28] for Ruberto's education not only included the Paduan stint but tutoring in Greek letters and law with Varchi.

Ruberto and his brothers sang part music like their father and uncle, as shown by a letter of 19 November first noted by Agee that Ruberto's Lyons-based relative Lionardo Strozzi wrote him in Rome. Similmente fece per carnevale in maschera per le case le canzoni. Tillman Merritt by Sundry Hands, ed. Laurence Berman Cambridge, Mass. Last night he went out Here it is the end of the week: Don Jos6 Be quiet!

I told yon not to speak! Don ]osi unties the rope holding Carmen s hands. Largo al factotum della cittJt. La ran la la, etc. Ah, che bel vivere, che bel piacere, per un barbiere di qualith A' All, bravo Figaro. Figaro A La ran la le ra la ran la la. Make way for the factotum of the city. Rushing to his shop for dawn is here. What a merry life, what gay pleasures for a barber of quality.

A' Ah, bravo Figaro. Most fortunate of men, indeed you are! Miglior cuccagna per un barbiere, vita piu nobile, no, non si clJi La la ran la la ran la, etc. A1 inio comando tutto qui sta. La la ran la Ah, che bel vivcre, die bel piacere, per un barbiere di quality. C Tutti me chiedono, tutti me vogliono, donnc ragazzi, vecchi, fanciulle.

Qua la parrucca, presto la barba, qua la sanguigna, presto il biglictto. Tutti mi chiedono, tutti mi vogliono.

Ridicule !!! - Nougat

Qua la parruca presto la barba, presto il biglietto. Ehi, Figaro, Figaro, Figaro, etc. A better lot for a barber, a nobler life does not exist. La la ran la la ran la, etc.

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Ah what a merry life, what gay pleasures, for a barber of quality. C All call for me, all want me. Old men and maidens. I need a wig, I want a shave, leeches to bleed me, here, take this note. All call for me, all want me, I need a wig, I want a shave, here, take this note. Ho, Figaro, Figaro, Figaro, etc. Figaro qua, Figaro lh, Figaro su, Figaro giii. Pronto, prontissimo son come il fulminc, sono il factotum della citth.

C" Ah, bravo, Figaro, bravo, bravissimo, a te la fortuna non mancherh. La la ran la, etc. Sono il factotum della citth. Figaro here, Figaro there, Figaro up, Figaro down. Quicker and quicker I go like greased lightning. I am the factotum of the city. We grieve for this boy. Happiness is brief among mortals. Sorrow and anguish sweep down on it like a swift gust of wind on a sail-ship, and it sinks under the tossing seas.

A child is born to us, and a Son is given to us; wltose government is upon His shoulder; and His Name shall be called the Angel of great counsel. Vite pandit ostium, dum mortis supplicium, pie tolerat. Hallelujah our Passover Let the devotion of the faithful be raised in rejoicing; the word of the father is made flesh, and a new child is given to us, and He has bestowed Himself upon us. The salvation of the people has opened the gateway of life, for he in devotion has borne the punishment of death. I feel such jealousy for all those who have the joy of love, that I am astonished that my heart does not immediately melt with desire!

I thought I knew so much of love, and I know so little; for I cannot help loving a lady from whom I shall never obtain any favor. Sbe has taken away my heart and, myself and herself and the whole world; and when she left me, I had nothing left but desire and a yearning heart. Rose, liz, printemps, verdure, fleur, baume et tres douce odour. Et quant toute creature seurmonte vostre valour, bien puis dire et par honour: And all the gifts of nature you possess, for which I adore you.

Rose, lily, spring, greenery, flower, balm, and tbe sweetest fragrance. And, since behond all creatures your virtue excels, 1 can honestly say: Dale, beve grillo, canta. Quando la maggior el caldo alhor canto sol per amore. The cricket is a good singer who holds a long note. Go ahead, drink and sing, cricket. But he is not like the other birds, who sing a little and then fly away, the cricket always stands firm.

When it is hottest, he sings alone for love. La tricoton, la belle tricotde. Then sang the shepherds and nymphs of Diana: Allor proruppe in pianto e dissi Clori con interroti otnfci: Ah, may I never cease to languish in such pain. Another, lying on her side on the flowered bank, sang sweetly to the murmur of the waves. But the lovely Eurydice dancingly moved her feet on the green grass when—o bitter, angry fate! Miscra Ninfa, e piu misero amante, spettacol di iniseria e di tormento! Orfeo Non piango e non sospiro, o mia cara Euridice, clx? Cadavero infelice, O mio core, o mia speme, o pace, o vita!

Non son, non son lontano: And from the depths of her heart, a mortal sigh, so frightful, alas, flew forth, almost as if it had wings; every nymph rushed to the painful sound. Then spread over her beautiful face and her golden tresses a sweat colder by far than ice. And then was heard your name, sounding between her lips, cold and trembling, and her eyes turned to heaven, her beautiful face and mien discolored, this great beauty was transformed to motionless ice.

Arcetro What do you relate, alas, what do I hear? Wretched nymph, and more unhappy lover, spectacle of sorrow and of torment! Orfeo I do not weep, nor do I sigh, o my dear Eurydice, for I am unable to sigh, to weep. Unhappy corpse, o my heart, o my hope, o peace, o life! Alas, who has taken you from me? Who has taken you away, alas? Where have you gone? Soon you will see that not in vain did you, dying, call your spouse.

I am not far away; 1 come, o dear life, o dear death. Now during my songs, now gay, now sad, may the birds be silent on these trees, no waves be heard on these shores, and every breeze cease to blow. Oggi fatto b felice Orfeo nel sen di lei, per cui gill tanto per queste sclve ha sospirato e pianto. Dunque in si lieto e fortunato giorno, etc. Shepherd A On this happy, auspicious day which has put an end to the lovcsickncss of our demi-god, let us sing, shepherds, in such gentle accents that our strains will be worthy of Orpheus. Today Orpheus has been made happy on her breast, for whose sake he has already sighed and wept so much in these woods.

A' Therefore on such a happy, auspicious day, etc. Chorus of Nymphs and Shepherds Come, Hymen, o come, and let thy blazing torch be like a rising sun that brings days of serenity to these lovers; and drive far away the horrors and the shadows of anguish and grief. Tart 1 Lasciate i inoiui, lasciatc i fonti, ninfe vczzosc a liete, e in qucsti prati ai balli usati vago il bel pifc reiulete.

Tart 3 Tart 1 Lasciate i monti, lasciatc i fonti, etc. Sia testimon del core qualche licta canzon cbe detti Arnore. Orfeo Rosa del ciel, vita del mondo e Chorus of Nymphs and Shepherds First Shepherd But you, gentle singer, whose laments once made this counttyside weep why do you not now delight the valleys and hills with the sound of the famous lyre? Tart 2 Here let the sun watch your dances that are much lovelier than those which the stars in the sky perform around the moon in the dark night. Tart 3 Ritornello Tart 1 Leave the mountains, leave the fountains, etc.

Tart 2' Then with beautiful flowers adorn the locks of these lovers, who after the torments of longing at last enjoy perfect bliss. Coro de ninfe e pastor! Lasciate i monti, lasciate i fonti, etc. Blessed was the day, my beloved, on which 1 first saw you, and happier still the hour when I sighed for you, since you did return my sighs; happy the moment when you gave me your white hand as a pledge of pure faithfulness.

Had I as many hearts as the eternal heavens eyes and these pleasant hills leaves in green May, all wotdd be full and overflowing with the joy that has made me happy today. I do not bear my heart within me, it remains with you together with my love; ask it if you would hear how it rejoices and how much it loves you. Balletto Chorus of Nymphs and Shepherds Leave the mountains, leave the fountains, etc. Ritornello Come, Hymen, o come, and let thy blazing torch be like a rising sun that brings days of serenity to these lovers, etc. Dunque al tempio ciascun rivolga i passi a prcgnr lui lie la cui destra t il inondo, die lungainente il nostro ben conservi.

Second Shepherd But if our rejoicing conies from Heaven, like everything around us here, it is proper that we reverently offer it incense and sacrifices.

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Let each therefore turn his steps to the temple to pray to him in whose right hand the world rests, that he may long preserve for us this happiness. Nymph, First and Fourth Shepherds For after the terrible clouds, laden with dark storms, have frightened the world, the sun shines all the more brightly. Coro di nife e pastor! Ecco Orfeo, cui pur dianzi furon cibo i sospir, bevanda il pianto. Oggi felice b tanto che nulla b piu che da bramar gli avanzi. First and Second Shepherds And after the bitter frost of bare winter the spring clothes the fields with flowers.

Chorus of Nymphs and Shepherds Here is Orpheus, for whom sighs were once food and weeping was drink. Today he is so happy that nothing more remains for him to desire. Sinfonitt Orpheus Behold, 1 return to you, dear woods and beloved bills, made blessed by that sun through which alone my nights turn to day. Ritornello Second Shepherd See how the shade of these beeches allures us, Orpheus, now that Phoebus sends fiery rays from the sky.

Pastore secondo e terzo In questo prato adorno ogni selvaggio nume sovente ha per costume di far lieto suggiorno. Third Shepherd On these grassy banks let us rest, and in our various ways let each join his voice with the murmur of the waves. Ritornello Second and Third Shepherds On this adorned meadow every god of the woods' has frequently been accustomed to spend happy hours. Or fortuna ha stil cangiato ed ha volto in festa i guai. Sol per te, bella Euridice, benedico il mio tormento: Here the charming Napaeae, a group always garlanded, with their white fingers were seen plucking roses. Chorus of Nymphs and Shepherds Then, Orpheus, make worthy with the sound of your lyre these fields, over which wafts the aura of oriental perfumes.

Ritornello Say, did I not then appear to you more disconsolate than any other? Now fortune has smiled on me and has turned my woes into a feast. Ritornello 1 used to live sadly and woefully; now 1 rejoice, and those sufferings that I bore for so many years make my present joy all the more precious.

Ritornello Only for you, lovely Eurydice, do I bless my former torments; after grief one is more content, after pain one is happier. Second Shepherd Look, Orpbeus, o look bow all around laugbs the wood and laugbs the meadow; so continue with thy golden plectrum to sweeten the air on such a happy day. La messaggera Abi, caso acerbo, alii, fato empio e crudele, abi, stelle ingiuriosc, ahi, cielo avaro!

The Messenger All, bitter occurrence, ah, wicked and cruel fate, all, unjust stars, all miserly Heaven! Pastore secondo Qual suon dolcnte il licto dl pcrturba? Second Shepherd What sound of sorrow disturbs this happy day? The Messenger I am wretched, for while Orpbeus soothes the heavens with his notes, with my words I must pierce his heart. Deb, sommi dci, non torccte da noi lienigno il guardo. First Shepherd This is the lovely Sylvia, sweetest companion of the fair Eurydice; o how full of grief is her appearance; what has happened?

O mighty gods, do not turn away from us your benign glances. The Messenger Shepherd, cease your singing, for all our joy has turned to grief. Orpheus From where do you come? Where are you going? Nymph, what bring you? La tua bella Euridice. La messaggera La tua diletta sposa b inorta.

The Messenger To you I coine, Orpheus, unhappy messenger of the most unhappy and most tragic happening. Orpheus Woe is me, what do I hear? The Messenger Your beloved wife is dead. Orpheus Woe is me! And behold, all at once her beautiful face turned pale, and her eyes lost that brilliance for which the sun envied them. Pastore secondo Alii, caso acerbo, alii, fato empio e crudclc, alii, stclle in ingiuriose, ahi, cielo avaro.

Pastore terzo c sccondo A Camara novella rassembra I'infelice un muto sasso die per troppo dolor non pub dolersi. Addio terra, addio cielo c sole, addio. Second Shepherd Ah, bitter occurrence, ah wicked and cruel fate, ah, unjust stars, ah, miserly Heaven. Third and Second Shepherds At this bitter news the unhappy one resembles a lifeless boulder, so overcome by grief that lie cannot lament. Ah, he would have the heart of a tiger or a bear who did not feel pity for your pain, deprived of all thy happiness, wretched lover.

Orpheus You are dead, my life, and I am breathing? You have left me, nevermore to return, and I remain? No, no, if my verses have any power at all, I will surely go down to the deepest abysses, and, having softened the heart of the King of Shadows; lead you hack with me to see the stars; or, if impious fate denies me this, I shall remain with you in the company of death. Farewell earth, farewell sky and sun, farewell.

Coro di ninfe e pastori Ahi, caso acerbo, alii, fato enipio e crudele, alii, stelle ingiuriose, ahi, cielo avaro. Chorus of Nymphs and Shepherds Ah, bitter occurrence, ah wicked and cruel fate, ah, unjust stars, ah miserly Heaven. Do not trust, o mortal man, the perishable and frail happiness which soon vanishes, and often in a great ascent the precipice is near. Beyond this black bog, beyond this river, in those fields of lamentation and grief, cruel fate hides your dearest possession. Now you need a great heart and a beautiful song. Lasciate ogni speranza voi die cntrate.

Abandon all hope, yc who enter here. Therefore, ifyotir heart be truly steadfast and your feet able to enter the city of sorrow, I will flee from you and return to my usual abode. Che vuoi forse, nemico al mio signore, Ccrbero trar de le tartaree porte? Charon O you, who dare before death to approach these shores, halt your steps: Or do you, your heart aflame with shameless desire, want to steal his beloved wife? Give up thy foolish intention, into my boat will I never admit a bodily being, for the ancient outrages again awaken in my soul bitter memories and just anger.

I am not alive, no, since of life is deprived my beloved wife, my heart is no longer with me, and without a heart how can it he that 1 live? To her I have turned my steps through the dark air, not towards Hell, for whoever has so much beauty has Paradise. O serene lights of my eyes, if only one glance from you can restore me to life, ah, who can deny me comfort in my torment?

Only you, noble god, can aid me, fear not, for it is only the sweet strings of a golden lyre 1 use as a weapon against which rigid souls implore in vain. Ma lunge, ah, lunge sia da questo petto pieth, di mio valor non degno effetto. Orfeo Ahi, sventurato amante! Sperar Much am 1 flattered by such delight to my heart, disconsolate singer, by thy lament and thy song. But far, ah, far from my breast be pity, which is beneath my dignity. Orpheus Ail, unhappy lover! Heaven and of Hell? Rendetemi il mio ben, tartarei Give me back my love, gods of numi!

Su, dunque, a che piu tardo? Up, then, why do I delay? Let boldness prevail vani i prieghi. Proserpine My lord, this unhappy man who over the wide fields of deatli calls for Eurydice, whom you have just now heard lamenting so sweetly, has awakened so much pity within my heart that I return again to entreat you to yield to his imploring. Pluto Although stern and immutable fate opposes your wishes, beloved wife, nothing indeed shall now refuse such beauty joined with such entreaties. His beloved Eurydice Orpheus shall find again, contrary to the decrees of fate; but before his feet have borne him from these abysses, he may not turn round to look at her, for eternal loss will result from a single glance.

Now in my kingdom make, o ministers, my will known, so that Orpheus hears it and Eurydice hears it, and nobody shall hope to change it. Chorus of Spirits Pity and love today have triumphed in Hades. Luogo avrai fra le pill belle iinmagini celesti, ond'al tuo suon le stelle danzeranno in giri or tardi or presti. First Spirit Here is the gentle singer, who leads his wife to the skies above.

RitomtUo 1, made perfectly happy through you, will sec the beloved brow. On the white breast of my lady I shall rest today. Orpheus What honor is worthy of thee, my omnipotent lyre, that you have, in the infernal realm, been able to overcome every hardened spirit? Ritornello You will find a place among the most beautiful images of Heaven, and to your sound the stars will dance in circles, now slowly, now quickly.

But while I am singing, alas, who will assure me that she is following? Who keeps the beloved eyes hidden from me? Perhaps pierced by envy the gods of Avernus forbid me, so that my happiness will not be complete, to look at you, blessed happy lights that can make others blessed with one glance alone. Ma che temi, mio core? Ci6 che vieta Pluton, comanda Amore. A nume piu possente, che vince uomini e dei, ben ttbbidir dovrei. What do you fear, my heart?

What Pluto forbids, Cupid commands. A more powerful divinity, who conquers men and gods, I must obey. Ma die odo, ohimi lasso? O dolcissimi lumi, io pur vi vcggio, io pur: Euridice Ahi, vista troppo dolce e troppo amara; cosi per troppo amor dunque mi perdi?

There is a noise behind him. But what do I hear, alas? Do the Furies arm themselves to hurt me, madly desiring with such frenzy to rob me of my beloved? And I allow it? O sweetest lights, 1 can indeed see you, I can, but what eclipse, alas, obscures you? Third Spirit You have broken the law and are unworthy of mercy. Eurydice Ah, sight too sweet and too bitter; so by too much love you thus lose me? And I, poor one, lose the happiness of returning to light and life, and lose at the same time you, dearest of all possessions, my husband.

First Spirit Return to the shades of death, unhappy Eurydice, hope no more to see the stars again, for henceforth to thy pleas Hell will be deaf. Orpheus Where are you going, my life? Behold, I follow you, but who, alas, prevents me? Is it a dream? What hidden power of these horrors drags me from these beloved horrors against my will, and leads me to the hateful light? Chorus of Spirits Virtue is a ray of heavenly beauty, prize of the soul, where alone it is valued.

The devastation of time it does not fear; in man the years make its splendor brighter. Orpheus overcame Hell and was overcome by his passions. Eternal fame is deserved only by him who will have victory over himself. Voi vi dolcste, o monti, e lagriinaste, voi, sassi, al dipartir del nostro sole, ed io con voi lagrimerb mai sempre e mai sempre darommi, ah doglia, alii pianto!

Orpheus These are the fields of Thrace, and this is the spot where my heart was pierced by sorrow at the bitter news.

Now that I have no longer any hope of recovering by praying, weeping or sighing, my lost happiness, what else remains for me but to turn to you, gentle woods, once comfort to my torments, as Heaven in pity for me let you languish at my languishing? You have mourned, o mountains, and wept, o stones, at the departure of our sun, and I will weep with you forever, forever make myself suffer and lament.

Orpheus Kind, loving Echo, who are disconsolate and wish to console me in my grief, although these eyes of mine through so much weeping are made two fountains, in my serious misfortune I have not yet wept enough, not yet enough. Eccomi dunque attento a tue ragioni, celeste padre: Apollo Troppo, troppo gioisti di tua lieta ventura; or troppo piangi tua sorte acerba e dura. Ancor non sai come nulla quaggiu diletta e dura?

Apollo Why to rage and to grief do you give yourself as prey like this, o son? Now listen to me, and you will have fame and life. Orpheus Kind father, you find me in greatest distress, anger and love have led me already, with extreme grief, to a bitter end. Behold me then, attentive to your reasoning, heavenly father: Apollo Too soon did you rejoice at your happy lot; now you weep too much at your hard and bitter fate. Do you not yet know that no delight is lasting here below?

Therefore if you desire to enjoy immortal life, come with me to Heaven, which beckons you. So shall I never again sec the sweet eyes of my beloved Eurydice? Apollo Apollo Nel sole e ne le stelle vagheggarai le sue sembianze belle. In the sun and the stars you shall recognize her beautiful likeness. Josquin des Prez bom d. Giulio Caccini bom d. Jacopo Peri bom d. Ottavio Rinuccini bom d. Claudio Monteverdi bom d. English defeat Spanish Armada Daphne, considered first opera, by Peri and Corsi Boston founded by Puritans Jean-Baptiste Lully born d.

King Charles I of England beheaded Alessandro Scarlatti born d. Antonio Vivaldi born d. Jean-Philippe Rameau born d. Revocation of Edict of Nantes in France Pietro Metastasio born d. Jean-Jacques Rousseau born d. Giovanni Battista Pergolesi born d. Christoph Willibald von Gluck born d.

Rediscovery of Pompeii First volumes of French Encyclopedia Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart born d. Declaration of Independence Carl Maria von Weber born d. Arthur Schopenhauer bom d. French Revolution begins Giacomo Meyerbeer born d. Gioacchino Antonio Rossini born d. Gaetano Donizetti born d. Vincenzo Bellini born d. Mikhail Glinka born d. Giuseppe Verdi born d. Richard Wagner born d. Battle of Waterloo Aleksandr Borodin born d. Cesar Cui born d. Mili Balakirev born d. Queen Victoria crowned George Bizet born d.

Modest Mussorgsky born d. Nicolai Rimsky-Korsakov born d. Communist Manifesto by Marx and Engels Crimean War begins Giacomo Puccini born d. Russian serfs emancipated Richard Strauss born d. Opening of Suez Canal Invention of phonograph League of Nations formed Beginning of World War II Arias generally have a high melodic profile and are typically accompanied by the full orchestra. A baroque aria form schematized as A-B-A'. An initial musical phrase A is followed by a contrasting passage B.

The initial phrase is then recapitulated but now embellished and ornamented by the singer. A sung passage with enough melodic contour to sound aria-like, but which has a syllabic sort of setting and the narrative quality of a recitative. The middle category of male voice, higher in range and lighter in timbre than bass, but lower and heavier than tenor. The lowest category male voice—rich, dark, heavy, and powerful. An unusually deep bass voice. A style of early ,h -century Italian opera that stresses simple, songlike melodies and harmonic accompaniment and that cultivates a highly decorous style of singing.

A florid, improvised passage to be performed by singers before the final bars of an aria or movement. A male soprano whose soprano voice has been preserved by castration prior to puberty. The highest of the soprano voices, characterized by broad range, clear quality, and exceptional agility. An expression sometimes used in English either as a translation of the French opera comique or the Italian opera buffa. Traveling musical companies that originated in 16 th -century Italy. Their performances led eventually to comic opera. The lowest category of female voice.

An exceptionally high male voice, comparable to the female contralto. A heavier, darker, and more forceful voice than a lyric voice; used in reference to soprano, tenor, and baritone voices. Continuously sung passages in which any number of singers may participate. Ensembles were typically used to end acts.

They reached their highest state of development in opera buffa. A spectacular and dramatic genre of opera, developed in early th -century France and designed to appeal especially to the middle class. This term is often used to refer to 19 th -century opera in general. A melodic texture in which one melody line predominates with all other musical material heard as secondary or as accompaniment. A comic interlude inserted between the acts of Italian opera seria during the second half of the 17 th century and the first half of the 18 th century.

Musical prologues and interludes inserted into the spoken Italian dramas of the late 16 th century. A theme or motive associated with a particular person, thing, or dramatic idea. A fairly light, warm, clear, and flexible voice; used in reference to soprano, tenor, and baritone voices. A work for four to six voices that freely mixes polyphonic and homophonic textures and uses word- painting.

A genre of musical theater that combines spoken dialogue with background music. The middle category of female voice, between contralto and soprano. A melodic texture consisting of a single unaccompanied melody line. An operatic form created by Richard Wagner. Refers to a through-composed operatic work which stresses dramatic and psychological content and in which voices and orchestra are completely intertwined and of equal importance.

A drama which combines soliloquy, dialogue, scenery, action, and continuous or nearly continuous music, the whole greater than the parts. A general designation for Italian operas of the middle and late 18 th century that do not come under the heading of opera seria. A popular French operatic genre that developed concurrently with grand opera in the early 19 th century but employed spoken dialogue rather than recitative and featured somewhat less pretentious productions than grand opera.

An instrumental prelude to an opera. The style of dramatic poetry that dominated Italian theater in the late 16 th and early 17 th centuries, featuring sylvan settings and mild love adventures and usually ending happily. A melodic texture consisting of two or more simultaneous melody lines of equal importance. A style of writing for the voice in which the rhythms and inflections of speech are retained.

In opera, it is used for action, dialogue, and narrative. An independent musical piece that acts as an introduction or a postlude. The highest category of female voice.